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Training aids and devices must be included in a marksmanship program. This chapter lists those available and provides information on how to obtain them for marksmanship training.


This paragraph provides the classification and nomenclature for training aids, devices, and targets.

a.   Classifications. Information on the classification of various training resources with a general description is listed in Table A-1.

Table A-1. Classification of resources.

Table A-1. Classification of resources.

b.   Training Support Center. Training support centers (TSCs) are located throughout the world and are the POCs for training aids and devices. Each TSC provides training aid services to customers in their geographic area of support to include active Army units and schools, Reserve Components, and ROTC units.


For more information concerning TSC operations, write Commander, United States Army Training Support Center, ATTN: ATIC-DM, Fort Eustis, VA 23604.

c.   Training Devices and Exercises. Several marksmanship training devices are available to aid in sustainment training. They are beneficial when ammunition is limited for training or practice exercises such as field firing on the weaponeer or zeroing and qualifying with SRTA. Some training devices are complex, costly, and in limited supply, while others are relatively simple, cheap, and in large supply. Devices and aids can be used alone or in combinations. Individuals or squads can sustain and practice basic marksmanship skills and fundamentals with devices and or aids.

(1)   Dominant Eye Training. This exercise assists the coach and the firer in determining which eye the firer should use when engaging targets. The firer's dominant eye should be identified early in the training process to prevent unnecessary problems such as a blurred sight picture or the inability to acquire a tight shot group during the grouping exercise.

(a)   Cut a 1-inch circular hole in the center of an 8- by 10-inch piece of material (can be anything from paper to plywood).

(b)   The trainer positions himself approximately 5 feet in front of the soldier. The trainer closes his nondominant eye and holds his finger up in front of and just below his dominant eye to provide the soldier with an aiming point.

(c)   The soldier holds the training aid with both hands at waist level and looks with both eyes open at the trainer's open eye. With both eyes focused on the trainer's open eye and arms fully extended, the soldier brings the training aid up between himself and the trainer while continuing to look at the trainer's eye through the hole in the training aid. The soldier's eye the trainer sees through the hole in the training aid is the soldier's dominant eye.

(2)   Aiming Card. The M15A1 aiming card (Figure A-1) determines if the soldier understands how to aim at target center of mass. The card is misaligned, the soldier is instructed to establish the correct point of aim, and a trainer checks it. Several aiming drills provide an understanding of center of mass. This card may be used to ensure the soldier understands adjustment of the aiming point, how to allow for gravity, and how to engage a moving target. The sight-target relationship on the card is the same visual perception the soldier should have when he is zeroing on a standard silhouette target. Each soldier will demonstrate six out of six of the aim points. The soldier will show three side alignment techniques-place the front site post on the left or right edge of the target and bring the front site post to center of mass of the target. The soldier will then show the bottom-up alignment technique-place the front site post at the bottom of the target then bring the front site post to center of mass of the target.

Figure A-1. The M15A1 aiming card (NSN 6910-00-716-0930).

Figure A-1.  The M15A1 aiming card (NSN 6910-00-716-0930).

(3)   Riddle Sighting Device. The Riddle sighting device (Figure A-2) indicates if the soldier understands the aiming process while using the rifle. It is a small plastic plate with a magnet and a drawing of an E-type silhouette target. A two-man team is required for its use. The soldier assumes a supported or prone firing position. The assistant places the Riddle device on the front sight assembly and adjusts the plastic plate at the direction of the firer until he reports the proper sight picture. Without disturbing the plastic plate, the trainer or coach aims through the sights to determine if the soldier has aligned the target and sight properly. Many sightings are conducted, and the trainer may include variations to ensure the soldier understands the process. Each soldier will demonstrate six out of six aim points starting with the plastic plate offset to the front site post.


This device is provided with a small metal clip that slips over the front sight assembly. It allows a smoother surface for attachment of the magnet. The device may also be used without the metal clip.

Figure A-2. Riddle sighting device.

Figure A-2.  Riddle sighting device.

(4)   M16 Sighting Device. The M16 sighting device (Figure A-3) is made of metal with a tinted square of glass placed at an angle.

(a)   When the device is attached to the rear of the M16A1 carrying handle, an observer can look through the sight to see what the firer sees. The M16 sighting device can be mounted on the M16A2 rifle. The charging handle must be pulled to the rear first. Then, the M16 sighting device is mounted on the rear of the carrying handle, and the charging handle is returned forward.

(b)   The M16 sighting device can be used in a dry-fire or live-fire environment, but a brass cartridge deflector must be used during live fire. The observer must practice with the sight to be effective. For example, the observer looks at a reflected image and if the soldier is aiming to the right, it appears left to the observer. The device must be precisely positioned on the rifle (it may need to be bent to stay on). The observer's position must remain constant. At the same time, the observer talks with the firer to ensure a correct analysis of the aiming procedures. The soldier must achieve six out of six proper site alignment drills.


The M16 sighting device is made for left and right-handed firers, and is available for the M16A2. (See subparagraph d for the training aid number.)

Figure A-3. M16 sighting device.

Figure A-3.  M16 sighting device.

(5)   Blank Firing Attachment (BFA), M15A2/M23. The BFA (Figure A-4) attaches to the muzzle of the M16-/M4-series weapons. It is designed to keep sufficient gas in the barrel of the weapon to allow semiautomatic, automatic, or burst firing with blank ammunition (M200 only). After firing 50 rounds, the attachment should be checked for a tight fit. Continuous blank firing results in a carbon buildup in the bore, gas tube, and carrier key. When this occurs, the cleaning procedures in TM 9-1005-249-10 or TM 9-1005-249-34 should be followed. The M15A2 is painted red and is used on the M16-series weapons. The M23 is painted yellow and is used on the M4-series weapons. For identification, the M23 is stamped "M4 Carbine Only."

Figure A-4. Blank firing attachment.

Figure A-4.  Blank firing attachment.

(6)   Target-Box Exercise. The target-box exercise checks the consistency of aiming and placement of three-round shot groups in a dry-fire environment (Figure A-5).

Figure A-5. Target-box exercise.

Figure A-5.  Target-box exercise.

(a)   To conduct the exercise, the target man places the silhouette anywhere on the plain sheet of paper and moves the silhouette target as directed by the firer. The two positions (separated by 15 yards or 25 meters) must have already been established so the rifle is pointed at some place on the paper. When the firer establishes proper aiming, he signals the target man to "Mark." Only hand signals are used since voice commands would be impractical when training several pairs of soldiers at one time.

(b)   The target man places the pencil through the hole in the silhouette target and makes a dot on the paper. Then he moves the silhouette to another spot on the paper and indicates to the firer that he is ready for another shot. When the three shots are completed, the target man triangulates the three shots and labels it shot group number one. The firer and instructor view the shot group. Each soldier will dry fire the exercise until they have demonstrated six out of six of the aim points within the plastic target-box paddle's 4-centimeter template. The exercise should be repeated as many times as necessary to achieve two consecutive shot-groups that will fit into the same 2-centimeter circle.

(c)   A simulated shot group covered with a 1-centimeter (diameter) circle indicates consistent aiming. Since no rifle or ammunition variability is involved and since there is no requirement to place the shot group in a certain location, a 1-centimeter standard may be compared to obtaining a 4-centimeter shot group on the 25-meter live-fire zero range. The soldier fires several shot groups. After two or three shot groups are completed in one location, the rifle, paper holder, or paper is moved so shots fall on a clean section of the paper.

(d)   Any movement of the rifle or paper between the first and third shots of a group voids the exercise. Two devices are available to hold the rifle (Figures A-6 and A-7). The rifle holding device and rifle holding box are positioned on level ground, or are secured by sandbags or stakes to ensure the rifle does not move during the firing of the three shots. Movement of the paper is eased by using a solid backing (Figure A-8). Any movement of either is reflected in the size of the shot group. Several varieties of wooden target boxes have been locally fabricated. A new rifle holder has been developed and should be used (Figure A-7).

Figure A-6. Rifle holding device (TA-G-12A).

Figure A-6.  Rifle holding device (TA-G-12A).

Figure A-7. Rifle holder (locally fabricated).

Figure A-7.  Rifle holder (locally fabricated).

Figure A-8. Paper being placed on a stationary object.

Figure A-8.  Paper being placed on a stationary object.

(e)   The silhouettes on the plastic paddle (Figure A-9) are scaled to represent an E-type silhouette target at 250 meters. The visual perception during the target-box exercise is similar to what a soldier sees while zeroing on a standard zeroing target. The small E-type silhouette is the same scale at 15 yards as the larger silhouette is at the 25-meter range (some training areas are set up at 15 yards; others are set up at 25 meters). While there are some benefits to representing a 250-meter target, the main benefit of this exercise can be obtained at any distance. A standard zero target can be used at 25 meters in place of the paddle by placing a small hole in the center (dot), moving the target sheet over the paper, and marking as previously outlined.

Figure A-9. Target-box paddle (DVC-T-7-86).

Figure A-9.  Target-box paddle (DVC-T-7-86).

(f)   The shot-group exercise provides a chance for the trainer to critique the soldier on his aiming procedures, aiming consistency, and placement of shot groups. Assuming the rifle and paper remain stationary and the target man properly marks the three shots, the only factor to cause separation of the dots on the paper is error in the soldier's aiming procedure. When the soldier can consistently direct the target into alignment with the sights on this exercise, he should be able to aim at the same center-of-mass point on the zero range or on targets at actual range.

(7)   Ball-and-Dummy Exercise. This exercise is conducted on a live-fire range. The coach or designated assistant inserts a dummy round into a magazine of live rounds. In this way, the coach can detect if the firer knows when the rifle is going to fire. The firer must not know when a dummy round is in the magazine. When the hammer falls on a dummy round, which the firer thought was live, the firer and his coach may see movement. The firer anticipating the shot or using improper trigger squeeze causes this. Proper trigger squeeze results in no movement when the hammer falls. The soldier will demonstrate the ability to properly utilize the fundamentals of marksmanship six consecutive times.

(8)   Dime (Washer) Exercise. This dry-fire technique is used to teach or evaluate the skill of trigger squeeze and is effective when conducted from an unsupported position. When using the M16A1 rifle for this exercise, the soldier must cock the weapon, assume an unsupported firing position, and aim at the target. An assistant places a dime (washer) on the rifle's barrel between the flash suppressor and front sight post assembly. The soldier then tries to squeeze the trigger naturally without causing the dime (washer) to fall off. Several repetitions of this exercise must be conducted to determine if the soldier has problems with trigger squeeze. The purpose of the exercise is for the firer to dry-fire six of six consecutive shots without causing the dime or washer to fall. (Repeat this exercise from the prone unsupported firing position.)

(a)   If the dime (washer) is allowed to touch the sight assembly or flash suppressor, it may fall off due to the jolt of the hammer. Also, the strength of the hammer spring on some rifles can make this a difficult exercise to perform.

(b)   When using the M16A2 rifle, the dime (washer) exercise is conducted the same except that a locally fabricated device must be attached to the weapon. A piece of 3/4-inch bonding material is folded into a clothes-pin shape and inserted in the flash suppressor of the weapon so the dime (washer) can be placed on top of it.

d.   Selection of Training Aids and Devices. After training requirements have been established, appropriate training aids and devices can be selected from the TSC. To help in selecting these aids and devices, many of those available and their identification numbers are listed in Table 2.

Table A-2. Training aids and devices.

Table A-2. Training aids and devices.

Table A-2. Training aids and devices (continued).

Table A-2. Training aids and devices (continued).

e.   Target Ordering Numbers. Table A-3 lists the description and NSN to use when ordering marksmanship targets.

Table A-3. Target ordering numbers.

Table A-3. Target ordering numbers.

Table A-3. Target ordering numbers (continued).

Table A-3. Target ordering numbers (continued).


LOMAH is a range aid used during downrange feedback exercises. The device uses acoustical triangulation to compute the exact location of a supersonic bullet as it passes through a target. The bullet impact is displayed instantly on a video monitor at the firing line. Of more importance, it shows the location of a bullet miss, allowing the firer to make either a sight adjustment or a hold-off for subsequent shots.

a.   LOMAH, like other devices, is only an aid. Understanding the weapon and firing techniques, and having a coach/instructor are required when the soldier uses LOMAH.

b.   LOMAH ranges have been fielded in USAREUR and Korea. In locations where known distance (KD) ranges are not available and restrictions prohibit walking downrange, LOMAH is a practical alternative to essential downrange feedback. Requests for LOMAH devices should be sent to: Commander, US Army Training Support Center, ATIC-DM, Fort Eustis, VA 23604.


The caliber .22 rimfire adapter (RFA) can contribute to a unit's marksmanship program when 5.56-mm ammunition is not available or when ranges that allow firing 5.56-mm ammunition are not available. The RFA can be useful for marksmanship training such as night fire, quick fire, and assault fire. It is not recommended for primary marksmanship training.

a.   Training Considerations. When service ammunition is in short supply, the RFA can be used to complement a unit's training program.

(1)   Rifle Performance. The RFA/.22-caliber rimfire ammunition cannot replicate the exact ballistics of the 5.56-mm ammunition. Efforts to match RFAs with specific rifles can result in reasonable replication. Under ideal training conditions, the RFA should be used with dedicated rifles. Finding the right match of RFA and rifle can eliminate some variability. A trial-and-error technique can match RFAs to rifles, which results in good firing weapons. The RFA cannot be depended on to fire in the same place as 5.56-mm ammunition. It is not necessary for the soldier to use his own weapon during RFA training.

(2)   Rifle Zero. The RFA will not usually group in the same location as 5.56-mm ammunition at 25 meters and cannot be used for weapon zero. It normally fires a slightly larger shot group than 5.56-mm ammunition. When a soldier uses an RFA in his rifle, he must be careful not to lose his 5.56-mm zero. This can be accomplished by using hold-off while firing .22-caliber ammunition or keeping a record of sight changes so the sights can be moved back. The .22-caliber round approximates the 5.56-mm trajectory out to 25 meters. The correct zeroing target or appropriate scaled-silhouette targets can be used for practice firing exercises at 15 meters (50 feet) or 25 meters.

b.   Advantages and Disadvantages. If the RFA is used as a training aid, the advantages and disadvantages must be considered during training.

(1)   Advantages. The .22-caliber ammunition is cheaper and, may be available in larger quantities than 5.56-mm ammunition. It can be fired on all approved indoor ranges and in other close-in ranges where 5.56-mm ammunition is prohibited. RFA training can be used to sustain marksmanship skills during periods when full caliber 5.56-mm ammunition training cannot be conducted.

(2)   Disadvantages. Some negative training aspects exist because of differences in the weapon's functioning when using the RFA. These differences include the forward assist not working, and the bolt not locking to the rear after the last round is fired. More malfunctions can occur with the RFA than with 5.56-mm ammunition, and immediate-action procedures are different.


Short range training ammunition (SRTA) is a plastic practice cartridge (M862) that enables a unit to conduct realistic firing training at shorter distances with reduced danger areas. The M862 has a maximum range of 250 meters. The blue plastic projectile reduces the risk of over-penetration and ricochet, which makes it ideal for urban operations training.

a.   To fire the M862 SRTA from an M16-/M4-series weapon, the standard bolt and bolt carrier must be replaced by the M2 practice bolt. The M2 practice bolt consists of a bolt carrier, which is a fixed bolt. The practice bolt changes the weapon from a gas-operated action to a blow-back action that permits cyclic fire with the lower-powered M862.

b.   Because of the design of the M2 practice bolt, standard 5.56-mm rounds cannot be fired from the weapon while it is installed. (See TM 9-6920-746-12&P for more information on the M862 SRTA and the M2 practice bolt.)


The U.S. Army developed the MACS as an inexpensive marksmanship trainer (Figure A-10).

a.   The system consists of a Commodore 64 microcomputer, 13-inch color monitor, specially designed long-distance light pen, and mount that attaches to the M16A2 rifle. (Some versions use a permanent mount on a demilitarized rifle.) The system is activated by a program cartridge, which contains several training exercises.

Figure A-10. Multipurpose arcade combat simulator.

Figure A-10.  Multipurpose arcade combat simulator.

b.   The MACS was designed to enhance other training techniques and existing training aids and devices used to train and sustain marksmanship skills. It is not designed to replace live-fire training or to eliminate the need for knowledgeable instructors. The MACS provides additional practice for those units without access to adequate range facilities, or that have other resource constraints.


The Weaponeer is an effective rifle marksmanship-training device that simulates the live firing of the M16-series rifle. The system can be used for developing and sustaining marksmanship skills, diagnosing and correcting problems, and assessing basic skills.

a.   Characteristics. The Weaponeer operates on 110 to 130 volts AC, 10 amperes, 50 or 60 Hz, grounded electrical power. (A stand-alone voltage transformer is provided for overseas units.) The recommended training area for the Weaponeer is 10 by 23 by 8 feet. The operational temperature range is 40 degrees to 100 degrees Fahrenheit. The Weaponeer must be protected from the elements, and should not be subjected to excessive vibration, high dust levels, or condensing humidity. The M16A1/A2 attached to the Weaponeer is demilitarized and does not require the usual weapon security.

b.   Equipment Data. Table A-4 shows pertinent equipment data.

Table A-4. Equipment data.

Table A-4. Equipment data.

c.   Figure A-11 shows the Weaponeer in the standing supported firing position. The rifle, with the exception of smoke and cartridge ejection, operates normally, and has the same weight and balance as the standard weapon. An infrared aiming sensor simulates round trajectory and hit point to an accuracy of better than one-minute-of-angle. The recoil rod that attaches at the muzzle end of the rifle simulates recoil. Recoil is provided in both semiautomatic and automatic modes of fire, and is adjustable from no-net force to 30 percent more than that of a live M16. Sound is provided through headphones and is adjustable from 115 to 135 decibels. Special magazines are used. One magazine simulates a continuous load; the other (used to train rapid magazine change) can be loaded with 1 to 30 simulated rounds. Selectable misfire can be used to detect gun shyness and drill immediate action. The front and rear sights are zeroed the same as standard rifles.

Figure A-11. Weaponeer set up in the standing supported position.

Figure A-11.  Weaponeer set up in the standing supported position.

(1)   The Weaponeer range can be raised or lowered to accommodate all firing positions. The target assembly contains four targets: a scaled 25-meter zero target and three pop-up targets are standard. E-type and F-type silhouettes at ranges from 75 meters can be used on the Weaponeer. Known-distance and various other types of targets can be used and be displayed in fixed or random sequences. Target exposure times may be set to unlimited or from 1 to 30 seconds. The fall-when-hit mode can be selected with the KILL button.

(2)   The operator's console contains the system control buttons, graphics printer, and video feedback monitor. The back of the console has counters that total rounds and hours, and a storage bin for storing magazines, printer paper and ribbon, headphones, two wrenches for assembling the Weaponeer, and a small allen wrench for aligning the rifle sensor. A remote control, which attaches to the back of the console, enables a trainer or firer to operate select functions away from the console.

d.   Feedback. The Weaponeer provides feedback to help trainers to teach and soldiers to learn marksmanship skills.

(1)   Fall-When-Hit Mode. Lighting the KILL button enables the fall-when-hit mode. When the button is activated, targets fall when hit. This feedback provides the same hit or miss information as a train-fire (RETS) range.

(2)   Real-Time Aiming Point Display. When a firer aims on or near a target, his aiming point relative to the target is continuously displayed on the video screen. The aiming point display allows the trainer to teach and verify aiming techniques, and to continuously monitor the firer's steadiness, techniques, time on target, trigger squeeze, and recovery from recoil.

(3)   Immediate-Shot-Impact Display. When a shot is fired, its impact relative to the target is immediately displayed on the video screen as a blinking white dot (Figure A-12, left target).

(4)   Replay. After a shot is fired, a real-rate display of how the firer engaged the target can be replayed on the video screen.

(a)   The target to the right in Figure A-12 shows the type of information that can be replayed on the video screen after a series of shots are fired. To show the sequence, the dots have been numbered.

(b)   To show a replay, the firer first selects the shot he wishes to replay by operating the EACH SHOT button. Then he presses the REPLAY button. Some Weaponeers record and store replays for just the first three shots.

Figure A-12. Replay of shot.

Figure A-12.  Replay of shot.

(5)   Shot Groups. The impact location of up to 32 shots is automatically stored in the Weaponeer memory and displayed on the video screen. Each impact is indicated by a white dot, which blinks when indicating the last shot. All 32 shots can be fired and displayed on a single target, or split among a combination of targets. The CLEAR button erases all shots from the Weaponeer memory.

(6)   Printer. A hard-copy printer is provided for postfiring analysis, for firer progress tracking, and for record keeping. Pressing the PRINT button causes the target displayed on the video to print. (Sample printouts are shown in Figure A-13.) Some Weaponeers can print the three pop-up targets at the same time by holding in the REPLAY button and pressing the PRINT button.

Figure A-13. Weaponeer printouts.

Figure A-13.  Weaponeer printouts.

e.   Use of the Weaponeer. In BRM, the Weaponeer is used to evaluate the firer's ability to apply the four fundamentals. It is used throughout the program to help diagnose and remediate problems. In the unit, the Weaponeer should be used much like it is used in BRM. Concurrent use of the Weaponeer at the rifle range provides valuable remedial training.

(1)   The preferred training configuration for the Weaponeer is shown in Figure A-14. One trainer operates the system while three to six soldiers observe the training. Soldiers should rotate, each receiving several short turns on the system. Where high throughput is required, consolidation of available Weaponeers may be considered.

(2)   When training soldiers on the Weaponeer-

  • Proceed at a relaxed pace, and emphasize accuracy before speed.
  • If possible, train with small groups, allowing each soldier several 10- to 15-minute turns on the device.
  • For remedial training, try to relax the soldier. A nervous soldier will have trouble learning and gaining confidence in his marksmanship skills. For sustainment training, encourage competition between individuals or units.

(3)   In Figure A-14, five soldiers are being trained. One is firing and four are observing, awaiting their turns on the device. The video screen is carefully positioned just outside the vision of the firer, but the firer can easily turn his head to see replays and hit points. The position of the trainer is also important so he can see both the firer and video screen. This is a good position for detecting and correcting firing faults. When the firer is in the standing supported firing position, the console should be placed on a table so the trainer can see the video screen above the firer's rifle (Figure A-15). Observers can see the targets, firer, and video screen and learn procedures that speed up training and help avoid firing faults.

Figure A-14. Weaponeer training configuration.

Figure A-14.  Weaponeer training configuration.

Figure A-15. Training arrangement (supported firing position).

Figure A-15.  Training arrangement (supported firing position).

f.   Mobile Configuration. To use the Weaponeer in a mobile configuration, it must be shock mounted. (The manufacturer's conceptual mobile training unit is shown in Figure A-16.) The TSC, Fort Benning, Georgia, has adopted a mobile mounting stand for supporting the Weaponeer range assembly and computer console (Figure A-17).

Figure A-17. Mobile mounting stand.

Figure A-17.  Mobile mounting stand.

g.   Diagnosis of Firing Problems. Diagnosis of firing problems is the main purpose of the Weaponeer. The following seven-step program is recommended as a guide. Depending on the extent of the firer's problems and time constraints, the number of shots may be increased.



Tell the soldier to assume a good firing position, aim at a target, and hold steady (supported and prone unsupported positions).



Visually check the firer's firing position and correct any gross errors.



Observe the video screen. If there is no aiming dot on the video screen or if the aiming dot is far from target center, teach sight picture to the firer. If excessive movement is shown by the light dot, check and correct the techniques of the steady position and natural point of aim.



Tell the soldier to fire a three-round shot group aimed at the target's center of mass. Watch the video screen and soldier as he fires. Note violations of the four fundamentals.



Replay each shot to show the firer his aim, steadiness, and trigger squeeze. In Figure A-12, the target on the right shows a numbered series of 16 shots. Dots 1 through 4 indicate that the firer approached the target from high right. Dots 5 through 15 show that he is aiming near the center of the target but does not have a steady position. The sudden shift from dot 15 to 16 (dot 16 is the hit point of the shot) indicates that gun-shyness or improper trigger squeeze caused the firer to pull his aiming point down and to the right just before firing. Replay helps the firer understand and correct his firing errors.



Confirm and refine the diagnosis by allowing the soldier to fire additional three-round shot groups. Use replay to show the firer his firing faults.



Summarize and record the soldier's basic firing problems. These seven steps are designed to diagnose and show the soldier his firing errors. This could be enough to correct the error. Diagnosis needs to be followed up with remedial exercises either with the Weaponeer, target-box exercise, or dime washer exercise.

h.   Unit Sustainment Training. Sustainment training and prequalification refresher training can be conducted with the Weaponeer, depending on availability.

(1)   Direct the soldier to zero the Weaponeer rifle (sandbag supported position). Emphasize tight, consistently placed shot groups. Starting with the closest target and working out to the most distant, direct the soldier to practice slow precision fire at each target (supported and prone unsupported positions).

(2)   Direct the soldier to slow fire at random pop-up targets (both firing positions). Emphasize speed and precision. Direct him to slow fire at random pop-up targets with short exposure times (both firing positions).


OPTION: Direct the soldier to practice windage hold-off, rapid magazine change, and immediate action (both firing positions).


OPTION: Direct the soldier to practice night fire, automatic or burst fire, and gas-mask fire.

i.   Assessment of Skills. The Weaponeer can aid in the objective assessment of basic marksmanship. Periodic Weaponeer diagnosis should be conducted and recorded. Each soldier fires until zeroed on the Weaponeer. If unable to zero in 9 to 15 rounds, he should be withdrawn from testing and given remedial training. The soldier fires a surrogate record-fire scenario according to the following:

(1)   Scenario of Target Presentation. Presentation of the targets is controlled by the operator who uses the target buttons.

(2)   Order of Target Presentation. The scaled 100-meter and 250-meter targets (or 75 meters, 175 meters, and 300 meters) are presented in a mixed order according to a planned schedule.

(3)   Ratio of Target Presentation. Targets are presented in a ratio of three 250-meter targets to one 100-meter target (or three 300-meter, two 175-meter to one 75-meter). A 64-target scenario consisting of two 32-target scenarios (the first engaged from the supported position; the second from the prone unsupported position) is conducted with a short break between.

(4)   Target Exposure Time. Exposure time is four seconds for the scaled 250-meter targets (or 175 meters) and two seconds for the scaled 100-meter target (or 75 meters).

(5)   Intertarget Interval. The time between target exposures should be varied from one to eight seconds.

(6)   Target Mode. The kill mode is used so targets fall when hit. A score of 41 hits out of the 64 targets indicates soldiers can proceed to actual record fire. Soldiers who score lower than 41 should receive remedial training.


The engagement skills trainer (EST) 2000 supports realistic and comprehensive "gated" rifle marksmanship instruction, identifies soldiers needs by requiring them to satisfy gate requirements in order to progress, and, when needed, facilitates remedial training prior to qualification. The EST 2000 (Figure A-18) is designed to be used primarily as a unit/institutional, indoor, multipurpose, multilane, small-arms, crew-served, and individual antitank training simulator to—

  • Train and evaluate individual marksmanship training for initial entry soldiers (BCT/OSUT).
  • Provide Active and Reserve Component unit sustainment training in preparation for qualification on individual and crew small arms live-fire weapons.
  • Provide unit collective tactical training for static dismounted infantry, scout, engineer, military police squads, and combat support/combat service support (CS/CSS) elements.

Figure A-18. Engagement skills trainer.

Figure A-18.  Engagement skills trainer.

a.   Background. The EST 2000 matches leading edge technology with user requirements and is designed to meet the small-arms training requirements by providing a realistic training environment, targets, weapons effects, and challenging scenarios.

b.   Authorization. The EST 2000 is an Infantry School and TRADOC approved TADSS supported by PEO-STRI (formerly STRICOM) and has a life cycle support/sustainment plan.

c.   Funding. The EST 2000 is a centrally-funded training simulator supported by the production contractor with a one-year, full parts warranty. It will then transition to PEO-STRI's life-cycle contractor support (LCCS) umbrella contract for the life of the system.

d.   General Characteristics. The EST 2000 replicates eleven weapons including the rifle, carbine, pistol, grenade launcher, all machine guns, MK19, shotgun, and AT4. The EST 2000 has three modes of training:

(1)   Marksmanship Training. The EST 2000 uses Army standard courses of fire for all small-arms weapons. It accurately simulates live-fire ranges in daylight and limited visibility conditions using precision-scaled targets, high-resolution imagery, and essential weapons' system accuracy to compensate for errors (drift, parallax). The EST 2000 isolates, captures, and displays shots with replay that highlights shooter's errors in the application of the fundamentals of marksmanship. Replay of the aim-point trace (before the shot, during the shot, and after the shot) diagnoses shooter problems with aiming, breathing, steady hold, trigger control, and shot recovery for on-the-spot corrections. Cant sensors visually indicate shooter-induced right or left cant possibly resulting in missed shots.

(2)   Tactical Collective Training. The EST 2000 provides fully articulated interactive targets with variable outcomes based on a squad's action or inaction. It uses realistic 3D modeled battlefield terrain, variable environmental effects that include day/night and dawn/dusk, variable weather conditions, and illumination and will soon include an entry-level indirect fire capability as a product improvement. It uses other special effects to enhance the static eye point of the battlefield to include weapon's effects, explosions, and vehicle damage. The EST 2000 allows the trainer and unit to build scenarios as they would fight. Feedback provided by the EST 2000 to the shooters is shot-by-shot and is tied to each shooter's lane of fire. Most importantly, the tactical collective exercises train squad, team, and element leaders in fire distribution and control.

(3)   Shoot/Don't Shoot Rules of Engagement Training. The EST 2000 uses video-based graphic overlays with multiple escalation or de-escalation points that require the shooter to justify his actions based on his situational awareness. By using the video-based graphic overlays, EST 2000 can be configured to enhance special operations and counterterrorism training. It is also the premier training simulation for stability and support operations training.

e.   Weapon Safety. Each simulated weapon has the same appearance as a fully functioning weapon, with the exception of the trainer-peculiar umbilical cable. Under certain circumstances, especially in the subdued light of a training room, it is possible to mistake a "live" firearm for a simulated weapon. This situation could create the potential for personal injury or damage to property. To avoid confusion, neither live nor blank ammunition, nor any live weapons, should be allowed in the training room.

(1)   Simulated weapons will not accept live or blank ammunition. Any attempt, accidental or otherwise, to chamber a live or blank round may damage the simulated weapon and create an unsafe situation.

(2)   The following general safety precautions should be adhered to:

  • Fire simulated weapons only if they are pointed downrange.
  • Post WARNING signs at all entry doors
  • Do not allow personnel to stand downrange from the firing line
  • Instruct weapons handlers never to look directly into a barrel
  • Take the weapon off-line for testing and service at the first indication of malfunction and refer to the troubleshooting procedures.

f.   Laser Safety. The lasers used in the simulated weapons meet ANSI Standard Z136.1-1993 Class I Standards for single laser pulse power. This classification is commonly referred to by the industry rating of "eye-safe." However, even eye-safe lasers may be dangerous under extraordinary circumstances. To ensure personnel safety, weapons handlers should not stare directly down a simulated weapon barrel. Serious eye injury could result if a laser malfunctioned while a user was staring into the weapon's muzzle (into the laser beam).

g.   Equipment. The EST 2000's subsystem functions are described in Table A-5. The 5-lane EST 2000 subsystem shipping and receiving configuration consists of:

  • COMPRESSOR PALLET: Compressor.

Floor box assemblies (3).




Cable tray.


EST 2000 Operator's Manual.


Interactive courseware compact disk.

  • SCREEN SHIPPING CASES (2): Screen assembly.
  • SPEAKER PALLET: Speakers (2).

Display controller computer assembly.


Autotracker assembly.


Keyboard and mouse.


AC power distribution unit (ACPDU).


Rack distribution unit (RDU).


Table A-5. EST 2000 subsystem functions.

Table A-5. EST 2000 subsystem functions.

h.   Basic Rifle Marksmanship Training. The EST 2000 begins training the fundamentals of marksmanship right from the beginning, before the soldier has a chance to develop bad habits.

(1)   Using EST 2000 technology, soldiers and units can reduce their rate of marksmanship failures and increase the soldiers' confidence in being able to fire their assigned weapons. EST 2000 is particularly useful for teaching BRM where a "gated" strategy is used requiring a soldier to pass requirements in simulation before firing live ammunition. The soldier does not proceed or pass a gate scenario until he meets the standard.

(2)   EST 2000 marksmanship training provides basic range firing and qualification and is accomplished in either 5-, 10- or 15-lane configurations. Each firer is restricted to one firing lane. EST 2000 training scenarios include:

  • Marksmanship-203 scenarios.
  • Tactical collective training-181 scenarios total:

Infantry squad-91.


Scout squad-19.


Engineer squad-10.


Military Police squad-17.


Military Police team-17.


Marksman/observer team-3.


Combat support/combat service support-24.

  • Judgmental shoot/don't shoot-4 scenarios.


The marksmanship core scenarios can be found in the EST 2000 Operator's Manual, TD-07-6910-702-10, and in Table A-6.

i.   Remedial Marksmanship Training. While use of the EST 2000 BRM gated strategy often reduces the requirements for remedial live-fire training, it is highly useful in diagnosing and correcting problems through simulation gates before the soldier fires actual live rounds. Using the EST 2000 technology of rifle cant, trigger pressure, and before-the-shot, during-the-shot, and after-the-shot AARs, trainers can quickly identify and correct problems thus raising confidence and first-time qualifications.

j.   Tactical Collective Training. Tactical collective training is conducted on two networked 5-lane subsystems. This configuration can support up to 11 weapons including tandem weapons for the following collective training:

  • Infantry squad of nine soldiers.
  • Scout squad of five soldiers.
  • Engineer squad of nine soldiers.
  • Military Police squad of ten soldiers.
  • Combat support/combat service support element up to ten soldiers.

The tandem weapons capability is available in collective training only. This capability allows the use of an extra weapon connected to the fifth lane (port 6) in the third floor box allowing a firer to manage two weapons. (For further instructions, refer to the EST 2000 Operator's Manual.)


The tactical collective training core scenarios can be found in the EST 2000 Operator's Manual, TD-07-6910-702-10, and in Table A-7.

k.   Judgmental Shoot/Don't Shoot. Shoot/don't shoot training is conducted on a 5-lane subsystem. This training uses video-based graphic overlays that provide important clues, such as facial expressions and body language, for the firer to cue on. Multiple escalation or de-escalation points are used that require the shooter to justify his actions based on his situational awareness.


The judgmental shoot/don't shoot core scenarios can be found in the EST 2000 Operator's Manual, TD-07-6910-702-10, and in Table A-8.

l.   Scenario Editor. The scenarios currently available in the EST 2000 meet 90 percent of a unit's training requirements. As a unit's mission changes or additional training requirements occur, the unit can use the scenario editor to generate or tailor new scenarios. Weapons and TTP changes may also require creation or modification of scenarios. The use of the scenario editor will enhance the individual soldier's skills and, collectively, the squad's ability to engage and destroy an enemy threat. (Complete detailed instructions on how to create and modify scenarios can be found in the EST 2000 Training Support Package).

m.   EST 2000 System Block Diagram. This navigation diagram (Figure A-19) provides a quick view of how the operator navigates through the instructor/operator (I/O) station.

Figure A-19. System block diagram.

Figure A-19.  System block diagram.

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