The CMO establish, maintain, influence, or exploit relations between the civilian populace and military forces or government and nongovernment civilian organizations and authorities. Operations are conducted in friendly, neutral, and hostile AOs to facilitate military operations and to consolidate and achieve US objectives. Military forces may perform activities and functions that a local, regional, or national government normally performs. Activities may occur before, during, or after military operations or, if directed, in the absence of military operations. The CMO may be performed by designated CA forces and/or other military forces.
The CA forces help plan, coordinate, and supervise CA activities to support CMO. The activities are mission-dependent and are determined after careful evaluation of mission requirements and the force mix and time available. Under the umbrella of CMO, CA forces perform FN support, civil-administration support, PRC, HA, and ES.
If required, I/R units are deployed and employed to support CMO in CONUS and OCONUS. The I/R units provide an array of significant capabilities by performing their wartime mission in peace and during conflicts. The MP must understand the intent of CMO because SA and the correct mind-set are critical. Since forces may be called upon to relieve human suffering, such as that encountered after a natural disaster, strict discipline measures and control may not be appropriate.
In Parts Two and Three, this manual addressed MP units' capabilities during internment and confinement operations. Part Four expands on these capabilities and addresses resettlement operations in support CMO.
Civilian and military authorities exercise PRC to provide security for the populace, deny personnel and materiel to an enemy, mobilize population and materiel resources, and detect and reduce the effectiveness of enemy agents. Populace control includes curfews, movement restrictions, travel permits, registration cards, and resettlement operations. Resource control includes licenses, regulations, guidelines, checkpoints, ration controls, amnesty programs, and facility inspections. This chapter addresses MP support to DC operations conducted under the umbrella of PRC operations.
9-1. The DC operations are a special category of PRC, and they are the most basic collective tasks performed by CA personnel. The DC operations minimize civilian interference with military operations and protect civilians from combat operations. They are normally performed with minimal military resources. Nonmilitary international-aid organizations, NGOs, and IHOs are the primary resources used by CA forces. However, CA forces may depend on other military units, such as I/R MP units, to assist with a particular category of civilians.
9-2. Controlling civilians is essential during military operations because uncontrolled masses of people can seriously impair the military mission. Commanders plan measures to protect civilians in the AO and to prevent their interference with the mission.
9-3. During military operations, US forces must consider two distinct categories of civiliansthose who remained in place and those who are dislocated. The first category includes civilians who are indigenous to the area and the local populace, including civilians from other countries. They may or may not need help; and if they can take care of themselves, they should remain in place.
9-4. The second category includes civilians who leave their homes for various reasons. They are categorized as DCs, and their movement and physical presence can hinder military operations. They probably require some degree of aid (medicine, food, clothing, water, and shelter) and may not be native to the area or the country. The term DC is generic, and it is further subdivided into categories (see Chapter 1 ).
9-5. All commanders are under the legal obligation imposed by international law, including the Geneva Conventions and other applicable international humanitarian laws. In particular, commanders must comply with the principles and spirit of the law of land warfare during armed conflicts (and other operations unless directed otherwise by competent authorities), regardless of how they are characterized. (See FM 27-10 and the SJA for additional information.)
9-7. Although the Assistant Chief of Staff, G5 (Civil Affairs) (G5) or the Civil Affairs Officer (US Army) (S5) is the primary planner of DC operations, all military planners consider DC operations. The G5 or the S5, in conjunction with supporting CA units, assesses the needs of DCs to ensure that they receive adequate and proper help. He considers the cultural background of DCs and the cultural background of the country where DCs are located. The planning of DC operations differs at each level of command. All commands and national and international agencies involved in DC operations have clearly defined responsibilities within a single overall program. The following principles apply to DC operations:
Coordinate with CA units to use US, HN, international, and third-nation organizations such as the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere, Incorporated (CARE). Their use not only capitalizes on experience but also reduces requirements placed on US military forces.
9-8. The planning scope for DC operations and the actual task implementation differ, depending on the command level and the TO. Before describing how MP units support DC operations, MP leaders must have a basic understanding of how CA forces plan DC operations. Except as specifically noted, planning considerations discussed in this manual are applicable to all tactical scenarios, including logistics operations for units in the COMMZ.
9-9. Based on national policy directives and other political efforts, the theater commander provides directives on the care, control, and disposition of DCs. The corps commander integrates the theater commander's guidance with the corps ground tactical plan. The driving force for DC planning must be generated at corps level. At division, COSCOM, and other subordinate command levels, the DC plan must
Ensure that all concerned partiesincluding the fire support coordination center and the Assistant Chief of Staff, G3 (Operations and Plans) (G3), or the Operations and Training Officer (US Army) (S3)receive information on DC plans, routes, and areas of concentration.
9-11. The care and control of DCs fulfill a dual purposeto ensure that DCs receive the minimum essentials to subsist (food, water, clothing, shelter, and emergency medical aid) and to maximize the mobility of tactical forces and minimize civilian interference with military operations. The CA and MP forces coordinate and establish movement control early. Major considerations include a stay-put policy, collection points, and assembly areas (see Figure 9-1):
Stay-put policy . Civilians remain near their homes and under controlled movement. The policy assumes the capability for enforcement, information dissemination, and ES. The HN may have a policy that US forces support, but US forces do not have the authority or the right to enforce the policy. It is not within the authoritative capability of US forces.
Collection points . A collection point establishes control and direction over the movement of the civilian populace, and it is the primary measure for gaining initial control over DCs. It is a temporary area for small numbers of DCs until they can return to their homes or move to a safer area. It is as far forward as possible during the flow of battle. Because a collection point is temporary, screening by CA forces, MI, or MP is quick and may include screening for intelligence information and emergency assistance. Screening takes place to segregate EPWs, CIs, and allied soldiers from DCs. Local civilians or civilian agencies can operate collection points under the supervision of tactical or support troops or CA personnel. The MP become involved in DC operations when civilian congestion along MSRs threatens the mobility of the maneuver force. They may be the first US elements to address DC problems and initiate actions to restore force mobility.
Assembly areas . Assembly areas are temporary holding areas for civilians before they return to their homes or move to a more secure area. Detailed screening or segregation of DC categories takes place at assembly areas. They are usually located in a secure, stable environment and may include schools, churches, hotels, and warehouses. When selecting a specific area, consider the ability to provide overnight accommodations for several days. Local civilians can operate assembly areas under the supervision of tactical or support troops or CA personnel.
Figure 9-1. Sample DC Overlay
9-12. Evacuation creates serious problems and is only considered as a last resort. Per US doctrine, a division or higher commander can order an evacuation. When the decision is made to evacuate a community, CA and MP make detailed plans to prevent uncontrolled groups from disrupting the movement of military units and supplies. Consider the following when planning a mass evacuation:
Security . The CA helps the Assistant Chief of Staff, G2 (Intelligence) (G2) with security screening and documentation of evacuees. Since the civilians are being removed from the area where they can best take care of themselves, the military provides security for them after evacuation. They also provide security for property left behind, including farm animals and pets.
Documentation . Evacuees may need ID documents showing their name and the locality from which they were evacuated. As a control technique, CA personnel prepare a manifest that lists evacuees for movement.
Briefing . The MCO briefs evacuees before movement. He uses leaflets, loudspeakers, posters, and other means available. The briefing explains details of the move, such as restrictions on personal belongings and the organization and schedule for the movement.
Health care . The public health team makes maximum use of civilian medical personnel, equipment, and supplies to provide health care to evacuees. Use military medical personnel, equipment, and supplies as supplements if necessary. Take proper steps to prevent the spread of infectious diseases before movement.
9-13. Directing and controlling movement are vital when handling masses of DCs. The G5 and HN authorities are responsible for mass DC operations, and the MP may help direct DCs to alternate routes. If possible, incorporate HN assets in planning and implementation. Consider the following:
Route selection . When selecting routes for civilian movement, CA personnel consider the types of transportation common to the area. They coordinate the proposed traffic circulation plan with the transportation officer and the PM. All DC movements take place on designated civilian evacuation routes.
Route ID . After designating movement routes, CA personnel mark them in languages and symbols that civilians, US forces, and allied forces understand. The PSYOP units, MP, HN military forces, and other allied military units can help mark routes.
Control and assembly points . After selecting and marking movement routes, CA and HN authorities establish control and assembly points at selected key intersections. The G5 or S5 coordinates locations with the PM, the movement control center, and the Assistant Chief of Staff, G4 (Logistics) (G4) to include control and assembly points in the traffic circulation plan.
Emergency rest areas . The CA personnel set up emergency rest areas at congested points to provide immediate needs (water, food, fuel, maintenance, and medical services). Notify the PM to ensure that these areas are included in MP area security operations.
Local and national agencies . Using local and national agencies conserves military resources and reduces the need for interpreters and translators. Civilian authorities normally have legal status and are best equipped to handle their own people.
9-14. When large groups of civilians are quartered temporarily (less than 6 months) or semipermanently (more than 6 months), the commander may task CA units to establish a DC facility. If existing facilities (HN, NGO, IHO, or IO) are suitable for DC facilities and HN personnel are available to administer and operate the facility, MP units may not be required to establish I/R facilities. Under this scenario, CA units provide the HN with technical advice, support, and assistance, depending on the requirements. They may also furnish additional detachments and functional teams or specialists to resolve public health, welfare, and safety problems at the facility.
9-15. If the commander deploys MP units to the TO or tasks them to support DC operations, MP help set up, administer, and operate facilities in close coordination with CA forces, the HN, PSYOP units, NGOs, IHO, IOs, and other interested agencies. The MP unit commander becomes the I/R facility commander.
9-16. The support of DC operations begins before an MP unit arrives in the TO or is tasked with the mission. The I/R facility commander has a thorough understanding of international law, the concept of DC operations, and how they apply to the mission. If time permits, he contacts the in-country G5/S5, CA units, and other organizations that may have a role in DC operations (see Chapter 1 ). The CA forces provide MP leaders and soldiers with expertise on factors that directly affect DC operations. Some of the factors include
9-17. When deployed to the TO, MP leaders coordinate with higher headquarters G5/S5, CA, PSYOP, HN, NGOs, IHO, and IOs before setting up and operating the I/R facility. After a clear understanding of the mission, the concept of operations, and other available information, the I/R facility commander uses the MDMP to determine specific tasks the MP unit performs to accomplish the mission. Some considerations include
9-18. The I/R facility commander coordinates with CA, the G5/S5, and other military and nonmilitary organizations when selecting a site for DC operations. The location depends on the availability of supply routes, food, water, power, and waste disposal. Avoid sites near vital communications centers, large military installations, or other potential military targets. Also consider the susceptibility of the area to natural and man-made disasters (floods, pollution, and fire) and the use of facility personnel as a source of local labor support.
9-19. The DCs, local agencies, or government employees construct facilities when possible. The supporting command's logistics and transportation assets acquire and transport materials to build or modify existing facilities. Local sources may provide materials within legal limitations. The supporting command also furnishes medical, subsistence, and other supporting assets to establish DC facilities. Engineer support and military construction materials may be necessary when I/R facilities are set up in areas where local facilities are unavailable; for example, hotels, schools, halls, theaters, vacant warehouses, and unused factories.
9-20. The TCMS contains basic plans, specifications, and material requirements for building EPW/CI facilities based on population. The plans can be easily modified for DC operations in temperate, frigid, tropic, and desert climates.
9-21. If necessary, CS MP units and I/R MP units set up the facility using acquisitioned tentage and additional materials. The I/R facility commander considers the type of construction necessary to satisfy the needs of the DC operation. Some considerations are the
9-22. Subdivide the facility into sections or separate compounds to ease administration and DC tension. Each section can serve as an administrative subunit for transacting facility business. Major sections normally include facility headquarters, hospital, dining facility, and sleeping areas. Subdivide sleeping areas for families, unaccompanied children, unattached females, and unattached males. Consider cultural and religious practices, and try to keep families together. Figure 9-2 shows a sample DC I/R facility. Additional facilities, fencing, and other requirements are based on the
Figure 9-2. Sample DC I/R Facility
9-23. The initial reception of DCs begins with their transport from the assembly area to the inprocessing center of the I/R facility. Conduct processing in a positive manner because DCs are fearful. Ensure that DCs clearly understand why they are being processed and know what to expect at each station. The facility commander, a HN representative, or another official conducts an entrance briefing to DCs upon their arrival.
9-24. While the EPW/CI processing procedures discussed in previous chapters provide a foundation, I/R personnel must be aware of unique aspects when processing DCs. Military personnel provide training and support, while NGOs, IHOs, and IOs actually process DCs. The number and type of processing stations vary from operation to operation. Table 9-1 shows stations that may be required during DC operations.
9-25. The I/R facility commander determines the accountability procedures and requirements necessary for DC operations. Translators are present throughout processing. A senior person greets new arrivals and makes them feel welcome. Brief DCs on facility policies and procedures and screen them to identify security and medical concerns. Offer them the use of personal-hygiene facilities, and always maintain family integrity.
9-26. Conduct pat-down searches to ensure that weapons are not introduced into the compound. Conduct same-gender searches when possible, and do not conduct strip searches. Speed and security considerations may require mixed-gender searches. If so, perform them in a respectful manner, using all possible measures to prevent any action that could be interpreted as sexual molestation or assault. The on-site supervisor carefully controls soldiers doing mixed-gender searches to prevent allegations of sexual misconduct. Using HN, NGO, or IHO assets to conduct searches may prevent an intense situation from developing.
9-27. Screening may be necessary to prevent infiltration by insurgents, enemy agents, or escaped members of hostile armed forces. Although intelligence and other units may screen DCs, friendly and reliable local civilians can perform this function under the supervision of MP and CA personnel. Screeners carefully apply administrative controls to prevent infiltration and preclude alienation of people who are sympathetic to US objectives. The screening process also identifies technicians and professionals to help administer the facility; for example, policemen, schoolteachers, doctors, dentists, nurses, lawyers, mechanics, carpenters, and cooks.
9-28. The MP classify DCs during processing. They coordinate with CA, NGOs, IHOs, and IOs to determine proper classifications. Expect a continuing need for reclassification and reassignment of DCs. Statements made by a DC and the information on his ID papers determine his initial classification. Agitators, enemy plants, and individuals who should be classified as EPWs or CIs will be identified by their activities. Reclassify them according to their identity or ideology.
9-29. Identifying DCs may or may not be necessary; it depends on guidance from higher headquarters, CA, the HN, and other agencies. The need for ID varies from operation to operation, and it is used to
9-30. An ID card can be used to facilitate ID. It contains the DC's name, photograph, and control number. The control number may be an ISN or a sequenced control number specific to the DC. Color-coded IDs permit ID by categories (see Chapter 1 ). An ID band permits rapid, reliable ID of an individual and may also be used in DC operations. While DCs cannot be prevented from removing or destroying ID bands, most will accept their use for ID purposes. When ID bands or cards deteriorate, replace them immediately.
9-31. Supply DCs with adequate, suitable clothing and sleeping equipment if they do not have supplies with them. Requisition clothing and equipment through NGOs, IHOs, IOs, and HN sources when possible. In a combat environment, use available captured clothing and equipment. Ensure that DCs wear clothing until it is unserviceable, and replace it as necessary.
9-32. Ensure that food rations are sufficient in quantity, quality, and variety to maintain health and prevent weight loss and nutritional deficiencies. Consider the habitual diet of the DC population, and be aware that DCs may bring their own rations and cooking utensils. Allow DCs to prepare their own meals after coordination with CA; the HN; and NGOs, IHOs, IOs who support the facility.
9-33. Ensure that expectant and nursing mothers and children under the age of 15 receive additional food in proportion to their needs. Increase the rations of workers based on the type of labor performed. Provide plenty of fresh water. A good planning factor is 20 gallons per individual per day.
9-35. Dining-facility requirements vary depending on the number of DCs and the availability of equipment. If deemed necessary, the I/R facility commander can authorize local procurement of cooking equipment. Consult with SJA to determine the purchasing mechanism and the legality of items being purchased. Coordinate with NGOs, IHOs, and IOs for food service support. Train selected DCs to perform food service operations, and ensure that they are constantly supervised by US food service personnel.
9-36. Due to the temporary nature of an I/R facility, the need for medical care and sanitation intensifies. If possible, locate a sick call tent adjacent to each major compound inside the facility to ensure prompt medical screening and treatment. Enforcement and education measures ensure that the facility population complies with basic sanitation measures. Provide medical care via organic I/R medical personnel or coordinate with the appropriate HN medical authorities. To prevent communicable diseases, follow the guidance in FM 21-10 and other applicable publications. Conduct routine, preplanned health, comfort, and welfare inspections that appear to be random. Inspections ensure that the facility is safe, sanitary, and hazard-free. When conducting inspections
Respect cultural beliefs such as religious tenets and shrines. The INS, international support groups, community leaders, CA, and DC leaders are good sources for information regarding cultural sensitivities.
9-37. One of the best ways to ensure DC cooperation in a facility is to establish a form of self-government. It minimizes the impression that DCs are under the control of a foreign government and allows them to feel a degree of control over their lives. Chapter 5 and AR 190-8 contain procedures for establishing a CI committee. Use the procedures as a model for establishing a DC self-government, and coordinate with CA for assistance.
9-38. Self-government leaders can help solve problems before they become major events. The infrastructure of self-government promotes a stable environment where rapport is built between the facility commander, the DC leadership, and the DC population. This, in turn, reduces tension and provides an effective means of communicating reliable information to the facility population.
9-40. Facility commanders establish and strictly enforce measures to maintain discipline and security. Establish rules that can be easily followed by everyone, and coordinate the rules with SJA and HN authorities. Determine how to enforce rules and how to deal with DCs who violate noncriminal rules. Establish daily or periodic routines and responses that are conducive to good discipline and control. Ensure that facility personnel
Post facility rules, regulations, instructions, notices, orders, and announcements that DCs are expected to obey in an easily accessed area. Ensure that the information is printed in a language that DCs understand, and provide a copy to DCs who do not have access to posted copies.
9-42. Controlling personnel is the key to successful facility operations. The I/R facility commander ensures efficient, effective control that meets US obligations under international law. Facility control includes measures to reduce waste and avoid duplication of effort. The commander
Establishes and posts barracks rules such as those shown in Figure 9-3.
9-43. Use HN civilians as cadre for facility administration, and encourage DCs to become involved in facility administration. Past experience shows that about 6 percent of DCs should be employed on a full-time basis. If possible, I/R facility and CA personnel organize and train cadre before the facility opens. The HN civilians come from public and private welfare organizations and are under military supervision.
9-44. Problems might stem from DCs' state of mind. The difficulties they experienced may affect their acceptance of authority. They may have little initiative or may be uncooperative because of an uncertain future. They may be angry because of their losses, or they may resort to looting and general lawlessness because of their destitution. The I/R facility commander can minimize difficulties through careful administration and
9-45. Disseminating instructions and information to the facility population is vital. Communications may be in the form of notices on bulletin boards, posters, public address systems, loudspeakers, facility meetings and assemblies, or a facility radio station. The CA teams and area PSYOP units can help disseminate information.
9-46. Another tool for effective administration is using liaison personnel. Liaison involves coordination with all interested agencies. The US government and military authorities, allied liaison officers, and representatives of local governments and international agencies can provide assistance. Implement the following standards related to DC treatment:
9-47. The I/R facility commander is also the safety and security officer. He deals with crimes against persons and property, performs security patrols, and conducts reaction team operations. If an L&O team is attached to the organization, it performs L&O-related functions. Otherwise, the commander uses organic resources, such as an MP guard company, to establish an MP desk and blotter and perform other specific functions. The location of the MP station depends on the facility's layout and the commander's needs.
9-48. Some other sources for security officers include local police forces, HN paramilitary and military forces, and the facility population. Police personnel within the population can supplement security teams or constitute a facility police force if necessary. Internal and external patrols are necessary; however, ensure that security does not give the impression that the facility is a prison. Base patrol areas and distribution plans on the size of the facility and the number of DCs in each subdivision. If a DC is apprehended for committing a crime, coordinate with SJA and HN authorities to determine the disposition and the status of the subject and the disposition of the case paperwork, evidence (including crime lab analysis results), and recovered property. Also obtain information on items, procedures, and agreements unique to the supported HN.
9-49. Be prepared to perform civil-disturbance operations to restore L&O. Identify a reactionary force that can be immediately deployed and employed inside the facility to control a disturbance. The size of the reactionary force depends on the facility population and the available military forces. The reactionary force is well trained, well organized, and knowledgeable of applicable ROE, the use-of-force policy, and the use of NLWs and civil-disturbance measures. (See Appendix B and FM 19-15 for more information.)
9-52. The DC ROE vary from operation to operation. The CINC establishes ROE in conjunction with SJA and upon joint staff approval. The CINC approves special ROE developed for use in DC facilities that are controlled and secured by MP. The ROE may evolve to fit the changing environment, ensuring continued protection and safety for the DC population and US personnel. Ensure that ROE remain simple and understandable so that soldiers are not confused and do not have to memorize extensive checklists. Key definitions are
9-53. Design ROE around escalating use of force. Resolve a conflict with the minimum force necessary, but allow leaders and soldiers to escalate the level of force as necessary to retain control. For example
9-54. Nonlethal measures can be authorized by the ROE anytime during an operation to protect soldiers and DCs from injury. The NLWs include riot batons, pepper spray, stun guns, and shotguns loaded with nonlethal munitions or bird shot. The ROE may include nondeadly force to protect mission-essential equipment from damage or destruction. Mission-essential equipment includes tactical and nontactical vehicles, communications equipment, weapons, computers, and office and personal equipment.
9-56. The DC facility requires adequate transportation assets. Since MP units have limited organic transportation assets, the unit MCO or the CA transportation specialist coordinates and determines the types and numbers of vehicles required and makes provisions to have them on hand. The I/R facility commander uses civilian or captured enemy vehicles when possible.
9-57. The final step in DC operations is the disposition of DCs. Allowing DCs to return to their homes as quickly as tactical considerations permit lessens the burden on military and civilian economies. It also reduces the danger of diseases that are common among people in confined areas. When DCs return home, they can help restore their towns and can better contribute to their own support. If DCs cannot return home, they may resettle elsewhere in their country or in a country that accepts them. Guidance on the disposition of DCs comes from higher authority upon coordination with US forces, national authorities, and international agencies.
9-58. The most important step in the disposition of DCs is the final handling of personnel and property. Before the DC operation is terminated, the I/R facility commander consults with higher headquarters, the SJA, and other pertinent agencies to determine the proper disposition of records.
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|