Base Support Operations
"The installation/Garrison Commander has enormous responsibilities as he guides the installation to support the National Strategy and the movement of our installations to power projection platforms. To execute this successfully, the commander must understand the core installation management functions and understand the responsibilities of an installation commander."
FM 100-22, Installation Management
This chapter focuses on explaining the environmental program areas and introducing the BASOPS functions and their role in military environmental protection. It explains how installations/bases support units to allow them to meet installation/base specific programs. This support is critical to units that are assigned to, or will train or mobilize at an installation. Installation/base and garrison staffs provide services and support to maneuver units. They are vital to the daily lives of units and in the preparation to go to war or perform other assigned missions. The support provided in the area of training is of tremendous importance. Perhaps the most critical program in this arena from the standpoint of military environmental protection is the ITAM program. The Army and Marine Corps must both maintain an effective level of combat readiness and promote good stewardship of the land on which it trains. Additionally, installations/bases and BASOPS function as the platforms from which both units and individuals go through mobilization, deployment, redeployment and demobilization (MDRD). In exchange for the critical support that installations/BASOPS provide, units must reciprocate by exercising responsibility in their interface with the installation/base. This chapter identifies the partnership and provides insights on how to make it work for the commander and his unit. A great deal of help is available from environmental personnel at the installation level, and it is here that a person may find or gain access to many of the technical experts on environmental matters. For insights into additional help available to the commander see Appendix D.
ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAM AREAS
5-1. Environmental program areas provide the framework for all of the programs that are in place on an installation to support military environmental protection.
5-2. The four broad areas to which environmental protection strategies apply are: hazardous substance control, natural habitat and wildlife protection, resource conservation, and cultural resource protection.
5-3. The laws and policies that control hazardous substances protect water, soil, and air from harmful levels of contamination. The military uses large quantities of hazardous substances, such as fuels, paints, batteries, and solvents. Often these compounds contain pesticides, acids, metals, and other toxins. The military work environment, whether training or combat, is more conducive to HM/HW spills than the normal workplace. Given these conditions, US military forces must take extra precautions to ensure they minimize environmental contamination by hazardous substances.
5-4. The last 50 years of population and industrial growth have caused a significant loss of natural habitat-forests, croplands, waterways, fisheries-and a growing list of endangered and threatened species. Consequently, most nations have laws protecting natural habitat and wildlife and have signed international wildlife protection treaties. US laws and parallel international treaties recognize that the loss of a single species can indicate damage to an entire ecosystem's health.
5-5. Many of these threatened or endangered species reside on installations and training areas operated by the Army and the Marine Corps. Installation commanders, their staffs, and tenant units assume responsibility for safeguarding these species while performing their vital training missions. Theater commanders must consider these species and their habitat when they select bivouac areas, base camps, transportation corridors, harbors, logistics support areas, and airfields.
5-6. Some resources, such as metal ores and petroleum products, are limited in availability and are nonrenewable. However, many nonrenewable resources can often be conserved or reused. Conserving these resources reduces waste generation and associated disposal problems. Otherwise, these wastes require incineration, treatment, or burial.
5-7. These options are costly and may contribute to pollution. Pollution prevention efforts are focused on reducing the initial generation of such wastes to avoid the need for treatment and disposal whenever possible. Resource conservation efforts, such as energy efficiency and recycling, reduce operating costs and the burden of waste disposal.
5-8. Resources such as buildings, religious structures, monuments, and archaeological sites represent a clear link to the past. Since they are nonrenewable, US military forces respect and preserve them whenever possible.
5-9. Many Army and Marine Corps facilities include historic monuments, buildings, battlefields, archaeological sites, and cemeteries. Likewise, many operational theaters contain similar resources, some of which have cultural or religious significance. US military forces respect these resources by avoiding cultural and religious centers whenever possible. However, when all other options have been exhausted, US forces will act decisively when the enemy uses cultural resources to gain a tactical/operational/strategic advantage. The attacks on Monte Casino during World War II and at Hue in Vietnam are examples of such uses of cultural resources.
5-10. On military installations, several environmental protection programs support cultural preservation. Each program has a specific objective intended to meet legal and strategic environmental requirements. The requirements of these programs are simply extensions of good management and leadership practices.
ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAM AREAS
5-11. Military programs that protect the environment correspond to legal requirements to protect air, land, water, human health, and natural and cultural resources. Figure 5-1 summarizes program goals.
5-12. In general, at battalion level or below, these program requirements are integrated into existing unit programs and procedures. They need not be addressed as separate environmental programs. However, commanders should coordinate with appropriate installation environmental staff to determine whether unit-specific circumstances such as mission, active or reserve status, or location dictate other requirements. Certain units, such as explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) units, higher level maintenance activities, or maritime units, may have additional environmental requirements. These units should coordinate closely with their supporting installations and proponent school.
Figure 5-1. Typical environmental program areas and their goals/impact
INSTALLATION AND FACILITY RESPONSIBILITIES
5-13. Installations and other facilities provide industrial, acquisition, and training area support to their assigned units. Installation facilities and services support mission requirements for training, mobilization, and deployment. Efficient operations in these areas minimize the environmental impact of pollution and resource consumption. The primary resources available to assist a unit with environmental problems and issues are the chain of command and installation specialists (in the EMO). The chain of command communicates environmental directives. The environmental responsibilities of the installation/base staff is addressed in this chapter. By understanding organizational relationships, unit leaders can work as a team with those that support them and operate more efficiently and effectively. Refer to FM 100-22 for a focused discussion of Army installation management.
5-14. On a divisional installation/base, the division commander is also typically the installation/base commander. As such, he will have a Garrison Commander to perform the installation portion of his responsibilities. The Garrison Commander's role in environmental stewardship centers on monitoring, coordinating, and ensuring that all staff and support personnel meet the compliance guidance set forth by federal, state, and local agencies. Additionally, he orchestrates environmental support to the units assigned to or training on his installation/base. In some locations, such as Europe area support group (ASG)/base support battalion (BSB) commanders tie together the garrison/installation responsibilities for multiple sites.
5-15. The Army's environmental program identifies the offices available to assist commanders and their chain of command in solving environmental problems and making soldiers aware of environmental requirements. A basic review of key installation POCs will help determine who can provide assistance. Figure 5-2, shows a typical installation staff/offices that have environmental responsibilities. The Marine Corps has a similar organization shown in Figure 5-3. For more information see the latest version of MCO 5090.2. Due to mission, magnitude of installation/base, environmental responsibilities, and manning, not all installations/bases are organized as depicted.
5-16. The DPW usually manages the environmental program at the installation level. It is responsible for overall program management and provides input into budget planning, the annual work plan, compliance monitoring, natural resources, hazardous waste documentation, and processing notices of violations (NOVs) from the state and federal government regulatory agencies to the major Army command (MACOM) to which the installation reports.
— Installation Environmental Coordinator (EC). The EC monitors activities to ensure they remain in compliance with environmental laws and regulations. The EC works in the EMO/ Environmental and Natural Resources Division (ENRD) or the DPW. The EC also develops management plans for environmental control aspects of facilities and operations, recommends appropriate training (including unit HW coordinators), and provides in-house guidance to operators. The coordinator may or may not have technical and support staff, depending on the size of the installation and the magnitude of its environmental problems.
— Forester and Fish and Wildlife Officer. These officers are normally assigned to the environmental office. The installation forester is responsible for the forestry program on the installation. Most of an installation's forests are normally in training areas; therefore, any training activities that effect the forestry program and regulations are the concern of this office. The fish and wildlife officer is responsible for the fish and wildlife management programs on an installation.
5-17. The DPTM is the installation's operations and training office. It coordinates all training activities, including budgeting, development and maintenance of training areas, and mission priorities. It has primary responsibility for ITAM on the installation/base.
5-18. The range officer is the chief of the range division and has overall responsibility for developing and managing the installation's training ranges. The range control officer is in charge of range operations, to include maintaining and enforcing range regulations, coordinating and scheduling daily range operations, and providing range data to using units. The range manager is responsible for range maintenance and construction.
5-19. The DOL is responsible for compliance and quality assurance (QA). The DOL is also responsible for oversight of the Hazardous Materials Control Center (HMCC), the used-solvent elimination (USE) program, POL management, hazardous materials tracking (to include MSDSs), and oversight for transportation, maintenance and ammunition storage. The DOL works closely with the Safety Office and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).
5-20. The DRMO program was established by a DOD directive. Typically, DRMOs are located at all MACOMs as a tenant activity (not depicted in Figure 5-2). They work closely with the installation's DOL and environmental offices to store, sell, or dispose of excess real property (to include HW). The DRMO is usually the designated storage facility for all HW generated at the installation. Whether or not a DRMO is on an installation, you must first coordinate your disposal requirements with your environmental office.
5-21. This office is responsible for the HAZCOM program and training that includes leaders' and supervisors' responsibility of hazards in the workplace, notification of hazards, and necessary precautions to protect soldiers/Marines. It interfaces with OSHA on safety-related issues and is responsible for installation/base-wide OSHA compliance. It provides support for managing HM, to include worker-protection guidance and inspection assistance.
5-22. The PAO is the official spokesperson for the installation and manages public involvement activities and responses (particularly in public controversy situations) in close coordination with key installation leaders. The PAO advises the commander on methods of conveying information to the public.
5-23. This office is responsible for a variety of health-related areas such as field sanitation, asbestos screening, health and safety inspections, occupational health services and compliance with OSHA regulations. This office provides required respiratory and protective support and conducts and maintains baseline medical surveys. Preventive Medicine advises the commander and staff on regional health matters within the commander's area of interest. It assists in determining the public health implications of damages to critical environmental resources. (See Chapter 7.)
5-24. The PMO personnel are responsible for evacuating and securing designated hazardous sites. They are often involved in cases where hazardous spills pose imminent health and safety problems. They may also oversee the game warden.
5-25. This department provides fire fighting support to the installation/base and conducts and maintains safety surveys. The Fire Chief is generally the designated Emergency Coordinator and maintains the Installation Spill Contingency Plan (ISCP). He is also generally the Installation On-Scene Coordinator (IOSC) who coordinates all types of emergency response efforts. Normally organized under the DPW for the Army, or the G4 for the Marines.
5-26. Each installation except satellite installations has an EQCC as directed by AR 200-1. In oversea areas, the EQCC may be organized at the military community level and includes major and satellite installations and tenant activities. The EQCC advises the installation commander concerning environmental issues and assists in formulating installation environmental policy. It consists of the installation commander, who chairs the committee; the DPW, who acts as the executive secretary; and representatives of each directorate and staff section. Tenant units are encouraged to have representatives attend the EQCC meetings.
SUPPORT PLANNING AND EXECUTION
5-27. Environmental support planning projects long-term requirements to sustain and support a large concentration of military units within a specified area for an indefinite period. This support necessitates extensive planning for environmental impact assessment, natural and cultural resources management, and restoration. Most often, this planning applies to installations in the US; however, many bases in foreign countries have similar requirements. This planning is conducted primarily though the lead of the garrison staff in support of the installation commander and the units assigned to or training at the installation.
5-28. The NEPA defines a process of environmental analysis that presents an opportunity for leaders to reduce environmental-related risk. However, given the technical requirements for a NEPA analysis and documentation, it is difficult to execute below division level. Deployments for actual military operations do not require compliance with NEPA when these activities fall under category number one, emergencies. However, deployments for nonemergency operations, such as construction projects or major training exercises within CONUS, may require a NEPA analysis. Deployments and operations OCONUS may also require analysis under the provisions of EO 12114 (see Appendix A). The level of environmental consideration depends on the scope of the action, the extent of public interest, and the potential for environmental impacts. In the first phase of the NEPA process, the commander reviews the proposed action to determine the significant environmental impacts he can anticipate and the changes that may eliminate these impacts.
5-30. As described in AR 200-2 and MCO P5090.2A, a NEPA requires the analysis of all federal agency actions, including military actions, to determine potential environmental impacts. Commanders must know the results of this analysis before they make a final decision to proceed with the action. In other words, the analysis' outcome becomes a factor in decision making. Examples of actions requiring environmental analysis under NEPA include the following: training exercises, maneuvers, and deployments in the air, on land, and on the water; flight operations, overall operation of permanent or temporary facilities; construction projects; and more.
5-31. An environmental review determines if the commander can exempt the proposed action from the environmental analysis and documentation process or if he must prepare an environmental assessment (EA) or environmental impact statement (EIS). If the commander cannot exempt the action, it requires an EA. This short analysis determines the extent of environmental impacts in a proposed action. If the proposed action will result in significant impacts, the commander prepares an EIS. (An EA is not always required before preparing an EIS.) If the EA shows the proposed action will not result in a significant impact, the commander prepares a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) and has it distributes it for public comment.
5-32. Unit training exercises on installations may also require environmental analysis. Units may obtain support from the installation/base facilities engineer, DPW, or the Installation Environmental Coordinator or his staff to determine if an EA is required.
5-33. The unit commander is the action proponent for NEPA requirements and is responsible for completing of the NEPA analysis. If the action falls within categories four and five, the analysis must also be published for public review and comment. If significant impact is possible, the commander prepares an EIS and forwards it for service HQ approval. After approval, the service HQ distributes the draft EIS to appropriate regulatory agencies. The draft EIS provides decision makers and the public with a complete and objective evaluation of the significant environmental impacts-both beneficial and adverse-resulting from the proposed action and all reasonable alternatives.
5-34. Preparation is often time consuming and costly. After the commander distributes the draft EIS for public and agency comment, he prepares the final EIS and a concise public record of decision (ROD), which explains the rationale for the decision. In any case, the commander must complete the analysis before making a final determination as to whether or not to carry out the action. Installation commanders should ensure that installation/base facilities engineers, DPW, and the Installation Environmental Coordinator have systems in place to expedite and simplify this process. These systems should include baseline data to enable the unit commander to reach a decision.
5-35. Federal law requires all installations within the US and its territories to manage natural and cultural resources entrusted to them. Installations must provide optimum public benefit and support the military mission. Installation commanders accomplish this requirement through INRMP and their Cultural Resources Management Plan (CRMP). Both INRMP and the CRMP pertain to those installations located in the US or its overseas possessions. The OEBGD and the final governing standards (FGS) include the natural resource management requirements of installations located in foreign countries.
5-36. The INRMP integrates natural resource planning in three ways. First, it consolidates all natural resources management requirements into a single planning document. Second, it integrates natural resources management with the installation's military mission. Finally, the INRMP coordinates natural resources planning for installation ecosystem features consistent with those of the surrounding area. INRMP addresses forestry, fish and wildlife, wetlands, outdoor recreation, soil resources management, training and testing requirements, and agricultural and grazing lease management. It also incorporates aspects of the CRMP, the Army's ITAM plan, the integrated pest management plan (IPMP), storm water management plans, and other plans that effect or are effected by natural resources management.
5-37. The CRMP is the installation's framework for managing cultural resources, including prehistoric sites, historic buildings, structures, and districts, traditional cultural properties, and Native American sacred sites on Army-controlled properties. It also outlines procedures for integrating cultural resources management responsibilities with mission requirements.
5-38. Both of these plans specify how installations meet specific legal requirements for natural and cultural resources management, including requirements applicable to military units and soldiers.
5-39. Installations in the US and overseas manage ranges, training areas, and facilities that are critical to unit training. DOD regulations require installations to protect the forests, wildlife, wetlands, and shorelines associated with these areas and facilities. Installations must also manage these training areas to ensure their continued availability for training. Without this ongoing effort, training opportunities would be rapidly decline with a corresponding reduction in the ability to be properly trained to perform our primary mission.
5-40. To manage these resources, installations use the ITAM program. Within ITAM, the Land Rehabilitation and Maintenance (LRAM) program conducts revegetation and erosion control to repair damaged lands and prevent soil erosion, site degradation and water pollution. The Land Condition Trend Analysis (LCTA) program conducts monitoring and biological inventories. The focus of LCTA is to monitor the effects of training on threatened and endangered species, soils, vegetation, wildlife and wetlands. ITAM provides a management and decision-making process to integrate military training and other mission requirements for land use with sound natural resource management of land. For a more focused discussion on ITAM, see AR 350-4. ITAM responsibility at installation/base level generally resides with the DPTM. However, in USAREUR, these DPTM functions may be located in the ASG or the BSB.
5-41. The IRP is a comprehensive program that identifies, investigates, and cleans up contamination at Army installations within CONUS. The IRP focuses on cleaning up contamination associated with past Army activities.
5-42. Restoration activities on an installation do not normally involve tenant units unless the area requiring remediation is in the unit's area. The unit is responsible, however, for avoiding the creation of future HW contamination sites by employing proper environmental protection practices.
5-43. Industrial operations, acquisition services, and training area management support the installation's routine missions. They also provide significant support to operations during mobilization/demobilization and deployments/redeployments. Unanticipated costs and delays can be avoided with proper environmental consideration and integrated planning functions. Installation personnel responsible for environmental protection, should inform force projection planners when coordination efforts reveal the possibility of shortfalls and limiting factors such as:
5-44. Many of these environmental issues can be resolved during the planning stages of mobilization and demobilization. After a major deployment/ redeployment, installations may have significant clean up requirements. Since the first priority of the installation during mobilization/ demobilization and deployment/redeployment missions is to provide for smooth deployment of active and reserve component units, installations must consider these environmental costs as routine operating expenses. However, installation planners should make every attempt to minimize environmental damage to avoid costs and potential legal disruptions to the mission (as well as preserving the environment).
5-45. Installation and unit planners incorporate environmental requirements into mobilization/demobilization and deployment/redeployment plans. While some federal laws have national emergency or national defense clauses that provide relief from or alternative methods; many do not. State and local regulations are less likely to contain such clauses. Planners must know which regulations contain special clauses, as well as the procedures for obtaining necessary variances or waivers.
5-46. Mobilization/demobilization plans list potential environmental problems and provide procedures to minimize their cost and impact. Additionally, units establish environmental protection measures as part of their deployment/redeployment SOPs and as training objectives in readiness exercises.
5-47. Personnel who perform cost-estimates for mobilization/demobilization and deployment/redeployment consider the constantly changing set of environmental regulations and permits. These personnel also recognize that costs will be inversely proportional to the state of deployment/redeployment training of the mobilization/demobilization units.
5-48. Many units stationed in foreign countries (i.e., Germany, Korea, or Japan) must meet similar planning requirements. Furthermore, the planning guidelines of US environmental laws and requirements seldom apply. Units stationed in foreign country follow the guidance provided in the overseas environmental baseline guidance document (OEBGD) unless a FGS is available for that specific HN; if available, takes precedence. Units performing contingency operations or combat operations follow the environmental guidance provided in the OPLAN. Early planning for base camps and their environmental considerations are essential to ensure success.
5-49. A unified command nominates service components to DOD for appointment as environmental executive agents (EEA), and DOD appoints an executive agent to prepare the FGS (may be a unified command). The executive agent normally delegates that responsibility to a major command who drafts the FGS by comparing HN environmental criteria to those contained in the DOD OEBGD. This comparison includes a review of applicable HN laws, base rights or status of forces agreements, other international agreements, and current procedures.
5-50. In foreign countries where HN environmental standards do not exist, are not applicable, or provide less protection to human health and the natural environment than the baseline guidance, US military forces follow the OEBGD standards.
5-51. Although NEPA does not apply overseas, units stationed in foreign countries must still consider the environmental impacts of major actions. EO 12114 establishes internal procedures for federal agencies, including the armed forces, to consider the significant environmental effects of their actions OCONUS. (DOD guidance associated with EO 12114 is DOD Directive [DODD] 6050.7, soon to be republished as DOD Instruction [DODI] 4715.xx). Exemptions to this requirement include armed conflict, specified contingency operations, intelligence activities, and arms transfers. Overseas theaters have published regulations to guide units regarding specific procedures in each of the countries or regions where US installations or forces are located.
UNIT AND INSTALLATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSISTANCE
5-52. Both the higher unit staff and the installation/garrison/base staff provide expertise and assistance for environmental assistance. One of the primary keys to a successful unit environmental program is to ask questions and know where to go for help. A directory of key environmental topics and corresponding POCs at both the unit and the installation/base is provided at Figure 5-4. Environmental information hotlines are also provided in Appendix G.
5-53. Refer to Chapter 6 for a discussion of how to establish a unit program and understand how the installation/garrison/base organizations support the commander in both establishing and assessing a unit program.
Figure 5-4. Environmental assistance
5-54. BASOPS are critical to the success of the unit in its day-to-day operations and especially in support of training on, or in the proximity of, the installation. Whenever possible, leaders must actively seek and use this expertise and assistance. Although the chain-of-command and unit staffs also provide support in an installation setting, the garrison staff is specifically designed to provide the required expertise to support units. When deployed in an operational status, the assistance and assets of installations may not be available to the unit. In these cases units may draw support from the organization that supports their base camp or some similar site. The higher unit staffs will increase their focus on their environmental consideration roles given the absence of an installation/ garrison/base staff. Base camps are operational facilities and not installations, although many of the same environmental requirements will exist. Refer to Appendix D for additional sources of environmental assistance.
5-55. This chapter provides the basic information, or references leaders will need to establish and assess a unit environmental program as identified in Chapter 6.
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|