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Source Notes

These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this publication. They are listed by page number. Where material appears in a paragraph, both page and paragraph number are listed. Boldface indicates the titles of historical vignettes.


Chapter 1¾ The Army and the Role of Land Power

1-1     "The Army's deployment.": "The Army Vision: Soldiers On Point for the Nation.Persuasive in Peace, Invincible in War," [Online]. Available:

1-2     "You can fly.": T.R. Fehrenbach, This Kind of War: A Study in Unpreparedness (New York: MacMillan, 1963), 427.

1-3     The Army¾ A Proud History of Full Spectrum Operations: Daniel P. Bolger, Americans at War, 1975-1986: An Era of Violent Peace (Novato, Calif.: Presidio Press, 1988), and Savage Peace: Americans at War in the 1990s (Novato, Calif.: Presidio Press, 1995); Russell F. Weigley, History of the United States Army (Bloomington: Univ. of Indiana Press, 1984).

1-10     Task Force Eagle in Bosnia: Stanley F. Cherrie, "Task Force Eagle," Military Review (Jul.-Aug. 1997) (hereafter cited as "TF Eagle") 63-72.

1-13     Technology Aids Soldiers¾ Operation Desert Hammer VI: Alice F. Edwards, "High-Tech Training in the High Desert," Army Trainer (Summer 1994): 24-33.

1-17     "The whole of military activity.": Carl von Clausewitz, On War, ed. and trans. Michael Howard and Peter Paret (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press, 1984) (hereafter cited as On War), 95.

1-18     "No man is a leader.": Anonymous, Warriors' Words: A Dictionary of Military Quotations, comp. Peter G. Tsouras (London: Arms and Armour Press, 1992) (hereafter cited as Tsouras), 236.

Chapter 2¾ Unified Action

2-1     "[S]eparate ground, sea, and.": Dwight D. Eisenhower, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1958 (Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 1959), 274.

2-2     Unified Action in Haiti: Walter E. Kretchik, Robert F. Baumann, and John T. Fishel, Invasion, Intervention, "Intervasion," A Concise History of the United States Army in Operation Uphold Democracy (Fort Leavenworth, Kans.: US Army Command and General Staff College Press, 1998) (hereafter cited as Intervasion), 27-146.

2-6     Operation Assured Response-An Example of Joint Synergy: Gil High, "Liberia Evacuation," Soldiers (Jul. 1996): 4-5; John W. Partin and Rob Rhoden, Operation Assured Response: SOCEUR's NEO in Liberia, April 1996 (Headquarters, US Special Operations Command, History and Research Office, Sep. 1997).

2-6     "Unless limited by the establishing directive.": JP 0-2, Unified Action Armed Forces (UNAAF), 24 Feb. 1995, III-11.

2-15     "The written basis for allied unity.": Dwight D. Eisenhower, The Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower, vol. 3, The War Years, ed. Alfred D. Chandler Jr. (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1970), 1420.

2-24     2-86. "DOD Principles of Information," (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 01 Apr. 1997), [Online]. Available http://www/

Chapter 3¾ Strategic Responsiveness

3-0     "Generally, he who occupies.": Sun Tzu, The Art of War, trans. Samuel B. Griffith (London: Oxford University Press, 1963), 96.

3-3     Responsive and Agile¾ Operation Uphold Democracy: Intervasion, 27-146.

3-14     Precision and Speed¾ VII Corps Deploys to Southwest Asia: "VII Corps Debarkation and Onward Movement, Desert Shield/Storm After Action Report" (Headquarters, 1st Infantry Division, Forward, May 1991), 1-49.


Chapter 4¾ Fundamentals of Full Spectrum Operations

4-2     "The art of war.": Frederick the Great in Tsouras, 337.

4-5     Close Combat at Landing Zone X-Ray: Harold G. Moore and Joseph L. Galloway, We Were Soldiers Once.And Young, Ia Drang: The Battle That Changed the War in Vietnam (New York: Random House, 1992), 89-90, 189-190.

4-7     Operational Maneuver and Fires¾ Operation Desert Storm: Robert H. Scales, Certain Victory: The US Army in the Gulf War (Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Staff, US Army, 1993; reprint, Fort Leavenworth, Kans.: US Army Command and General Staff College Press, 1994) (hereafter referred to as Certain Victory); Richard M. Swain, "Lucky War": Third Army in Desert Storm (Fort Leavenworth, Kans.: US Army Command and General Staff College Press, 1994) (hereafter referred to as Lucky War).

4-9     Field Discipline¾ Preventive Medicine in Combat: David F. Trask, The War With Spain in 1898 (New York: MacMillan, 1981), 161; Thomas Donnelly, Margaret Roth, and Caleb Baker, Operation Just Cause: The Storming of Panama (New York: Lexington Books, 1991) (hereafter referred to as Storming of Panama); John R. Ballard, Upholding Democracy: The United States Campaign in Haiti, 1994-1997 (West Port, Conn.: Praeger, 1998).

4-11     Information Modernization¾ AH-64D Longbow: Office of the Secretary of the Army (Research Development Activity), "United States Army Weapons Systems 1999" (Department of the Army, The Pentagon, 1999), 125.

4-12     "No one starts a war." Carl von Clausewitz in On War, 579.

Chapter 5¾ Battle Command

5-1     ."[It is] essential.": The Infantry Journal. Infantry in Battle, 2d ed. (Washington, D.C.: Infantry Journal, 1939; reprint, Fort Leavenworth, Kans.: US Army Command and General Staff College, 1981), 14.

5-5     "You can ask me for anything you like, except time...": Napoleon in Tsouras, 434.

5-13     Experience and Innovation on Grenada: Joint History Office, Operation Urgent Fury: The Planning and Execution of Joint Operations in Grenada 12 October-2 November 1983 (Washington, D.C.: Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1997).

5-14     Commander's Intent and Sherman's "March to the Sea": U.S. Grant, Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant, vol. 2, (New York: Charles L. Webster and Company, 1886) (hereafter cited as Grant), 130-132.

5-15     Planning Guidance¾ Grant and Thomas at Chattanooga: Grant, 53-54. Grant's memoirs reflect his rank as lieutenant general. However, he was a major general at the time.

5-18     "Modern land warfare is tough.": Frederick M. Franks, Jr., electronic mail to Director, School of Advanced Military Studies, US Army Command and General Staff College, 18 Apr. 2000 (Fort Leavenworth, Kans.: Combined Arms Research Library Archives).

Chapter 6¾ Conducting Full Spectrum Operations

6-1     "I think the time has come.": William T. Sherman in Shelby Foote, The Civil War, A Narrative, vol. 3, Red River to Appomattox (New York: Random House, 1974; reprint, New York: Vintage Books, 1986) (hereafter cited as Civil War), 715.

6-3     6-7. "no plan.extends.": Helmuth von Moltke, Moltke's Military Works, vol. 4, War Lessons, Part I, "Operative Preparations for Battle" (Berlin: Mittler, 1911), quoted in Hans Delbrück, History of the Art of War within the Framework of Political History, vol. 4, The Modern Era, trans. by Walter J. Renfroe Jr. (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1985), 425.

6-3     6-7. ".one makes plans to fit circumstances.": George S. Patton Jr., The Patton Papers, vol. 2, 1940-1945, ed. Martin Blumenson (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1974), 648.

6-4     Change of Plans at Normandy: Historical Division, Utah Beach to Cherbourg: 6 June-27 June 1944 (Washington, DC: History Division, Department of the Army, 1949).

6-8     Home Station, Predeployment, and Deployment Training: "TF Eagle", 63-64; US Army Component Command Historian Notes (USAREUR Forward, Feb.-Aug. 1996).

6-11     ".I am heartily tired.": Civil War, 185.


Chapter 7¾ Offensive Operations

7-2     "In war the only.": George S. Patton Jr. in Tsouras, 293.

7-5     Surprise¾ Coup de Main in Panama: Storming of Panama.

7-8     Audacity¾ Turning Movement at Inchon: Department of the Army, Korea 1950, (Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, 1997) (hereafter cited as Korea), 13-17, 147-151.

7-9     Desert Storm¾ A Decisive Offensive Operation: Frank N. Schubert and Theresa L. Kraus, gen. eds., The Whirlwind War: The United States Army in Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 1995), 173-205.

7-12     7-35. Operation Chromite: Korea, 13-17, 147-151; Joint Military Operations Historical Collection (15 Jul. 1997), Chapter II.

7-21     7-65. ..the 1st Cavalry Division conducted feints in the Ruqi pocket.: Certain Victory, 200-207.

Chapter 8¾ Defensive Operations

8-1     "Little minds try to defend everything.": Frederick the Great, quoted in Hermann Foertsch, The Art of Modern Warfare, trans. by Theodore W. Knauth (New York: Oskar Piest, 1940), 68.

8-10     Decisive Defensive Operations¾ Pusan, Korea: John Toland, In Mortal Combat: Korea, 1950-1953 (New York: William Morrow, 1991), 149-174; Korea, 77-84.

8-11     Shaping Defensive Operations¾ 2d SANG Brigade at Khafji: Lucky War, 192-193; Certain Victory, 190-191.

Chapter 9¾ Stability Operations

9-1     "To defend and protect US national interests.": National Military Strategy of the United States of America (1997), executive summary, [Online]. Available

9-4     Ongoing Deterrence¾ Forward Presence in Korea: John H. Tilelli Jr., "Joint/Combined Operations Are Integral to Korea's Defense," Army (Oct. 1999): 99-104.

9-7     Stability Mission at Brcko: Stars and Stripes, 28-30 Aug. 1997, European edition.

9-10     Foreign Internal Defense in El Salvador: Kimbra L. Fishel and Edwin G. Carr, "UN Peace Operations in El Salvador: The Manwaring Paradigm in a Traditional Setting," in The Savage Wars of Peace: Toward A New Paradigm of Peace Operations, ed. John T. Fishel (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998), 41-56; "FID in Central America," historical vignette prepared by US Army Special Operations Command History Office, McDill Air Force Base, Fla., Dec. 1999, (Fort Leavenworth, Kans.: Combined Arms Research Library Archives); "Historical Vignette," prepared by US Army Special Warfare Center and School, Fort Bragg, N.C., 2000, (Fort Leavenworth, Kans.: Combined Arms Research Library Archives).

9-13     Conventional Arms Control Operations¾ Task Force Eagle in Bosnia: US Army, Europe, "Operation Joint Endeavor After Action Report" (Heidelberg: Headquarters, US Army, Europe, 1997), 2 vols. (hereafter cited as "Joint Endeavor AAR").

9-16     Vietnam¾ A Case Study in US Military Involvement: Andrew F. Krepinevich Jr., The Army and Vietnam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1986), 17-99.

Chapter 10¾ Support Operations

10-0     "Instead of thinking about warfighting agencies.": A.C. Zinni, quoted in JP 3-07, Joint Doctrine for Military Operations Other Than War (16 Jun. 1995), II-1.

10-2     Refugee Processing¾ A Support Operation: Grail L. Brookshire, "Refugee Crisis: Test of Army Versatility," Army (Nov. 1991): 45; Douglas Ide, "Keeping Up With the Numbers," Soldiers (Dec. 1994): 45-46; Gena Ellis, "Refuge in America," Soldiers (Aug. 1999): 17-19.

10-3     JTF Support Hope¾ Foreign Humanitarian Assistance in Africa: Daniel Schroeder, "Lessons of Rwanda: Joint Warfighting Doctrine in Operations Other Than War," Armed Forces Journal International (Dec. 1994): 32-33; Debra Arden and Carol Sobel, "Perspective on Rwanda Support, Commander of the 21st Theater Army Area Command Assesses his Command's Support for Operation Support Hope," Army Logistician (May-Jun. 1995): 4-6.

10-6     JTF Andrew¾ Disaster Relief in the Continental United States: Gordon R. Sullivan, "Hurricane Andrew: An After-Action Report," Army (Jan. 1993): 16-22.

10-14     Measures of Effectiveness¾ Operation Support Hope: John E. Lange, "Civilian-Military Cooperation and Humanitarian Assistance: Lessons from Rwanda," Parameters (Summer 1998): 106-122.


Chapter 11¾ Information Superiority

11-2     "To guess at the intention.": Napoleon, quoted in J.F.C. Fuller, Memoirs of an Unconventional Soldier, in Tsouras, 257.

11-4     "Nations do not go to war because they think war is safe..": Lucky War, 328.

11-5     Information Superiority in the Gulf: Lucky War, Chapters 3 and 7; Michael D. Burke (XVIII Airborne Corps war plans officer), notes and personal documents; "Iraq lost the war before.": S. Bogdanov, quoted in JP 3-13, Joint Doctrine for Information Operations (9 Oct. 1998), II-15.

11-10     "You can never do too much reconnaissance.": Patton, 400.

Chapter 12¾ Combat Service Support

12-1     "Before a commander can even start thinking.": Martin Van Creveld, Supplying War: Logistics From Wallenstein to Patton (New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1977), 1.

12-11     Contractor Support¾ Operations in the Balkans: "Joint Endeavor AAR," xxii-xxiii, 126-128.

12-12     Full Spectrum Support¾ 22d Support Command in Southwest Asia: William G. Pagonis and Michael D. Krause, "Theater Logistics in the Gulf War," Army Logistician (Jul.-Aug. 1992): 2-8; William L. Brame, "Planning Desert Storm Logistics," Army Logistician (May-Jun. 1992): 16-21.

12-20     Leveraging Technology¾ Real-time CSS: Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics, US Army Europe and 7th Army, electronic mail to FM 3-0 writing team, US Army Command and General Staff College, 31 Mar. 2000 (Fort Leavenworth, Kans.: Combined Arms Research Library Archives).


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