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APPENDIX II

M18 ANTIPERSONNEL MINE


1. General

The M18 antipersonnel mine is an earlier model of the M18A1 antipersonnel mine, which is described in chapters 1 and 2. The difference between the two models may be seen by comparing figure 20 with figures 1 and 7. The M18 and the M18A1 are similar in use and functioning. The M18 antipersonnel mine is now limited standard.

2. Description

a. General. The M18 antipersonnel mine comes in two versions--with or without a peep-sight; otherwise, both versions are identical (fig. 20). The mine is a curved, rectangular, plastic case and contains a layer of composition C3 explosive. It has a fragmentation face of rectangular steel fragments. The front face containing the steel fragments is designed to produce a fan-shaped spray which can be aimed at a prescribed target area. The arrow marked on top of each mine indicates the direction of aiming. The mine has three folding-type legs and cloth tabs on each side of the mine. The legs of the mine are used to emplace it above the ground; the cloth tabs are used to tie or nail the mine to trees or posts. There is a horizontal cap well on each side of the mine. To reduce detection, the mine is covered in a camouflage pattern of green and brown fleck.

b. Detailed Description.

(1) Weight. 2 1/2 pounds.

(2) Detonator. Electric blasting cap.

(3) Explosive. 3/4 pound C-3 explosive.

(4) Firing wire. 50 feet (2-strand).

(5) Firing device. Plastic frame with metal flashlight-type electric switch. Frame holds two 1.5-volt BA-30 dry batteries.

Warning: The electrical firing device issued with the M18 CLAYMORE is not safe. Due to its construction, it may cause premature detonation of the mine. Whenever possible, the battery holder (firing device) issued with the M18 mine should be replaced by a standard M57 firing device if the battery holder is used, both firing wires should be connected to one terminal until the desired moment of detonation. Then the wires should be connected to both terminals before the batteries are inserted into the battery holder (fig. 21).

3. Effects of the M18 Mine

a. Casualty Effects (fig. 22). The M18 delivers a large number of highly effective steel fragments in a fan-shaped beaten zone approximately 2 meters high and 30 meters wide at a range of 30 meters. These fragments are moderately effective out to 40 meters.

b. Danger Area (fig. 22).

(1) Danger from fragments. The danger area consists of an 80 fan with a distance of 205 meters centered in the direction of aim of the mine.

(2) Danger from backblast and secondary missiles to the rear and sides of the mine.

(a) Distance of 0 to 8 meters from the mine. Friendly troops are prohibited in this area.

(b) Distance of 8 to 16 meters from the mine. Friendly troops must lie prone or be in foxholes.

(c) Distance of 16 to 50 meters from the mine. If all potential secondary missiles have been removed within a 1-meter radius to the rear and sides of the mine, friendly troops need only shut their eyes when the mine is detonated.

4. Installation and Disarming

a. Arming and Laying (fig. 23).

(1) Using the point of a 7.62-mm cartridge or a similar shaped object, puncture the tape at either end of the mine and form a hole in the explosive for insertion of the blasting cap.

(2) Carefully remove the special electric blasting cap from the cardboard tube and insert the cap into the hole of the explosive. Insure that firm or positive contact between the explosive charge and the blasting cap has been achieved.

(3) For emplacement above the ground, unfold the legs of the mine and press them firmly into the ground. The center leg must be placed forward of the mine to provide maximum stability.

(4) For installation on a tree or post, the mine legs should remain folded. Utilizing the holes in the cloth tabs of the mine, secure it to the tree or post by tying or nailing. For either method of installation, the arrow on the top of the mine must point at the center of the fragmentation pattern.

(5) After placement of the mine, completely unwind the 50 feet of lead wires and run them to the firing position. Camouflage the mine and wire. The lead wires may be laid on top of the ground; however, if time permits they should be buried underground. This will reduce the possibility of artillery fragments dislodging the mine and cutting the wires. Lead wires of M18 mines that are tactically employed must be twisted together and taped at two or more equidistant places. Leads must also be shunted. This can be accomplished by attaching both leads to the clip on the battery holder nearest the switch. The shunt must then be removed by detaching one of the leads and attaching it to the other clip on the battery holder before installing batteries and firing.

b. Preparation and Firing.

(1) M18 mine with M68 carrying kit.

(a) Remove the protective wood blocks from the battery holder.

(b) Carefully attach the lead wires to the clips of the battery holder. The mine is now armed.

(c) Insert two 1.5-volt flashlight batteries (BA-30) into the battery holder, insuring that the forward end of each battery is facing the clip of the holder. The switch of the battery holder must be in the OFF position. Batteries are not provided with the kit. Keep batteries dry and warm in cold weather. Use only fresh or fully charged batteries.

(d) Fire by firmly pushing the switch to ON position.

(e) If additional lead wire is required, add 3 volts of power for each 50 feet (16 meters) of wire used, utilizing additional batteries and battery holders.

(2) M18 mine with M69 carrying kit and other firing devices.

(a) The M18 mine packed in the M69 carrying kit is designed for armor use. The mine is fired by connecting the lead wires to the battery of a tank or other types of vehicles.

(b) This mine may also be fired using pull-type firing devices, nonelectric blasting caps, and a sufficient length of detonating cord to bridge the distance between the mine and the firing devices. (See para 13, chapter 3 for a detailed description.)

c. Disarming.

(1) If dry cell batteries and battery holder(s) are utilized, insure that the switches are in the OFF position, and remove lead wires from the clips of the holder.

(2) Short the lead wires by twisting the bare ends together.

(3) Carefully remove the blasting cap from the mine.

(4) Rewind lead wires and return the blasting cap and wire to the cardboard tube.

(5) Remove the mine from its installed position, fold the legs (if required), and place the mine into its original packing.



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