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Military

This chapter implements STANAG 2036.

Chapter 6

Row Mining

Row mining is a means of emplacement for tactical minefields. For example, a typical tactical minefield could contain several rows of regularly spaced mines.

USE

Row mining is not a new idea. It has been used since the beginning of modern mine warfare and is very effective. It is especially effective in support of maneuver-oriented doctrine. Row mining is faster than standard-pattern mining and improves the maneuver commander's flexibility by providing him an obstacle that requires less manpower effort.

Mines may be surface-laid or buried, and they are often laid directly from a slow-moving vehicle. This reduces the time and the personnel required to emplace a minefield. Row mining can be used as a tactical or situational obstacle. Minefields are usually emplaced at or near the FLOT, along flank AAs, to support security operations. Speed and efficiency make row mining a desirable option, and row mining supports current doctrine.

RULES

Rules governing authority, reporting, recording, and marking are generally the same for row minefields as they are for other minefields. Row mining is simply a method of laying mines.

The most important factor in row mining is the requirement for strict C 2 . Row mining is potentially the most hazardous form of mine laying. It entails vehicles and personnel moving in and around mines without the safety of a centerline strip. Leaders must place extreme emphasis on safety because the laying procedure is very rapid.

Most of the rules governing row mining are defined in STANAG 2036. A summary of those rules and some additional rules that apply are shown below.

  • Rows.

  • - There are two types of mine rows--regular and short. Short rows are described under IOE rules below.
    - Regular rows are marked and recorded. They are designated by letters (A, B, and so forth), with Row A being closest to the enemy.
    - The minimum distance between rows of AT mines is 8 meters.
    - Korea Only: The minimum distance between any row and a row containing AP mines is 15 meters.
    - The distance between the start row marker and the first mine in a row is the mine spacing for that row.
    - Start and end row markers are permanent markers and must be made of detectable material.
  • C lusters.

  • - Clusters are placed on the row centerline and directed toward the enemy side.
    - A cluster in row mining usually consists of one AT mine (Korea Only: but it may also contain AP mines).
    - Cluster composition must remain the same throughout the row.
    - Korea Only: Different types of AP mines may be used in a cluster.
    - Korea Only: The total number of mines in one cluster will not exceed five; no more than one will be an AT mine.
    - The type of AT mine may vary from one cluster to another.
    - Korea Only: A cluster of AP mines can be laid in a 2-meter semicircle on the enemy side of the baseline.
    - When a cluster contains a mine that is equipped with an AHD, the mine is armed before the AHD is armed. The cluster is not armed until all personnel are at least 60 meters away.
    - Omitted clusters do not contain mines. They are recorded on DA Form 1355 (see Chapter 8).
    - Clusters are omitted within lanes, within gaps, in areas less than 2 meters from boundaries and lanes, and in areas where the terrain (trees, rocks) prohibits emplacement.
  • IOE.

  • - The IOE is located on the enemy side of the minefield.
    - The IOE baseline must be at least 15 meters from Row A.
    - IOE mines are buried.
    - IOE short rows are labeled at start (I1) and end (I1E) points.
    - IOE short rows must be at least 15 meters apart.
  • Korea Only: Trip wires.

  • - Trip wires can be used in regular rows, but only one mine per cluster can be actuated by a trip wire.
    - No more than two trip wires can be used on a mine.
    - Trip wires are not considered AHDs.
    - Trip wires must be at least 2 meters from a minefield lane, a cluster, another trip wire, an IOE short row, or a minefield perimeter fence.
    - Trip wires can only be used with AP fragmentation mines.
  • Lanes.

  • - Lanes are sited before laying begins. Lane locations should not be obvious.
    - Clusters must be at least 2 meters from lane edges.
    - The number of lanes must be sufficient to ensure that no one lane is overused and turned into an obvious track.
    - Sufficient mines must be stockpiled so that the responsible unit can seal lanes suspected of being located by the enemy.
  • General.

  • - The spacing between mines or clusters can vary from 4 to 10 meters but must remain constant within the row.
    - Mines and clusters must be at least 15 meters from the perimeter fence.
    - If the distance between a mine or a cluster and any turning point is less than the spacing for that row, omit that mine or cluster. The mine immediately following a turning point is always located at the mine spacing for that row.
    - The minefield has two landmarks located to the rear, never to the extreme side or front.
    - Global-positioning systems (GPSs) can only be used to determine the coordinates for minefield landmarks and reference points (RPs).

WARNING

Do not use GPSs to chart or record minefield perimeter coordinates or to determine safe routes through or around existing minefields.


    - If landmarks are more than 200 meters away from the last row or are out of the direct line of sight, intermediate row markers or landmarks are placed at least 75 meters from the last end row marker.
    - Landmarks can be used for more than one minefield. This must be recorded in the remarks block of DA Form 1355.
    - Back azimuths are not used to record the minefield.
    - Measurements are in meters.

LOGISTICS

CALCULATIONS

To simplify the calculation process, a minefield requirements computation work sheet (Figure 6-1) has been developed. This work sheet is provided to the platoon leader or sergeant as a step-by-step guide to the mathematics involved in the logistical computation process. Properly completed, the work sheet provides the number of mines to order (by type), the number of regular strips to be emplaced, cluster composition, the estimated man-hours required to install the minefield, the amount of fencing and marking material required, the number of truckloads required to carry the mines, and the number of rolls of engineer tape required.

Step-by-step procedures for completing the work sheet are shown in Figure 6-2. Each step is explained in the example to facilitate the understanding of the logic behind the calculations.

Use the following steps to determine the number of AT mines required for a row minefield when not using the standard row minefields discussed later in this chapter. Round the resulting numbers up to the nearest whole number.

Step 1. Determine the number of mines required.

density x front = number of mines

Step 2. Determine the number of mines per row.

front / mine spacing = number of mines per row

Step 3. Determine the number of rows.

number of mines / number of mines per row = number of rows

Step 4. Determine the actual number of mines.

number of mines per row x number of rows = number of mines

Step 5. Determine the number of mines to request (includes a 10 percent resource factor).

number of mines x 1.1 = number of mines to request

Step 6. Determine the number of vehicle loads by using Table 2-8.

Step 7. Determine the fencing and marking material required.

Sample Problem: Your platoon has been tasked to emplace a 400-meter row minefield with a density of 0.5-0-0 (AT-AP fragmentation-AP blast). You have decided to space the mines 6 meters apart. Determine the number of M15 mines to order and the number of 5-ton dump trucks (with sideboards) required to deliver the mines.

  • Step 1. 0.5 400 meters = 200 mines
  • Step 2. 400 6 = 66.6 = 67 mines per row
  • Step 3. 200 67 = 2.98 = 3 rows
  • Step 4. 67 3 = 201 mines
  • Step 5. 201 1.1 = 221.1 = 222 mines
  • Step 6. 222 204 = 1.08 = 2 5-ton trucks
  • Step 7.

  • - Concertina: ([400 2] + [200 2] + 160) 1.4 = 1,904 meters of concertina
    - Pickets: 1,904 15 = 126.9 = 127 pickets
    - Signs: 127 pickets = 127 signs

Figure 6-1. Minefield requirements computation work sheet

Figure 6-1. Minefield requirements computation work sheet (continued)

Figure 6-1. Minefield requirements computation work sheet (continued)

Figure 6-1. Minefield requirements computation work sheet (continued)

Figure 6-2. Step-by-step procedures for completing the minefield requirements computation work sheet

Figure 6-2. Step-by-step procedures for completing the minefield requirements computation work sheet (continued)

Figure 6-2. Step-by-step procedures for completing the minefield requirements computation work sheet (continued)

Figure 6-2. Step-by-step procedures for completing the minefield requirements computation work sheet (continued)

Figure 6-2. Step-by-step procedures for completing the minefield requirements computation work sheet (continued)

Figure 6-2. Step-by-step procedures for completing the minefield requirements computation work sheet (continued)

Continue Chapter 6



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