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Chapter 4

Special-Purpose Munitions

Special-purpose munitions are hand-emplaced and used to create an expedient obstacle, enhance existing ones, and attack specific types of targets. The commander can employ these munitions to support his scheme of maneuver, to mass firepower, and to disrupt or destroy enemy forces in depth. Special considerations must be made in the planning process to effectively employ special-purpose munitions.

M86 PURSUIT-DETERRENT MUNITION

The M86 pursuit-deterrent munition ( PDM) (Figure 4-1) is wedge-shaped and is similar in configuration and functioning to the ADAM. The PDM is a manually activated mine. It has an arming time of 25 seconds and can deploy up to seven trip wires.

Figure 4-1. M86 PDM

Once the PDM is armed, disturbing it or any of its trip wires will initiate the munition. The munition contains a liquid propellant that rests under a kill mechanism and propels upward approximately 2.5 meters. The kill mechanism detonates in the air and propels fragments in all directions. If the munition is not disturbed, it will self-destruct in 4 hours.

The PDM is used as a deterrent by special-operations forces (SOF) and in operations where units may be pursued by an enemy force.

See Appendix B for a description of PDM components.

M18A1 CLAYMORE

The M18A1 claymore munition (Figure 4-2) is a fragmentation munition that contains 700 steel balls and 682 grams of composition C4 explosive. It weighs 1.6 kilograms and can be detonated by command (Korea Only: or trip wire). It is activated by electric or nonelectric blasting caps that are inserted into the detonator well. The claymore projects a fan-shaped pattern of steel balls in a 60-degree horizontal arc, at a maximum height of 2 meters, and covers a casualty radius of 100 meters. The forward danger radius for friendly forces is 250 meters. The backblast area is unsafe in unprotected areas 16 meters to the rear and sides of the munition. Friendly personnel within 100 meters to the rear and sides of the munition should be in a covered position to be safe from secondary missiles. If the M18A1 is employed in a minefield for 72 hours or more, the minefield must be fenced on all sides.

Figure 4-2. M18A1 claymore

When employing the M18A1 claymore with other munitions or mines, separate the munitions by the following minimum distances:

  • 50 meters in front of or behind other M18A1s.
  • 3 meters between M18A1s that are placed side by side.
  • 10 meters from AT or fragmentation AP munitions.
  • 2 meters from blast AP munitions.

SELECTABLE LIGHTWEIGHT ATTACK MUNITION

The selectable lightweight attack munition (SLAM) (Figure 4-3) is a multipurpose munition with an antitamper feature. The SLAM is compact and weighs only 1 kilogram, so it is easily portable. The SLAM is intended for use against APCs, parked aircraft, wheeled or tracked vehicles, stationary targets (such as electrical transformers), small fuel-storage tanks (less than 10,000-gallon), and ammunition storage facilities. The EFP warhead can penetrate 40 millimeters of homogeneous steel.

Figure 4-3. SLAM

The SLAM has two models--one is self-neutralizing (M2) and the other is self-destructing (M4):

  • The M2 is solid green and has no labels, brands, or other distinguishing marks. This device is used by SOF and is not available to other units.
  • The M4 is green with a black warhead (EFP) face. This device is normally used by units designated as light, airborne, air assault, crisis response, and rapid deployment.

See Appendix B for a description of major SLAM components.

OPERATING MODES

The SLAM has four possible modes of detonation--bottom attack, side attack, timed demolition, and command detonation.

Bottom Attack

The SLAM has a built-in magnetic sensor, so it can be used as a magnetic- influenced munition against trucks and light armored vehicles (Figure 4-4). It can be concealed along trails and roads where target vehicles operate and can be camouflaged with dry leaves, grass, and so forth without affecting EFP performance. Mud, gravel, water, and other debris that fill the EFP cup have minimal impact on EFP formation and effectiveness as long as the debris does not extend beyond the depth of the EFP cup. The magnetic sensor is designed to trigger detonation when it senses a vehicle's overpass. For the EFP to form properly, it needs a minimum of 13 centimeters from the point of emplacement to the target. The bottom-attack mode is active when the selector switch is set to 4, 10, or 24 HOURS and the passive infrared sensor (PIRS) cover is in place. The SLAM will self-destruct (M4) or self-neutralize (M2) if the selected time expires before the SLAM is detonated by a vehicle.

Figure 4-4. SLAM in bottom-attack mode

Side Attack

The SLAM is equipped with a PIRS that was specifically developed for the side-attack mode (Figure 4-5). The PIRS detects trucks and light armored vehicles by sensing the change in background temperature when vehicles cross in front of the PIRS port. The PIRS is directional and aligned with the EFP when the device is aimed. The side-attack mode is active when the SLAM selector switch is set to 4, 10, or 24 HOURS and the PIRS cover is removed to expose the PIRS. The SLAM will self-destruct (M4) or self-neutralize (M2) if the selected time expires before it is detonated by a vehicle.

Figure 4-5. SLAM in side-attack mode

Timed Demolition

The SLAM's built-in timer will trigger detonation at the end of a selected time (Figure 4-6). The timed-demolition mode is active when the SLAM selector switch is set to 15, 30, 45, or 60 MINUTES. In this mode, the magnetic sensor and the PIRS are inoperable, and the SLAM will detonate after the selected time has expired.

Figure 4-6. SLAM in timed-demolition mode

Command Detonation

This mode provides manual warhead initiation using standard military blasting caps and a priming adapter (Figure 4-7). The command-detonation capability bypasses the SLAM's fuse and safing and arming (S&A) assembly.

Figure 4-7. SLAM in command-detonation mode

ANTITAMPER FEATURE

The SLAM has an antitamper feature that is only active in the bottom- and side-attack modes. The SLAM will detonate when an attempt is made to change the selector switch's position after arming.

M93 HORNET

The M93 Hornet (Figure 4-8) is an AT/antivehicular off-route munition made of lightweight material (35 pounds) that one person can carry and employ. The Hornet is a nonrecoverable munition that is capable of destroying vehicles by using sound and motion detection methods. It will automatically search, detect, recognize, and engage moving targets by using top attack at a standoff distance up to 100 meters from the munition. It is employed by combat engineers, rangers, and SOF.

Figure 4-8. M93 Hornet

The RCU is a hand-held encoding unit that interfaces with the Hornet when the remote mode is selected at the time of employment. After encoding, the RCU can be used to arm the Hornet, reset its SD times, or destroy it. The maximum operating distance for the RCU is 2 kilometers.

High winds, heavy rain, snow, ice, extreme cold, and extreme heat reduce the Hornet's ability to detect targets at maximum range. Radio-frequency (RF) jamming devices (such as the hand-emplaced, expandable jammer [HEXJAM]), limit the Hornet's communication capabilities if they are placed in the munition field, but they will not affect the Hornet's ability to engage targets and will not damage the system. RF jamming devices affect the remote arming of current Hornet systems using the MOPMS RCU, and they will affect future Hornet's two-way communications capability with the Centurion remote control device.

NOTE: The future Hornet will introduce an entirely new concept to the combined arms team. It will possess a two-way communication capability that allows it to be remote-controlled and report its status and location. In its prearmed mode, the future Hornet can be recovered and redeployed on the battlefield. It will report enemy vehicles and categorize them by type. It can be ordered or programmed to develop coordinated attacks with other minefields and direct- and indirect-fire weapons. The future Hornet will have an inactivation feature that allows freedom of maneuver through the munition field or obstacle while still providing near real-time intelligence and situational awareness.

See Appendix B for a description of Hornet components.

EMPLOYMENT CONSIDERATIONS

The Hornet's active battery pack is inserted during prearming and has an estimated life of 4 hours. The active battery pack powers the munition from the time it is inserted until the end of the safe-separation time, when the built-in reserve battery is activated. To prevent munitions from becoming duds, do not prearm them too early. Allow adequate time for travelling to the obstacle site, emplacing mines, throwing arming switches, and expiration of safe-separation times.

Once the Hornet is armed and the self-test is performed, the munition will remain active until its SD time expires or until it is encountered. The SD time (4 hours, 48 hours, 5 days, 15 days, or 30 days) is determined by the mission and the commander's intent. The munition will self-detonate after the SD time has expired.

Hornet munitions have an employed life of 60 days in the prearmed mode (remote arming) and 30 days in the armed mode. If the temperature exceeds 100F, the employed life drops to 15 days in the prearmed mode and 30 days in the armed mode.

EMPLOYMENT ROLES

Combat engineers or maneuver forces under engineer supervision emplace Hornets in close operations; SOF or rangers emplace Hornets in deep operations. Hornets will be employed throughout the entire depth of the battle space to support Army operations.

Close Operations

In close operations, the Hornet can be--

  • Used to fix the enemy and weaken it along its AA.
  • Emplaced as an offensive-support weapon system because of its quick emplacement time and wide attack area.
  • Employed rapidly along exposed flanks during a maneuver as a situational obstacle to disrupt the enemy's counterattacks.
  • Used as a stand-alone tactical obstacle or as a reinforcement to conventional obstacles.
  • Used to disrupt and delay the enemy, allowing long-range weapons to engage more effectively.

Deep Operations

In deep operations, the Hornet can be--

  • Emplaced along key routes in gauntlet obstacles to disrupt and delay threat second-echelon forces, resupply operations, and key lines of communication (LOC).
  • Used at C 2 and logistics sites to disrupt enemy operations.

Rear Operations

In rear operations, the Hornet can be emplaced (unarmed) along key routes in preparation for possible retrograde operations.

Early-Entry Operations

In early-entry operations, the Hornet can be--

  • Used as an additional antiarmor weapon to supplement light forces.
  • Used along high speed AAs in gauntlet obstacles to buy time and space.

TACTICAL EMPLACEMENT

There are four basic emplacement scenarios for the Hornet.

Conventional Minefield Reinforcement

The Hornet can be used to reinforce a conventional turn, block, or fix minefield (Figure 4-9).

Figure 4-9. Hornet reinforcing a conventional minefield

Platoon engineers emplace the conventional minefield first, and then they traverse the safe lane that is perpendicular to the minefield. The Hornets are employed in two staggered rows, spaced 100 meters apart, 50 to 100 meters from the front edge (on the enemy side) of the conventional minefield. It is also recommended that a row of Hornets be placed 50 meters behind the minefield to reduce the enemy's breaching capability. (This row will be emplaced after the safe lane is closed.) The emplacing vehicles work toward the safe lane.

Two squads employ Hornets in two rows of ten each. One or more soldiers provide security. Under the supervision of a noncommissioned officer (NCO), four soldiers in each squad vehicle start prearming the Hornets, if necessary. They--

  • Rotate the handle.
  • Remove the cover.
  • Insert the active battery pack and verify functionality via a solid status light.
  • Reinstall the active battery-pack cover.
  • Select the SD time.
  • Encode the Hornet with the M71 RCU and verify functionality via a flashing status light.
  • Reinstall the cover.

Each emplacement vehicle moves to the first Hornet emplacement site in each row. The emplacing soldier and the arming soldier dismount. The emplacing soldier is handed a Hornet from the vehicle. He emplaces the Hornet at the designated site and returns to the vehicle.

The arming soldier rotates the handle on the Hornet, removes the cover and the safety and handling (S&H) band, rotates the SD switch to U, and pushes the arm switch to ARM. He then returns to the vehicle, taking the cover and the S&H band with him. The vehicle travels to the next Hornet emplacement site.

After all the Hornets in the two leading rows have been emplaced and armed, the emplacing vehicles exit through the safe lane and usually secure it with a MOPMS. The emplacement vehicles must be at least 475 meters (safe standoff distance) from the nearest Hornet within 30 minutes. Before sending a remote arming signal, vehicles must wait at least 36 minutes after the arming switch is thrown on the last Hornet emplaced. If a rear row is required, it is emplaced at this time. The Hornets are then remotely armed with the M71 RCU, when required. They are now capable of covering the minefield by fire and engaging threat tracked vehicles.

Scatterable Minefield Reinforcement

The Hornet can be used to reinforce a Volcano or MOPMS turn, block, or fix minefield (Figure 4-10). Hornet munitions are emplaced, using the same procedures as above, before the Volcano or MOPMS minefield is emplaced.

Figure 4-10. Hornet reinforcing a Volcano minefield

To ensure that the Volcano dispensing vehicle has sufficient time to reach the safe standoff distance (475 meters), Volcano dispensing should start no later than 30 minutes (minus the Volcano dispensing time) after the first Hornet is armed. This allows Hornet emplacing squads to be finished or nearly finished before the Volcano dispenser begins emplacing the minefield.

Area-Disruption Obstacle

When the X-pattern is employed, the Hornet is very effective as a disrupting obstacle (Figure 4-11). An area-disruption obstacle is employed to disrupt the enemy's approach prior to the start of the direct-fire battle. It causes disruption and attrition of the advancing threat force and encourages follow-on forces to seek an alternate route. Therefore, multiple area-disruption obstacles will typically be employed to adequately cover the cross-country AA. This requires coordinated action among multiple squads.

Figure 4-11. Hornet area-disruption obstacle

An engineer platoon emplaces a Hornet area-disruption obstacle. The obstacle typically consists of 20 Hornets (five clusters of four Hornets each) employed in an X-pattern over a 1- by 1-kilometer area. Individual Hornets are emplaced 100 meters apart. Emplacing this obstacle must be done as a dispense-and-roll operation to ensure that the emplacing vehicles can reach the safe standoff distance (475 meters) from any armed Hornets.

Area-disruption obstacles are normally armed by remote, but they can be manually armed under the following conditions:

  • METT-T requires rapid emplacement and arming.
  • Terrain reconnaissance determines that there are no major impediments (rough terrain, vegetation) to maneuver.
  • Emplacement is done during daylight hours (mission-oriented protective posture [MOPP] level 0 only).

Hornets are prearmed the same as above. Two squads lay the Hornets in unison, starting with the two emplacement sites closest to the enemy. Each squad drives in a straight line, crossing paths at the middle of the X, and emplaces ten Hornets.

A soldier in the back of each emplacing vehicle throws the arming switch and sets the Hornet down or drops it off (base down) the back of the vehicle. After all the Hornet clusters are emplaced, squad vehicles quickly travel to the 475-meter safe standoff distance (no further than 2 kilometers) to prepare for remote arming. Hornets can be remotely armed 36 minutes after the arming switch is thrown on the last Hornet emplaced. If manual arming is used, Hornets automatically arm at the end of their safe-separation time (5 to 6 minutes after the arming switch is thrown).

Gauntlet Obstacle

Hornet gauntlet obstacles (Figure 4-12) are emplaced by an engineer platoon and are very effective in constricted terrain along the enemy's AA and at choke points. A Hornet gauntlet typically consists of 40 to 50 Hornets employed in a series of clusters (Figure 4-13). Each cluster contains 3 to 6 Hornets. The Hornets in each cluster are emplaced at 50-meter intervals, perpendicular to the road centerline, on alternating sides of the road/AA, and 25 to 40 meters (depending on the terrain and the vegetation) off the side of the road/AA. The distance between clusters varies from 750 to 2,000 meters so that the advancing threat force is kept guessing about when they will encounter the next cluster.

Figure 4-12. Hornet gauntlet obstacle (one cluster)

Figure 4-13. Hornet gauntlet obstacle (platoon)

Before laying any Hornets, the munitions are prearmed as above. Soldiers also set the target switch to HVY for clusters closest to the enemy, so that the Hornets will only engage heavy tracked vehicles. The intent is to make threat forces commit to a route they perceive to be clear.

Hornets are emplaced beginning on the friendly side of the cluster. The first engineer squad emplaces Hornet munitions beginning with the cluster closest to the enemy. The emplacement vehicle drives even with the first Hornet emplacement site. The emplacing soldier dismounts, and a soldier in the vehicle hands him a Hornet. The emplacing soldier then proceeds to the Hornet emplacement site. The vehicle travels to a point even with each subsequent emplacement site. A soldier deploys at each emplacing site to lay one of the remaining Hornet munitions in the cluster. The vehicle then turns around and stops even with the last Hornet (on the enemy side) in the cluster.

Upon reaching the Hornet employment location, each emplacing soldier removes the cover and the S&H band, rotates the SD switch to U, and on the command (audible or visual signal) of the NCOIC, pushes the arm switch to ARM. Once the Hornets' arming switches are thrown, soldiers return to the road, taking the covers and the S&H bands with them, and wait to be picked up by the emplacement vehicle. After all the soldiers are in the emplacing vehicle, the driver quickly travels to the safe standoff distance (475 meters). The Hornet munitions in the first cluster will arm at the end of the safe-separation time (5 to 6 minutes).

The squad repeats the emplacement process for the next Hornet cluster in the gauntlet, taking care not to emplace any Hornets or drive within 475 meters of the previous cluster. Each squad in the platoon typically emplaces three clusters in the Hornet gauntlet, or 9 to 18 total Hornets.

Figure 4-14 shows Hornet emplacement in the battle space. The example used is in support of a defensive position where Volcano mines are used as tactical obstacles.

Figure 4-14. Hornet-enhanced turn-and fix-obstacle groups

Deep-Battle Interdiction Weapon

SOF or ranger units emplace Hornet munitions in the deep battle area as interdiction weapons. A typical mission requires a unit ranging in size from a six-man team to an entire company. The number of Hornets carried by the unit depends on the mission and the mode of insertion (vehicle, aircraft, or dismounted troops); a man can normally carry only one Hornet. Hornets are typically used to support a raid against an enemy position or complex and at bridges or choke points along high-speed AAs used by advancing second-echelon forces or for resupply. In these roles, the Hornets are employed similar to the clusters in a gauntlet obstacle.

Camouflage and Concealment

The best camouflage and concealment for the Hornet is tall grass and brush. The Hornet can be partially buried if the terrain or the vegetation does not provide effective natural camouflage and concealment. Placing the Hornet in a hole degrades its performance, so it should only be done when Hornets cannot be covered by fires or protected from tampering by dismounted enemy. The following conditions must be met:

  • The depth of the hole must not exceed 4 inches, because the acoustic sensors must be above ground level.
  • The hole must not restrict the Hornet's ability to rotate and tilt its body and to fire the sublet. To meet this requirement, the hole must be at least 36 inches wide and flat enough to support the munition. Although the Hornet should be placed on a flat surface if possible, it can operate on slopes up to 15 degrees.

Munitions placed at ground level should be no closer to obstructions than the distances shown in Table 4-1.

Table 4-1. Hornet minimum emplacement distances

Maximum
Obstruction Height
Minimum Employment
Distance from Obstruction
1 m
3 m
2.5 m
5 m
6.5 m
15 m
25 m
25 m

When the Hornet is emplaced and concealed, remove all indicators of excess soil and camouflage material before performing the arming sequence.

RECORDING AND MARKING

When the Hornet munition field is completed, the OIC will identify an NCO to be the recorder. The NCO will collect data from the NCOICs of the emplacing squads and complete DA Form 1355 as outlined in Chapter 8. The OIC will ensure that the DA Form 1355 is completed timely and accurately.

Marking the Hornet munition field will be completed as prescribed in Chapter 2. The fence will be no closer than 150 meters from the nearest Hornet munition. Marking must be completed before emplacing the munitions.



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