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Appendix G

Countermine Data

This appendix provides a compilation of countermine information to assist commanders in the decision-making process for countermine operations.

BREACHING ASSETS VERSUS THREAT OBSTACLES

Tables G-1 and G-2 provide general guidance on the effect of breaching assets versus threat obstacles.

FOREIGN MINE DATA

Table G-3 through G-7 provide foreign mine characteristics.

FOREIGN MINEFIELD EMPLACEMENT DATA

Table G-8 provides foreign minefield emplacement data. Information is presented in the probability of occurrence based on historical data.

FOREIGN MINE DELIVERY SYSTEMS

Table G-9 contains characteristics of foreign mine delivery systems.

NOTE: Blank areas in the above tables indicate that the information is not applicable or that it was unavailable when this manual was published.

Table G-1. Mounted breaching assets versus threat obstacles

Asset
Track-Width
AT Mine
Full-Width AT
Mine
Side-Atk
AT Mine
Cmd-Det
Blast Mine
AT Ditch and
Other Gaps
Wire
Obstacles

Remarks
MCB with dog-bone assembly Is more than 90 percent effective to 12 inches deep at speeds less than 10 kph (soil dependent) Do not use against magnetic- influence mines; is more than 99 percent effective against tilt-rod mines Do not use Do not use May be effective at filling in some shallow gaps or trenches Do not use The MCB provides almost 100 percent clearance of simple pressure-fused AT mines when used with the MICLIC.

The MCB has minimal impact on the M1's maneuverability and speed when not plowing.

The main gun should be traversed to the side to prevent damage in the event of a mine detonation when plowing.

The reduction site should be relatively flat and free of large rocks and other obstructions.

Plowing operations should begin about 100 m short of the suspected minefield and continue 100 m past its suspected end (typically 2 to 2 1/2 minutes to cover 300 to 400 m overall).

Plowing operations should be performed in a straight line to keep the vehicle out of uncleared ground.

Fifteen percent of pressure-fused AT-mine encounters across the MCB's width can be expected to detonate under the skid shoe, probably disabling the blade.

The MCB is vulnerable to coupled mines and may be stopped by log-hurdle obstacles laid within a minefield as part of a complex obstacle.

A second plow should not be used to clear the center of the lane because this will simply push mines into the area cleared by the first plow.

MCB with IDA See above Is effective against magnetic-influence mines; is more than 99 percent effective against tilt-rod mines Do not use Do not use See above Do not use These AT mines are fitted with magnetic-influence fuses and AHDs may disable the blade.

Dismounts should expect to encounter some pressure-fused AP mines in the breached lane that may be missed by the blade.

The MCB clears a 180 inch-wide lane but leaves a 26 inch-wide area uncleared of simple pressure-fused mines and a 54 inch-wide area uncleared of double-impulse mines (under the skid shoes) in the middle of the breached lane.

The berms and furrows left by the MCB aid in immediately marking the breached lane.

Live mines remain in both berms and may roll back into the cleared lane. Over time, these may vibrate free and roll back into the breached lane.

MCR (including Panther) with dog-bone assembly Is more than 90 percent effective to 12 inches deep at speeds less than 5 to 15 kph (soil dependent)

Has reduced effectiveness against some (mostly Italian) blast-hardened mines

Do not use against double-impulse mines

Do not use against magnetic-influence mines; is more than 99 percent effective against tilt-rod mines Do not use Do not use Do not use Do not use Normally used to detect the leading edge of a conventionally laid tactical minefield and to proof lanes/routes cleared by other means.

Use caution when crossing on an AVLB.

May become stuck or ineffective in muddy conditions.

The MCR is vulnerable to coupled mines.

The MCR is designed to withstand up to two detonations per side.

The MCR clears a 160 inch-wide lane but leaves a 72 inch-wide area uncleared in the middle of the breached lane. NOTE: The M113 also has 72 inches between tracks and must use extreme caution when following the MCR.

MCR with IDA See above Is effective against magnetic-influence mines; is more than 99 percent effective against tilt-rod mines Do not use Do not use Do not use Do not use Multiple rollers are required to provide the overlap necessary for proofing the route's entire width when the MCR is used for proofing during route-clearance operations.

Vehicle speed is limited to 5 to 15 kph.

The main gun should be traversed to the side to prevent damage in the event of a mine detonation when rolling a suspected mined area.

The IDA may be damaged by detonated mines.

Table G-2. Dismounted breaching assets versus threat obstacles

Asset
Pressure-Fused AP Mine
Trip-Wire/Break Wire-Fused AP Mine
Influence-
Fused AP Mine
Cmd-Det Blast Mine
Wire
Obstacles
Remarks
APOBS Effectively clears 95 percent, including blast-resistant types Effectively cuts 99 percent of trip wires in its path Is ineffective Is ineffective Clears a footpath Provides a 0.6- x 45-m footpath from a 25-m standoff

Can be deployed by two men in 2 minutes

Consists of two manpack units weighing approximately 55 lbs each

Bangalore torpedo Effectively clears 85 percent of simple pressure-fused mines; is less effective against blast-hardened mines Effectively cuts 99 percent of trip wires in its path Is ineffective Is ineffective Clears a footpath Provides a 0.6- x 15-m footpath

Can be deployed by a squad in 5 minutes

Consists of ten 1.5-m-long sections weighing 13 lbs each

Is ineffective against AT mines

Grapnel hook and WLGH Is ineffective Effectively clears 99 percent of trip wires/break wires in a single pass Is ineffective; however, it may snag the wires between the control unit and its mines Is ineffective; however, it may snag the wires between the observer and his mines Is somewhat effective at clearing trip-wire-fused mines integrated with wire obstacles Has a range of 80 to 100 m when launched

Can be thrown 15 to 20 m when hand thrown

Must consider the lethal range/radius (up to 90 m in some cases) of fragmenting AP mines that may be encountered, and select a covered position or move back an adequate distance before pulling the grapnel

Helps increase confidence by grappling an area several times

Is hampered by thick vegetation/overhead obstructions which may reduce the range/effectiveness of the WLGH

Probe Is effective at locating all buried mines; however, extreme caution should be used when probing for small mines (less than 3-inch dia) and sensitive mines (more than 10 lbs actuating force) Is ineffective; the soldier must rely on clearance by other means and visual detection Do not use Ensure that observer is neutralized before approaching Is ineffective  
Wire cutter Is ineffective Do not cut a slack wire until both ends have been checked if break-wire-fused mines may be present; do not cut taught trip wires until both ends have been checked for tension-release FDs Do not use Ensure that observer is neutralized before approaching Is effective; sound can be minimized by wrapping the wire with a cloth before cutting it  
Gunfire Is effective against surface-laid munitions Is effective against surface-laid munitions Do not use Is effective against surface-laid munitions Is ineffective Is used as a last resort

Is a relatively slow method for clearing visually detected ordnance

Ensures protection of weapons operator

Works better with larger caliber weapons (up to 25 mm), incendiary ammo works best

May be the only option open to artillery, MP, and transportation units for dealing with SCATMINEs in the absence of engineers and reduction assets

MiniFlail Is effective against simple pressure-fused AP mines

Is less effective against blast-hardened AP mines

Is effective Is ineffective Is armored against fragmenting threats

Is vulnerable to command-detonated blast mines

Do not use Do not use if the presence of AT mines is suspected, because AT mines can destroy the MiniFlail.

Can clear at a rate of about 1,500 square meters per hour

AN/PSS-12 Is very effective at finding metallic mines

Is less effective against low-metal mines

Is effective at finding metallic trip wires and the fragmenting mines to which they are normally attached

Cannot detect monofilament fishing line used for trip wires; it is undetectable by the AN/PSS-12. Visual detection and other neutralization means should be used first.

Do not use Ensure that observer is neutralized before approaching Is ineffective Is less effective against low-metal mines and in areas contaminated with metal fragments (artillery, mortar, small arms) or areas that have heavily mineralized soils
Demolitions Place at least a 1-pound charge within 6 inches of simple pressure-fused mines

Ensure that the charge is placed within an inch of blast-hardened mines

Place at least a 1-lb charge within 6 inches of the mine after the mine at the end of a trip wire has been located

Can use elevated charges if necessary against the claymore and stake-type mines

Do not use Ensure that observer is neutralized before approaching

Can use elevated charges if necessary against claymore-type mines

Is effective when used to make an improvised bangalore torpedo  
Blast overshoes May be effective against very small (up to 1 oz of explosive) mines

Is ineffective against mines with more than 1-oz explosive weight

Can reduce casualty severity against fragmenting mines Can reduce casualty severity against fragmenting mines Ensure that observer is neutralized before approaching

Can reduce casualty severity

Is ineffective  
IBASIC Will protect personnel near the individual who detonates a pressure-fused AP mine Can reduce casualty severity against fragmenting mines Can reduce casualty severity against fragmenting mines Ensure that observer is neutralized before approaching

Can reduce casualty severity

Is ineffective  
 

Table G-3. Foreign track-width AT mines

Origin
Mechanically Planted
Scatterable
Metallic
Non-metallic
Simple Pressure
Double Impulse
Blast Hardened
AHD
Russia TM-46/57/62 PTM-1 TM-46/57/62M TM-62B/D/P TM-46/57/62   TM-46/57 TMN-46
China Type 72 Type 84B Type 72 Type 72 Type 84B Type 72 Type 72  
Yugo TMM-1   TMM-1 TMA-1/2/3/4/5 TMA-1/2/5   TMA-3/4 TMM-1, TMA-1/2/3/4/5
Czech PT-MI-K, PT-MI-BA III   PT-MI-K, PT-MI-D PT-MI-BA II/III PT-MI-BA III, PT-MI-D   PT-MI-K, PT-MI-BA II PT-MI-K, PT-MI-D
Italy VS-1.6/2.2, TC-.6/6, SB-81 VS-1.6, SB-81   VS-1.6/2.2, TC-.6/6, SB-81     VS-1.6/2.2, TC-3.6/6, SB-81 VS-1.6/2.2
France M-51, M-52     M-51, M-52 M-51, M-52     M-51
UK L9 Barmine, MK-7   MK-7 L9 Barmine L9 Barmine, MK-7 L9 Barmine, MK-7   L9 Barmine
Ger PM-60, DM-11   DM-21 PM-60, DM-11 PM-60, DM-11, DM-21     PM-60, DM-11, DM-21
 

Table G-4. Foreign full-width AT mines

Origin
Mechanically Planted
Scatterable
Tilt Rod
Magnetic Influence
Seismic Influence
Coupled
AHD
Russia TM-62/72/89 PTM-3 TMK-2 TM-62/72/89 TM-62/72/89   TM-62/72/89
China     Type 84C Type 84A     Type 84A
Yugo TMRP-6 KB-2 TMRP-6 TMRP-6, KB-2     TMRP-6, KB-2
Czech     PT-MI-P        
France HPD series Lance M-51, M-52, Model 1954 HPD series   Model 1953 HPD series, M-51, Lance
Hungary UKA-63   UKA-63       UKA-63
Italy VS-HCT/HCT-2, SB-MV VS-SATM1, VS-HCT   VS-HCT/HCT-2, SB-MV, VS-SATM1   Fuse option VS-HCT/HCT-2, SB-MV, VS-SATM1
Sweden FFV-028     FFV-028   Fuse 15 FFV-028
UK L9 Barmine HB-876 L9 Barmine, MK-7 L9 Barmine, HB-876     L9 Barmine, MK-7, HB-876
Germany DM-31 AT-2, MIFF   DM-31, AT-2, MIFF     DM-31, AT-2, MIFF
Romania           MC-71  
 

Table G-5. Foreign side-attack AT mines

Origin
Command
Break Wire
Influence
AHD
Russia MON-100/200/500, TM-83 LMG TM-73/83  
Yugo   TMRP-6, COBRA    
France MIACAH F1 MIACAH F1 MIACAH F1  
UK L14 L14 AJAX AJAX
Germany     DM-12  
Sweden   FFV-016, AT-4    
 

Table G-6. Foreign pressure-fused AP mines

Origin
Scatterable
Low Metal
Simple Pressure
Small Diameter
Low-Operating Threshold
Pronged Fuse
Blast
Hardened
AHD
Russia PFM-1   PMN, PMD-6   PMN, PMD-6, PFM-1 OZM series PMN-2  
China GLD-111 Type 72A, GLD-111 Type 72A, Type 58, GLD-111 GLD-111 Type-72, Type 58, GLD-111     Type 72A/B
Yugo   PMA-1/2/3 PMA-1, PMD-1   PMA-1/3, PMD-1 PROM-1/2, PMR-3 PMA-2  
Czech     PP-MI-D, PP-MI-BA   PP-MI-D PP-MI-SR, PP-MI-SR II    
Italy TS-50, VS-50, SB-33, VS-MK2 TS-50, SB-33, VS-MK2       Valmara 59/69 TS-50, VS-50, SB-33, VS-MK2 VS-50, SB-33, VS-MK2
France   M-59   M-59 M-59   M-59  
UK Ranger   Ranger Ranger        
Germany   DM-11 PPM-2   DM-11   DM-11  
 

Table G-7. Foreign trip-wire/break-wire-fused AP mines

Origin
Scatterable
Trip Wire
Break Wire
Russia POM-2 POMZ-2, OZM series, MON series OZM series, MON series
China   Type 58, Type 59, Type 66, Type 69  
Yugo   PROM-1/2/KD, PMR-2/3/4, MRUD PROM-1/2/KD, PMR-2/3/4, MRUD
Czech   PP-MI-SR, PP-MI-SR II, PP-MI-SK  
Italy VS-SAPFM3 Valmara 59/69, BM-85, P-25, P-40, VS-DAFM1  
France   M1951/1955, MAPED F1 M1951/1955
UK   PAD  
Germany   DM-31, SM-70  
 

Table G-8. Foreign emplaced minefields

 
Russia
Iraq
North Korea
Bosnia
Manually
Antitrack AT
1
1
1
1
Antihull AT
2
3
3
2
Side-attack AT
3
4
3
4
Blast AP
1
1
1
1
Directional AP
1
4
 
1
Bounding AP
1
1
2
1
Stake AP
1
4
1
1
Mechanically
Antitrack AT
1
1
1
4
Antihull AT
2
3
 
1
Vehicle Scattered
Antitrack AT
1
     
Antihull AT
1
     
Blast AP        
Directional AP        
Bounding AP        
Simple Frag
1
     
Artillery/MLRS
Antitrack AT
1
4
   
Antihull AT  
1
 
1
Blast AP        
Directional AP        
Bounding AP        
Stake AP
1
     
Helicopter/Fixed-Wing Aircraft
Antitrack AT
1
1
   
Antihull AT
1
     
Blast AP
1
1
   
Directional AP        
Bounding AP        
Stake AP
1
     
NOTE: Scored from 1 (most common) to 4 (very rare).
 

Table G-9. Foreign mine delivery systems

Origin
System
Type1
Range
Mine Payload
Density2
Remarks
Russia BM-21 R 20 km PTM-1/3, POM-2 1.5 1,000 x 500 m per battery
BM -22 R 35 km PTM 1/3, POM-2 1.5  
PKPI F, H NA PTM 1/3, PFM-1, POM-2 1.5 Lays relatively narrow strips
KSMU F NA PTM 1/3, PFM-1, POM-2 1.5  
UMZ V NA PTM 1/3, POM-2 1.5  
GMZ/PMZ-4 MP NA Varies 0.4 to 1.0 3 systems can emplace 1,200 m with 624 mines in 26 minutes
VMR-1/2 H NA Varies 0.4 to 1.0 3 Mi-8s can lay 1,200 to 3,000 m with 1,200 mines
China Type 83 R 15 km Type 84 0.5 900 x 800 m per battery
Yugo M87 R 50 km KB-2 0.5 900 x 500 m per battery
Italy FIROS 25 R 22 km VS-HCL, VS-Mk, VS-SAPFM 3 0.5 1,000 x 500 m per battery
FIROS 30 R 35 km VS-HCL, VS-Mk, VS-SAPFM 3 0.5  
DAT H NA Varies 1.2 Lays relatively narrow strips of up to 320 AT mines
Istrice V NA SATM1, VS-Mk 2 EL, VS-SAPFM 3 Max 1.6 Typically 360 x 140 m
ST-AT/V MP NA Varies 0.3 to 1.5 240 mines per hour
Grillo 90 MD NA SATM1, VS-Mk 2 EL 0.5 5 AT or 15 AP mines per dispenser
Sweden FFV-5821 MP NA FFV-028 0.4 to 1.4 300 buried mines per hour or 500 surface-laid mines per hour
France Minotaur V NA Lance 0.7 1,200 x 600 m with 800 mines
EBG V NA Lance 1.5 60 x 600 m with 40 mines
155-mm How A 18 km Lance   8 mines per round
Matenin MP NA HPD series 0.4 to 1.4 500 mines per hour
UK JP-233 F NA HB 876   430 mines per Tornado aircraft
Barmine layer MP NA L9 Barmine 0.4 to 0.9 Up to 700 mines per hour
Ranger V NA L10   1,296 mines per dispenser
Germany Skorpion V, H NA AT-2 0.4 1,500 x 50 m with 600 mines
MW-1 F NA MIFF, MUSPA 0.5 55 to 500 m wide and 200 to 2,500 m long with 892 AT mines
LARS R 14 km AT-2 0.5 1,836 AT mines per launcher, 1,000 x 500 m per battery
MARS R 30 km AT-2 0.3 1,000 x 500 m with 336 AT mines per launcher
FFV-5821 MP NA DM-31 0.4 to 1.4 300 buried mines per hour or 500 surface-laid mines per hour
1 A = artillery, H = helicopter, F = fixed-wing aircraft, R = rocket, V = vehicle dispensed, MD = man-portable dispenser, MP = mechanical planter
2 AT mines per meter of front



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