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Appendix E

Safety and Training

Mine training is inherently dangerous, in part, because several different types of mines and fuse systems are used throughout the world. Detailed safety instructions for each type of mine are provided throughout this manual. This appendix merely points out the safety aspects of live-mine training that are common to all types of mines.

Conduct mine training as if the mines were live. This is the only way soldiers form a habit of correctly and safely handling mines and gain a true appreciation of the requirements and the time it takes to perform an actual mine-warfare mission. Live-mine training gives soldiers the confidence they need to handle mines and their components. Accidents can usually be traced to ignorance, negligence, deliberate mishandling, overconfidence, mechanical failure, or fright. The first four can be overcome by training and proper supervision. Mechanical failure rarely happens; but if it does, it can be controlled by training and proper supervision. The last item, fright, is mastered through well-controlled, live-mine training.

STORAGE

There are three types of mines used in mine training:

  • Inert. Does not contain explosives.
  • Practice. Contains an LE charge or a smoke-producing component to simulate detonation.
  • HE. Involves actual mines used in combat

Conventional mines are painted to enhance concealment, retard rusting of exposed metal parts, and help identify the type of mine and filler (HE, LE, or chemical agent). Older manufactured mines are painted according to the Five-Element Marking System; newer mines use the Standard Ammunition Color-Coding System (see Table E-1).

NOTE: Mines that are color-coded and marked according to the old system have been on hand for several years. Ensure that all ammunition, whether color-coded according to the old or new system, is properly and fully identified.

Table E-1. Mine color-coding system

Type of Ammunition Five-Element Marking System (Old) Standard Ammunition Color-Coding System (New)*
Persistent casualty chemical agent Gray with green markings and two green bands Gray with green markings and two 12-mm green bands
Nerve agents Gray with green markings and two or three green bands Gray with green markings and three 12-mm green bands
Incendiary Gray with violet markings and one violet band Light red with black markings and one yellow band
HE Olive drab with yellow markings Olive drab with yellow markings
Practice mines Blue with white markings Blue with white markings
Inert mines Black with the word INERT in white Blue with the word INERT in white
*Chemical ammunition containing an HE has one 6-mm yellow band in addition to the other markings.

Always handle mines with care. The explosive elements in fuses, primers, detonators, and boosters are particularly sensitive to mechanical shock, friction, static electricity, and high temperatures. Boxes and crates containing mines should not be dropped, dragged, tumbled, walked on, or struck. Do not smoke within 50 meters of a mine or its components.

When it is necessary to leave mines in the open--

  • Set them on dunnage at least 5 centimeters above the ground.
  • Place a waterproof cover (such as canvas) over them, and leave enough space for air circulation.
  • Dig drainage trenches around stacks of mines to prevent water from collecting under them.
  • Protect mines and their components against moisture by waterproofing them with grease coatings, tar paper, or tarpaulins.

Additional maintenance procedures are as follows:

  • Do not open mine boxes in a magazine, at an ammunition dump, or within 30 meters of an explosive store. Use copper or wooden safety tools, if available, to unpack and repack mines.
  • Do not fuse mines within 30 meters of an explosive or ammunition holding area. Mines can be fused at the mine dump.
  • Use specifics authorized by the US Army Materiel Command and applicable TMs to disassemble mines and their components.
  • Remove safety pins, safety forks (clips), and other safety devices as the last step when arming the mine; and replace them before the mine is moved again. These devices prevent accidental initiation of the mine while it is being handled.
  • Place tape over FD wells, cap wells, activator wells, and fuse cavities. Ensure that they are clear of obstruction and free of foreign matter before attempting to install the fuse, the detonator, or the FD.
  • Take steps to prevent moisture or water from accumulating around the mine and subsequently freezing if the temperature fluctuates around freezing. Mines usually function satisfactorily at temperatures between 40 and 160F. Most mines are not appreciably affected by temperature changes, but mines can become neutralized by ice formations (see Chapter 12).
  • Observe proper procedures when recovering mines. Ensure that components do not show evidence of damage or deterioration.
  • Ensure that practice or inert mines or their components are not present when live mines or their components are being used.
  • Do not mix inert mines with live mines.
  • Do not display live mines or their components in museums, demonstrations, models, or similar layouts. Only inert equipment can be used for displays.
  • Handle explosive materials with appropriate care. The explosive elements in primers, blasting caps, and fuses are particularly sensitive to shock and high temperatures.
  • Assemble activators, standard bases, and FDs before installing them. Do not carry them in the pockets of your clothing.
  • Do not point FDs at anyone.
  • Camouflage the mine before removing the positive safety pin when possible.

NOTE: Additional storage and safety precautions are outlined in TM 9-1300-206.

LIVE-MINE TRAINING

NOTE: No live-mine training is authorized with M14 mines. Units outside Korea will not use live M16A1 mines in tactical or protective minefield training.

Live-mine training is conducted by preparing, laying, arming, neutralizing, and disarming live mines (with live fuses and components) in a training environment.

Supervisors must adhere to the following safety considerations when conducting live-mine training:

  • Only personnel who are qualified and certified according to the local range SOP are allowed to supervise activities or training in which live mines or their components are used.
  • Minimum personnel requirements to conduct live-mine training are--

  • Range officer (OIC).
    Range safety officer (RSO).
    One NCO supervisor for each arming bay.
    Mine-explosive breakdown NCO.
    One medic per four arming bays.
    Guards, as required by the range SOP.
  • Sound organization is a must before live-mine training can begin. The OIC and supervising NCOs conduct a demonstration/briefing to ensure that the practice runs smoothly.
  • The training officer must foresee hazards that can occur through personnel nervousness or material failure. The commander should conduct a risk assessment according to AR 385-10.
  • The OIC takes his place at the control point or post. Once he is satisfied that all safety regulations have been observed, he orders the first detail to start training.
  • Soldiers are trained on inert and practice mines before arming live mines, according to the guidelines established by the Standards in Training Commission.
  • Fuses are not inserted into mines until ordered by the OIC.
  • An NCO supervisor must be present when soldiers arm live mines. He ensures that soldiers adhere to the proper procedures and regulations.
  • Only one soldier arms a mine at any given time.
  • Personnel disarm one mine before arming the next one.
  • Personnel never arm an M16 AP mine in the trip-wire mode during live-mine training.
  • Personnel never remove the positive safety pin from the M16 AP mine during live-mine training.
  • Instructors inspect fuses and mines for serviceability before starting practice.
  • Instructors inspect mines and their components for damage and excessive wear after each student has gone through the station. Replace the mine and the fuse if damage or wear is found.
  • All personnel wear a helmet (with the serviceable chin strap fastened) and body armor when arming and disarming mines.
  • Ear protection is not permitted in the arming bays. The student must be able to hear the supervisor and certain distinct noises (such as a firing pin dropping).
  • Instructors post guards at all entrances to the range. The guards communicate with the RSO by radio, wire, voice, or signal. No one enters the range without permission from the RSO.
  • Instructors keep mine records and inventory sheets. They maintain accountability of all mines and fuses, before and after each exercise.
  • Instructors draw and return supplies; check equipment for issue; and ensure that live mines are safe, serviceable, and unarmed. They ensure that the requirements contained in AR 385-63, range regulations, and SOPs are observed and that no one does anything to prejudice safety.
  • Instructors clearly mark the word LIVE on all live mines and their components that are used for live-mine training. Live mines are maintained separately from practice and inert mines.
  • Live AHDs are not used with live mines during training, but they can be used with practice and inert mines.
  • Arming and disarming are conducted in the prone position.
  • Waiting personnel are located in a bunker, behind a suitable barricade, or at a safe distance from live-mine training.
  • Supervisors ensure that live-mine training is not rushed. There are no shortcuts. Supervisors must allow soldiers ample time to arm and disarm mines. Most soldiers are already in a high state of stress from dealing with live munitions, and rushing them only serves to heighten their stress level.

LIVE-MINE DEMONSTRATIONS

Live-mine demonstrations show mine characteristics and capabilities using M16 and M18 AP mines and M15, M19, and M21 AT mines. The appropriate authority must authorize the demonstration, and firing personnel must be fully conversant with all safety and technical aspects pertaining to live-mine firing.

An OIC and an RSO are appointed for each activity involving live-mine firing. The amount of explosive contained in the mine cannot exceed the maximum amount allowed for the range, and one mine is fired at a time.

Upon arriving at the range, the instructor and his assistants establish areas according to the following rules (signs are posted for large demonstrations):

  • Firing point. Sited outside the danger area and near the OIC to facilitate coordination, commentaries, and firing.
  • Spectator area. Sited outside the danger area and within earshot of the commentator. It is large enough to provide a good view of the explosion.
  • Supply area. Any suitable area away from spectators.
  • Explosive area. Sited away from supplies and spectators.
  • Mine area. Mines are set out in full view of the OIC and spectators. Individual mines are at least 25 meters apart.
  • Target area. Targets are positioned and inspected by spectators before the blasting cap is inserted into the mine.

M16 ANTIPERSONNEL MINES

  • Safety distance. 300 meters.
  • Firing procedures.

  • Roll out 300 meters of firing cable and attach it to a stake or picket in the ground (leave at least 1 meter of free end). Test the firing cable for continuity.
    Place the mine in the ground (dig in level with the surface). Remove the shipping plug.
    Test a blasting cap (under a sandbag) with the demolition test set.
    Attach the ends of the blasting-cap leads to the ends of the electric cable and insulate the joints with tape. Place the blasting cap into the fuse well (see Figure E-1).

Figure E-1. M16 AP mine

  • Suggested target. A circle of tar paper, 6 meters in diameter, supported by 1.8-meter pickets. Spectators can later view shrapnel effects.

NOTE: The procedure detailed here dispenses with the M605 igniter. The mine cannot be detonated by pull or pressure. The expulsion charge and millisecond delay fuses are still operated, and the mine bounds out of its casing (which remains in the ground) before exploding in the air. Although the normal firing delay is removed, it does not detract from the demonstration. The blasting cap is suspended two-thirds of the way down the fuse well to initiate the expelling charge and delay elements.

  • Misfires. In the event of a misfire, the RSO disposes of the mine by placing a block of C4 as close to the mine as possible, without touching it. He destroys the mine by normal nonelectric means.

M18A1 ANITPERSONNEL MUNITION

  • Safety distance. 300 meters.
  • Firing procedures.

  • Roll out 300 meters of firing cable and attach it to a stake or picket in the ground (leave at least 1 meter of free end). Test the firing cable for continuity.
    Place the mine on the ground and ensure that the front of the mine faces away from the firing point. Remove the shipping plug.
    Test an electric blasting cap (under a sandbag) with the demolition test set.
    Attach the ends of the blasting cap leads to the ends of the electric cable and insulate the joints with tape. Place the blasting cap into the detonator well (see Figure E-2).

Figure E-2. M18A1 AP mine

  • Suggested target. Several E-type silhouette targets, 15 to 100 meters from the mine.

NOTE: The procedure detailed here applies only to demonstration firings. Standard accessories are used on all other occasions. The mine explodes instantaneously and clearly illustrates the sound of an M18A1 explosion.

  • Misfires. In the event of a misfire, the RSO disposes of the mine by placing a block of C4 as close to the mine as possible, without touching it. He destroys the mine by normal nonelectric means.

M15, M19, AND M21 ANTITANK MINES

  • Safety distance. 1,000 meters.
  • Firing procedures.

  • Roll out 1,000 meters of firing cable and attach it to a stake or picket in the ground (leave at least 1 meter of free end). Test the firing cable for continuity.
    Place the mine in the ground and leave the top exposed. A target is used only when the mine can be placed without disturbing the target. A derelict vehicle is a suitable target.
    Place a block of C4 on top of M15s and M19s (see Figure E-3).

Figure E-3. M15 and M19 AT mines


    Remove the shipping plug from the booster well of the M21 and pack the well with C4. Insert an electric blasting cap into the C4 (see Figure E-4).

Figure E-4. M21 AT mine

NOTE: Do not remove safety devices. Keep arming dials in the SAFE position. The mine explodes instantaneously and clearly demonstrates the blast/shaped-charge effect.

  • Misfires. In the event of a misfire, the RSO disposes of the mine by placing a block of C4 as close to the mine as possible, without touching it. He destroys the mine by normal nonelectric means.

RISK ASSESSMENT FOR LIVE-MINE DEMONSTRATIONS

The following risk assessment is provided as a guideline for live-mine demonstrations using an M16 AP mine. It must be carefully reviewed before conducting a demonstration. Live-mine demonstrations can be conducted in a safe manner. The risk of injury to personnel is significantly minimized if you adhere to established procedures.

During the demonstration, mines are not armed with standard fuses. They are activated by electric blasting caps placed inside the fuse wells.

A demonstration shows the effectiveness of an M16 AP mine. Spectators do not handle the mines or explosives. To show the effectiveness of an M16 mine, a sheet of paper is placed in a semicircle around the mine. Spectators remain in bunkers or at a safe distance while mines are primed with electric blasting caps and detonated. After the mines have been detonated and the RSO has cleared the area, spectators are allowed to view the results of the detonated mine. Misfires are handled by the RSO.

Figure E-5 is a risk assessment prepared by the Department of Transportation.

Figure E-5. Excerpt from Risk-Assessment Techniques Manual, prepared by the Department of Transportation's Transportation Safety Institute, August 1986

RISK ASSESSMENT FOR LIVE-MINE TRAINING

The United States Army Engineer Center, Department of Instruction, obtained information for the following risk assessment from the Collective Training Branch, Department of Training and Doctrine, and from the Engineering Branch for Engineer Officer Basic Course demolitions training. Hazards are identified and analyzed on preliminary hazard-analysis work sheets (see Figures E-6 through E-15). Risk-assessment codes are assigned to each hazard based on the severity and the probability of occurrence.

References used in the risk-analysis process include this manual and the following publications:

Figure E-6. Preliminary hazard-analysis work sheet (arming M15)

Figure E-7. Preliminary hazard-analysis work sheet (disarming M15)

Figure E-8. Preliminary hazard-analysis work sheet (arming M16)

Figure E-9. Preliminary hazard-analysis work sheet (disarming M16)

Figure E-10. Preliminary hazard-analysis work sheet (arming M19)

Figure E-11. Preliminary hazard-analysis work sheet (disarming M19)

Figure E-12. Preliminary hazard-analysis work sheet (arming M21)

Figure E-13. Preliminary hazard-analysis work sheet (disarming M21)

Figure E-14. Preliminary hazard-analysis work sheet (command detonation)

Figure E-15. Preliminary hazard-analysis work sheet (peripheral factors)



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