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Chapter 9

Combat Service Support


Section I. Organization
Section II. Logistics
Section III. Personnel Service Support
Section IV. Prisoners of War

Mission accomplishment depends on the troop's ability to obtain, transport, and distribute fighting resources such as fuel, ammunition, replacement personnel, and rations. Dependable ways to treat and evacuate wounded soldiers are crucial to good morale. Evacuation and repair of combat equipment sustain troop combat power and readiness to fight.

Section I. Organization

Troop trains are organized as combat trains and field trains. The combat trains are made up of immediate battlefield service support. The rest of the troop CSS elements are collocated with squadron CSS assets in the squadron field trains and at the unit maintenance collection point (UMCP). The troop CSS team consists of the troop XO, first sergeant, supply sergeant, communications sergeant, maintenance sergeant, and senior troop aidman.

There is no dedicated service support radio net at troop level. All logistical reports and initial requests for logistical support are conducted on the troop command net. Additional coordination is conducted on the platoon radio nets. Routine reports are sent before and after combat operations, and are delivered by messenger when possible. All service support coordination with squadron is conducted on the squadron administration and logistics (A/L) net. The first sergeant operates on this net. The command post does not routinely operate on the A/L net, but uses it when necessary to forward reports and to conduct logistical coordination.


The troop combat trains provide CSS for the troop during combat operations. They are organized for combat as shown in Figures 9-1 and 9-2.

Figure 9-1. Heavy troop combat trains.

Figure 9-2. Light troop combat trains.

The first sergeant, assisted by the maintenance sergeant, directs movement and employment of the combat trains. He receives logistical reports directly from the platoon sergeants or through the troop command post, coordinates logistical matters with the XO, and assists the XO in ensuring the troop is logistically ready for battle. During operations, the first sergeant directs aidman teams and recovery teams forward as needed, leads the troop LOGPAC forward from the logistics release point (LRP) to resupply the troop and then leads it back to the LRP, and organizes the LOGPAC to conduct troop resupply operations. He also directs the medical evacuation of soldiers who are wounded in action. Additionally, he directs the evacuation of soldiers killed in action, enemy prisoners of war, and disabled vehicles.

The troop combat trains can be consolidated and moved under the control of the first sergeant, or they can be split and moved. If the combat trains are split, the motor sergeant and first sergeant will divide the medics, mechanics, special tools, and high-use PLL items into equal portions and move parallel and behind troop combat elements to provide responsive medical evacuation and battle damage assessment across the troop zone. Recovery assets will continue to move center of zone to facilitate recovery. This technique may be used if the troop zone is wide and split operations are necessary to provide proper support.

Position the combat trains where they can support the troop, but will not be exposed to enemy direct fires. This location is usually from 2 to 5 kilometers to the rear.

Offensive and Reconnaissance Operations.During such operations as a movement to contact or a zone reconnaissance, position the trains in the center of the troop zone and about 2 kilometers, or one terrain feature, behind the tank platoons. Use the established road network, if possible, to move the trains. Bound the trains forward to successive concealed positions, based on the movement of the troop, to keep them in position to support the troop.

Defensive and Security Operations.During defensive and security operations, position the combat trains about 3 kilometers behind the tank platoon positions in the center of the troop sector. If possible, hide the trains in a small built-up area, which provides cover and concealment and a road network to facilitate the movement of the trains. The trains must be ready to move to support the troop or displace to a new location. The XO and first sergeant plan subsequent locations, and as the situation requires, the first sergeant or maintenance sergeant moves the trains to the next location.

Security.Trains must provide their own local security. They do not have the manpower or equipment to clear large areas, so they should move into areas that have already been cleared by scouts. The trains' best defense is to avoid detection. The trains should disperse their vehicles and camouflage the positions by using natural concealment like a wooded area or a small built-up area. A built-up area is best, because there are a limited number of approaches and the thermal signature of the trains is concealed. Enforce strict noise and light discipline. Hide vehicles in barns or garages, if available. The buildings in a built-up area and the trees in a wooded area provide some protection against the effects of indirect fires and air-delivered munitions. Dispersion also limits the damaging effects of these weapons.

Establish OPs around the trains to provide early warning of enemy movement toward the position. Put them where they can cover major avenues of approach. An OP has at least two soldiers, a crew-served weapon (if available), a map, binoculars, a night observation device, and a radio or field phone. The OP must immediately report, by radio or phone, enemy ground and air attacks so the trains can take appropriate actions.

Passive defense is the trains' best defense against air attack. The steps taken to locate them properly, disperse vehicles, camouflage positions, and use the cover and concealment of built-up or wooded areas help prevent the enemy from detecting and attacking, and limit the effects of enemy munitions if attacked.

Air attacks cannot always be avoided. If attacked, take active air defense measures. The first sergeant or senior soldier present must coordinate the small arms fires of the trains for them to be effective against an air threat. Refer to Chapter 8, Section VI, Air Defense, for a complete discussion of passive and active air defense.


Troop CSS assets not in the combat trains are collocated with the squadron field trains or the UMCP, and sustain the troop's fighting capability by moving rations, ammunition, fuel, repair parts, and replacements from the squadron rear area to the troop on the battlefield. Troop field trains are controlled primarily by the supply sergeant, and consist of the personnel and equipment shown in Figures 9-3 and 9-4. Troop maintenance assets in the field trains may be consolidated under the control of the squadron maintenance officer.

The troop supply sergeant is the troop representative in the squadron field trains. The supply sergeant is responsible for the following tasks:

  • Maintaining records of troop clothing and equipment.
  • Processing or forwarding requests for all Class I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and VII. He also assists the maintenance section in ordering Class IX repair parts and the medics in resupplying Class VIII (medical).
  • Assembling and leading all vehicles in the troop LOGPAC from the field trains to the LRP. If the squadron is conducting resupply operations, the supply sergeant may move under the control and direction of one of the following squadron personnel: squadron support platoon leader or platoon sergeant, S4, HHT commander, or XO.
  • Assisting the first sergeant in organizing the LOGPAC site for troop resupply and in evacuating soldiers who are killed in action, enemy prisoners of war, and disabled vehicles; and in medically evacuating wounded and injured soldiers.
  • Delivering mail, when available, via the troop LOGPAC.

Figure 9-3. Heavy troop field trains.

Figure 9-4. Light troop field trains.

At the squadron field trains, the supply sergeant coordinates with the S4 and support platoon leader to ensure the LOGPAC meets the troop's CSS requirements.

The supply sergeant will coordinate with the troop PLL clerk for parts and requisitions and with the squadron personnel and administration center (PAC) section for mail, promotions, awards, Standardization Installation/Division Personnel System (SIDPERS), and other personnel actions. He will coordinate with squadron maintenance and communication for repaired vehicles and equipment and with the squadron food service sergeant for rations. The supply sergeant must frequently check with the HHT command post in the field trains for any additional troop requests reported on the A/L net.

The squadron field trains are responsible for their own local security. The supply sergeant will be tasked to assist the HHT commander in maintaining security of the field trains. He must execute and supervise security operations in accordance with the HHT commander's plan. During the movement through nonsecure areas, the supply sergeant should ensure that all crew-served and individual weapons are manned and ready. He should also ensure that all members of the troop field trains are briefed on immediate action drills for enemy contact or vehicle breakdowns.

If available, the troop should provide the supply sergeant with a radio to enhance communications between the supply sergeant and the first sergeant.


In addition to organic troop CSS, one or two medical/evacuation teams are attached to the troop for combat operations from the squadron medical platoon. During resupply operations, the troop normally receives two fuel and two ammunition carriers from the transportation section of the support platoon. These carriers are not usually attached, but are provided to the troop as needed or as part of a standardized LOGPAC. The LOGPAC is discussed in Section II, Logistics.

To ensure responsive CSS for the squadron, the S4 and squadron maintenance officer organize the squadron support into echeloned trains and establish a main supply route (MSR), a UMCP, and an LRP. These trains are made up of combat trains (which provide immediate recovery, maintenance, medical, and emergency resupply support), and field trains (which provide the remainder of the squadron service support and limited direct-support maintenance). The UMCP is established to provide maintenance support for combat operations. It is positioned near or collocated with the squadron combat trains, and is the closest point to which damaged or failed equipment and systems are recovered. The UMCP is the focal point of the squadron maintenance effort. The MSR links troop combat trains to the squadron combat trains or UMCP and the field trains. LRPs are established along the MSR to facilitate the handover of LOGPACs and equipment between troops and squadron. An example of a squadron support plan is shown in Figure 9-5.

Section II. Logistics


The supply sergeant is responsible for getting supplies and delivering them to the troop. He delivers small items, but is largely dependent on support platoon assets to deliver bulky or high expenditure items. The commander establishes priorities for delivery, but the demands of combat normally dictate Classes I, III, V, VIII, and IX as most critical.

Figure 9-5. Squadron combat service support plan.

Class I (Rations).Meals ready to eat (MRE), C rations, are stocked on board each troop vehicle in a basic load prescribed by SOP (three-day supply). Class I is delivered daily by the supply sergeant as part of the LOGPAC from the squadron field trains. Hot meals (B or tray-pack rations) are served when possible, but the normal ration cycle is C-C-C during combat operations. This requires resupply of at least 34 cases of MRE per day per troop. Water is a critical item, and must be resupplied daily. Soldiers may require up to 5 gallons of water per soldier per day, or more than 600 gallons for the entire troop. The troop can transport only 400 gallons of water on the water trailer. Soldiers should top off their water cans when possible. The supply sergeant should carry 5-gallon cans of water on his truck to supplement the needs of the troop. When he resupplies the troop, he exchanges the full cans for empty ones.

Class II (Supplies and Equipment).Class II items are requisitioned through the S4 and delivered by the supply sergeant as needed. The supply sergeant also maintains the following supplies, as a minimum, in his troop supply:

  • One set of NBC overgarments and filter per soldier.
  • One case of BA-30s.
  • One mile of WD-1 wire.
  • Additional batteries as necessary for night-vision devices and other equipment.
  • Five sets of TA-50, to include personal clothing of various sizes, stored in duffel bags.
  • Fifteen body bags.
  • Map cases, grease pencils, permanent markers, etc.

Class III (POL).Class III is delivered by support platoon assets both as part of the troop LOGPAC and on an as-needed basis. Platoon sergeants report their Class III status to the command post daily, when status is requested, or when any Class III item is below a certain percentage, usually 59 percent.

Each troop vehicle carries a small basic load of packaged products as prescribed by SOP, and the fuel carriers normally have only small amounts of packaged products on board. Requests for large quantities of packaged products must be requested through the S4.

Class IV (Construction Materials). Class IV supplies are requested through the CTCP (combat trains command post) and delivered by the supply sergeant with the LOGPAC. Class IV supplies needed at troop level may include concertina wire, sandbags, and lumber.

Class V (Ammunition).The troop deploys with a basic load of Class V as prescribed by the unit for each type of vehicle. Ammunition status is reported by platoon sergeants to the command post daily, upon completion of enemy contact, or as needed. Normal resupply of Class V is delivered by the support platoon vehicles with the LOGPAC. Emergency resupply is requested through the first sergeant to the S4, and is delivered from the combat trains if it is available. Emergency resupply of Class V will normally consist of ammunition for major weapon systems, such as tank main guns, TOW missiles, and 25-mm guns in the heavy troop; and TOW missiles and caliber .50, 40-mm grenades, 7.62-mm, and individual weapons ammunition in the light troop.

Class VI (Personal Demand Items).Class VI items (such as soap, toothpaste, and cigarettes) are requested through the S4 by the first sergeant. They are usually picked up by the supply sergeant in the field trains and delivered as part of the LOGPAC.

Class VII (Major End Items).Class VII items, such as vehicles and night-vision devices, are automatically requested based on equipment shortages and battle losses. Items are delivered to the S4, who notifies the troop of the availability of the equipment. The equipment is delivered with a LOGPAC or brought forward immediately to an LRP where the first sergeant meets it and delivers it to the troop.

Class VIII (Medical Supplies).Class VIII is provided by the squadron medical platoon. The troop senior medic requests supplies through the squadron aid station. During intense combat, supplies may be pushed forward. They are then delivered to the combat trains where the troop medic picks them up from the squadron aid station, or are brought forward on ambulances.

Class IX (Repair Parts).The troop PLL clerk, who is in the field trains or the UMCP, works under the control of the squadron maintenance officer and the squadron maintenance technician. The PLL clerk requisitions, receives, and maintains records for all Class IX items. All troop PLLs are consolidated under the squadron maintenance officer during combat operations, and one or more PLL trucks remain in the UMCP at all times to provide a supply of Class IX for forward area support. When the troop maintenance sergeant needs a repair part, the request is sent through the squadron maintenance officer. The squadron maintenance officer determines if the part is available through the PLL, and fills the request if possible. If the part is not in the PLL, he then requests it through the squadron maintenance team in the field trains. They have the troop PLL clerk requisition the part for immediate use or replenish the part used from the PLL. The troop PLL clerk submits the requisition through squadron maintenance to the supporting maintenance unit. The part is delivered through squadron maintenance to the troop when the requisition is filled. The PLL clerk updates the records to reflect the requisition.

Maps.Maps are requested through the troop command post to the S4. As maps are available, the supply sergeant picks them up in the field trains and delivers them to the troop as part of a LOGPAC.


Resupply of combat resources is accomplished using standardized procedures to rearm, refuel, and refit the troop as fast as possible to sustain its combat potential. There are two types of resupply operations-routine and supplementary. Methods of resupply are tailgate issue and service station.

Routine Resupply

Routine resupply operations include daily resupply of Classes I, III, V, and IX, and mail and other items needed by the troop. Routine resupply takes place when the troop is not in heavy contact, and may be conducted in an assembly area or behind troop positions when the troop is deployed in sector or zone. Class III is required more than once a day when the vehicles are in continuous operation.

Routine resupply is conducted using the LOGPAC from the field trains and the troop combat trains. The LOGPAC is organized in the field trains. Its composition is based on the troop's needs as reported to the S4, on requisitions, and on the availability of supplies. The troop supply sergeant reports to the S1 and S4 sections, squadron mess section, and squadron maintenance section to ensure all available supplies are picked up and loaded on trucks for troop resupply. The S4, support platoon leader, and troop supply sergeants assemble the LOGPACs for each troop by adding the troop supply trucks to the troop slice of Class III and V trucks from the support platoon. The support platoon leader leads the LOGPACs to the LRP, where the first sergeants meet them. Each first sergeant leads his LOGPAC to the troop resupply site. When it arrives, members of the troop combat trains guide the LOGPAC vehicles into position. Once the LOGPAC is established, the first sergeant reports to the command post that he is set. The troop commander or the XO coordinates resupply operations, and ensures all platoons and sections are resupplied. Resupply is conducted by one of two methods-tailgate issue or service station.

Tailgate Issue Method.The tailgate method is used in static positions such as assembly areas. Class III and V supply vehicles and other bulk-issue vehicles move from vehicle to vehicle to conduct resupply. The rest of the service support vehicles are centrally located in the troop area. Little or no movement is required by the combat vehicles. Personnel move to a centralized location to receive supplies, Class I, and mail. This method provides 360-degree security throughout the resupply operation; however, it is very time-consuming and requires an adequate road network for the wheeled supply vehicles to reach each vehicle. An example of this method is shown in Figure 9-6.

Figure 9-6. Tailgate issue method in a troop assembly area.

The following takes place during tailgate resupply:

  • Combat vehicles remain in place. POL and ammunition trucks travel in a clockwise direction around the assembly area to each vehicle position, in turn, to conduct resupply.
  • Crewmen rotate through the feeding area and pick up supplies, water, and mail.
  • The first sergeant and platoon sergeants arrange for pickup of those killed in action (KIA) and their personal effects. The KIA are brought to a holding area near the medical aid station, but kept out of view.
  • Ambulances pick up, treat, and evacuate seriously wounded soldiers. Other wounded soldiers are carried to the ambulance or walk to it for emergency medical treatment.
  • Prisoners are kept together and guarded. As soon as possible, they are moved to the squadron trains on a returning supply vehicle.
  • The troop armorer, the radio repairman, and the organizational mechanics repair known problems and spot-check other vehicles.
  • Vehicles needing maintenance are brought to the maintenance area.
  • The first sergeant and platoon sergeants closely monitor the resupply operation.
  • Empty LOGPAC vehicles are moved to a holding area, where they are loaded with KIA, prisoners of war (PW) and inoperative equipment.
  • The supply sergeant moves the LOGPAC back to an LRP to link up with the support platoon leader and return to the field trains.
Service Station Method.Service station resupply is used during tactical operations. It is most effective when the troop is positioned in a zone or sector no more than 3 to 5 kilometers wide, such as is found in a defend in sector or defend from a troop BP mission. Platoons or sections are resupplied at the LOGPAC while the rest of the troop stays in position. The first sergeant sites the LOGPAC as shown in Figure 9-7. LOGPAC security is provided by soldiers from the combat trains who are not involved in the resupply, and by platoon vehicles that have completed or are awaiting resupply.

Figure 9-7. Service station method.

The following takes place during service station resupply:

  • Vehicles of the first platoon or section enter the LOGPAC at a designated location and follow one-way traffic flow.
  • The vehicle carrying the KIA in body bags moves to the holding area, out of view of the troop, and leaves the remains and personal effects.
  • Soldiers requiring medical attention are delivered to medics and treated or prepared for evacuation.
  • The platoon sergeant supervises the operation and coordinates face-to-face with the first sergeant for any special requirements.
  • The platoon leader dismounts his vehicle and uses the first sergeant's vehicle and radio to contact the troop commander for orders and situation reports.
  • Crews requiring unit-level maintenance remain in the maintenance holding area.
  • Vehicles rotate through stations.
  • Unit-level mechanics, the armorer, and the radio repairman repair known problems and spot-check other vehicles.
  • Crews rotate to the supply truck to pick up mail, supplies, and Class I.
  • The platoon leader and platoon sergeant conduct precombat inspection.
  • When the platoon or section has completed resupply, it moves to its designated position.
  • The rest of the platoons rotate individually through the LOGPAC for resupply.

At the end of the resupply operation, the troop LOGPAC returns to the LRP where it links up with the support platoon leader and returns to the field trains. In the field trains, the supply sergeant returns the fuel and ammunition carriers to the support platoon, returns ration-serving equipment to the mess team, delivers the KIA to the graves registration (GRREG) collection point, requests any additional supplies from the squadron supply sergeant, and returns to his position in the field trains.

Supplementary Resupply

In the heavy troop, daily routine resupply will not sustain the combat power of the M1/M3 fleet when operating without a break for 8 to 10 hours. The tanks will consume so much fuel that they will have to supplement routine resupply of Class III one or two times daily. The troop may also need to resupply Class V. Supplementary resupply can be conducted in a couple of ways depending on the mission and if the troop is in contact with the enemy. Regardless of the technique used, the commander must push the supplies forward to his platoons; the tempo of combat operations cannot be disrupted in order to resupply. Conduct emergency resupply when in heavy contact with the enemy, and prestock resupply when not. Once the supplies are brought forward, either the tailgate issue or service station methods are used.

Supplementary resupply must be planned when continuous operations are expected. Resupply must be requested through the S4 several hours in advance to ensure the service support assets are prepared to support the operation. The troop must quickly resupply once fuel trucks are available, and then return them to the field trains. There are few fuel carriers and drivers available in the squadron and these valuable assets cannot be wasted.

Platoon Prestock.When operating over wide frontages, such as during screen, zone reconnaissance, or movement to contact operations, break the supplies down into platoon packages and push the supplies forward to each platoon position. Position the vehicles behind the platoon and resupply individual vehicles or sections at a time using the service station method. If the situation allows, the resupply vehicles can move through the platoon position and resupply the platoon in place using the tailgate issue method.

Controlling platoon prestock is difficult because resupply vehicles are moving to several locations rather than remaining under the centralized control of the first sergeant. The platoon leader must also provide security for their own prestock (see Figure 9-8).

Figure 9-8. Platoon prestock.

Troop Prestock.Troop prestock is used to supplement routine resupply of Classes III and V. Troop prestock is used when the troop is operating in a narrow zone or sector. The resupplies are pushed forward to the troop position using either the service station or tailgate method. Each platoon rotates through the resupply site, using the service station method, while the rest of the troop remains in position; or each vehicle is resupplied in position using the tailgate method (see Figure 9-9).

Figure 9-9. Troop prestock.

Variations of these methods can be used to meet the troop's situation. The troop must, however, rehearse these techniques to ensure it can quickly and efficiently conduct resupply operations and continue the mission.

Emergency Resupply

Emergency resupply normally involves only fuel and ammunition and is conducted while in contact with the enemy. The resupply begins at section and platoon level by redistributing ammunition between vehicles to cross-level loads. The platoon sergeant reports his need for emergency resupply to the first sergeant, who relays the request to the S4. The squadron combat trains maintain a small load of Class III and V for these situations. The S4 or support platoon leader coordinates a linkup between the squadron combat trains and the troop first sergeant. The first sergeant meets the resupply trucks and moves back to the troop area. The first sergeant and troop XO choose a resupply point that is just behind the troop position and masked by terrain from enemy direct fire and observation. If fuel is needed, the fuel truck is moved to the resupply point and vehicles or sections go there to refuel.

Resupply Site Selection.The LOGPAC site must be carefully chosen to provide responsive support for the troop, to support the movement of wheeled resupply vehicles, and to limit exposure to enemy fires. The XO selects the general area to be used by the LOGPAC. He knows about the current tactical situation, and can determine what the troop will be doing in the next couple of hours. The first sergeant selects the exact LOGPAC site based on information from the XO and map and ground reconnaissance. He selects a site that provides-

  • Cover and concealment.
  • Proximity to the platoon positions, from 3 to 8 kilometers behind the FLOT and center of the sector.
  • A road or trail network that supports the wheeled resupply vehicles and the heaviest troop vehicles and allows one-way traffic flow to the LOGPAC.
  • Enough room to disperse the vehicles.
  • Reduction of thermal signature.
  • Level enough to allow refueling.


The first sergeant supervises the troop maintenance section in the troop combat trains and the maintenance sergeant runs the section. The maintenance sergeant operates on the troop command net and stands by to provide responsive unit-level maintenance and recovery support for combat vehicles and radio equipment. When needed, squadron maintenance augments troop assets. The troop armorer is responsible for unit-level maintenance and repair of the troop's small arms weapons. Position him in the combat trains where he can provide battlefield support.

Maintenance Operations.Maintenance responsibilities begin at crew level. Operator-level PMCS must be performed before, during, and after operations. During operations, the crew begins the maintenance process when it identifies the fault. Once a problem develops, the vehicle commander determines support requirements, to include self-recovery, assistance from another vehicle, or assistance from troop or squadron maintenance, and takes the following actions:

  • Reports the situation to the platoon sergeant, providing condition(s), location, and circumstances.
  • Attempts to self-recover, if mired.
  • Uses another vehicle to move to a secure location if exposed to enemy observation and fire. Uses smoke to screen the area between the mired vehicle and the enemy.

When repairs are beyond the capability of the crew, the platoon sergeant uses the troop command net to notify the first sergeant of the situation and to request assistance. The crew must maintain radio contact (if the radio is operational) on the platoon net and maintain local security. The maintenance sergeant monitors the radio traffic. He switches his radio to the platoon frequency to coordinate maintenance support and dispatches the appropriate assets to the "down" vehicle. The maintenance team checks whether the problem can be corrected in place within the time criteria (30 minutes in defensive situations and 2 hours in offensive situations). They move the vehicle to a more secure location, if necessary, and fix the vehicle. If repairs will take too long, the maintenance sergeant uses the squadron A/L net to notify the squadron maintenance officer who will coordinate for a handover of the equipment from troop to squadron at the LRP or along the MSR. The squadron maintenance officer needs the following information:

  • Identification of the troop.
  • Equipment involved.
  • Location of equipment.
  • Nature of damage.
  • Pertinent information about the tactical situation, and any other necessary information.

Based on the information above, the squadron maintenance officer will designate a time and place for equipment handover.

The troop does not have the personnel, equipment, or time to create a holding area in the troop combat trains. If repairs will take more than the allowable time, evacuate the equipment to squadron.

Recovery Operations.When a vehicle cannot be repaired within the allowable time or is damaged beyond repair, the maintenance section must recover it and pull it to the MSR where it is turned over to squadron. Squadron maintenance will pull it to the UMCP or the field trains.

If a vehicle is catastrophic, or not able to be recovered based on the enemy situation, the commander may authorize the destruction of the vehicle. Before using thermite grenades to destroy a vehicle, remove as many valuable items as time permits, such as-

  • Classified equipment and documents.
  • Communications equipment.
  • Weapons.
  • Ammunition.


GRREG is performed by the field services platoon from corps, located in the regimental support area. The initial collection, identification, safeguarding of personal effects, and evacuation of the dead is the troop's responsibility.

When remains are discovered, be careful to preserve all items that may be used for identification. If metal identification tags (dog tags) are on the remains, do not remove them. Secure all personal effects in a bag or poncho and tie it to the remains. Place each casualty in a body bag, poncho, or shelter half and evacuate with the first available means of transportation, such as LOGPAC vehicles or disabled vehicles, to the squadron field trains. The supply sergeant receives all remains, and is responsible for turning them over to the GRREG collection point.

If the tactical and logistical situation makes evacuation impossible, emergency on-site burial is performed. On-site burial requires the permission of the squadron commander. If an on-site burial is performed, do the following:

  • Complete two copies of DD Forms 551 and 1077 for each body. These forms are available through the squadron PAC. The first sergeant and supply sergeant should carry them.
  • If there are several remains, engineer support may be needed to dig trenches.
  • Dig a trench 6-1/2 feet wide and 3-1/2 feet deep. The length is determined by the number of remains.
  • Remove one identification tag from each body, and string the tags on a wire in the order in which the remains are buried.
  • Place the remains in the grave shoulder to shoulder.
  • Bury all personal effects with the remains.
  • Mark the ends of each row with a stake. Tag each stake to identify the marker as a grave. Indicate the length of the grave.
  • Prepare an overlay that shows the location of the grave site.
  • Cover the grave with earth removed from the trench.
  • Forward the completed forms, overlay, and identification tags to squadron.

If the remains are contaminated, the grave site must be clearly marked and separated from noncontaminated grave sites. This must also be indicated on the grave-site overlay.


Bath and laundry services are provided by supply and service units from the corps support command. When available, these services are coordinated through the S4.

Section III. Personnel Service Support


All troop administrative and personnel actions are handled by the squadron PAC in the field trains. The troop chain of command is responsible for ensuring that soldiers receive passes, leaves, promotions, awards, mail, legal assistance, financial services, and other personnel and welfare services on a fair and prompt basis. The first sergeant interfaces with PAC daily through the supply sergeant, at the administrative/logistics operations center with the S1/S4, or at the LRP.

Casualties and missing personnel are reported on DA Forms 1155 and 1156. These forms are initiated by the individual who witnessed the incident and are forwarded to the first sergeant. This action is the basis for notification of the next of kin and awarding benefits such as Serviceman's Group Life Insurance (SGLI), so accuracy is a must.

The commander should continuously manage the troop personnel situation to ensure trained personnel are manning key positions, crew shortages are filled with available personnel, and replacement personnel are trained and incorporated into crews. During combat, platoon leaders and platoon sergeants must balance their crews after casualties are evacuated. They must fill key positions on vehicles with the most qualified soldier. If necessary the commander may direct cross-leveling of personnel within the troop.

The troop submits daily personnel reports to the squadron as prescribed by SOP. The personnel reports are important because they allow the squadron commander to make tactical decisions for the employment of the troop. The reports also allow the S1, with the squadron commander's guidance, to properly distribute personnel replacements. Replacement personnel are received by the supply sergeant in the field trains. The supply sergeant in-processes the soldier into the troop, ensures he has the proper equipment, then delivers him to the first sergeant during the troop LOGPAC.

combat health support

First Aid.First aid is the responsibility of all soldiers; they use first aid, self-aid, buddy-aid, and combat lifesavers. All must be trained to take action after a soldier is wounded to keep him breathing, stop the bleeding, prevent shock, and dress the wound until medical personnel are available to treat the soldier. Training must include treatment of NBC casualties and crew evacuation drills to get soldiers out of a vehicle without creating further injury. Selected soldiers from each platoon will be trained in advanced medical skills in the combat lifesaver program.

Treatment.The first sergeant should position troop medical aid and evacuation teams on the battlefield where they can be most responsive. They will usually operate under the control and direction of the first sergeant in the troop combat trains. If the troop zone is pushing 10 kilometers wide, the troop may operate split combat trains with the first sergeant controlling medical evacuation on one side of the zone and the motor sergeant controlling the other half. The medics must know the locations of and routes to each platoon, the troop combat trains, the squadron combat trains, and each collection point.

Combat Stress Control.The psychological effects of combat on soldiers influence their ability to execute their missions. Individual self-control and self-discipline in the face of danger are maintained through unit discipline and firm leadership. The commander and his subordinate leaders are key to the mental toughness of soldiers. Commanders should be visible to soldiers and share their hardships with them. They should talk to their soldiers individually and as a troop to keep them informed. The commander's tone of voice on the radio must indicate that he has the situation under control. He should transmit the successful accomplishments of the troop and tell the soldiers they are doing a good job. Keep details about any casualties in the troop off the radio and ensure that soldiers who are killed in action are covered up and kept out of view of the troop. The chaplain can be a great asset in maintaining troop morale. Do not neglect the mental fitness of soldiers, because uncontrolled fear is contagious and can quickly lead to chaos.

Evacuation.To receive medical assistance, a platoon leader or platoon sergeant calls the first sergeant on the troop command net. The medic team monitors the call and goes to the platoon frequency to make any other necessary coordination. The medic team moves to the reported location to treat the soldier(s). The medics transport as many wounded soldiers as possible in their armored ambulance. Do not transport the dead with the wounded; evacuate them separately. If the medics determine the soldiers are seriously wounded, they either transport them directly to the squadron combat trains, or coordinate to hand them over to squadron at a collection point. Soldiers with slight wounds should not be evacuated unless it is necessary. They should be treated and returned to duty. Secure the seriously wounded soldiers on their litters to prevent any further injury during the evacuation.

As a general rule, do not use combat vehicles to evacuate the wounded; this reduces combat strength. Use combat vehicles only if absolutely necessary, and no other transportation is available.

Weapons and military equipment (except NBC protective equipment) of personnel being evacuated are secured with the platoon sergeant, first sergeant, or supply sergeant. Ensure the soldier keeps his protective mask and overgarments. When the situation permits, all equipment that was secured by the first sergeant or platoon sergeant is turned over to the supply sergeant.

disease and nonbattle injuries

More soldiers are lost in combat to illness and disease than to combat-related wounds. Maintaining the health and fighting fitness of the troop is a leadership responsibility. Personal hygiene, field sanitation, and rest must be incorporated into all troop operations. If these are ignored, the combat effectiveness of the troop will decrease rapidly.


The unit ministry team (UMT), consisting of an appropriate number of chaplains and chaplain assistants, is assigned to provide unit, area, and denominational coverage to all troops in the cavalry squadron. UMT provides the following eight subfunctions of worship opportunities:

  • Administration of sacraments, rites, and ordinances.
  • Pastoral care and counseling.
  • Development and management of the UMT.
  • Management of material resources.
  • Advising the commander on matters of religion, morale, and morals as affected by religion.
  • Ministry in support of soldiers suffering from battle fatigue.
  • Development of programs that enhance the total well-being of the soldier.
  • Development of activities to enhance unit cohesion.


The personal hygiene of the troop's soldiers is a leader's responsibility. Rules of hygiene must be observed to ward off disease and improve troop morale. Ensure soldiers wash and change their socks and underwear daily, if possible. All soldiers should shower as time and resources are available. The senior aidman plays a big part in personal hygiene by educating soldiers and by checking for signs of trench foot or immersion foot and frostbite.

Disease can quickly spread through the troop and incapacitate its soldiers. Watch for symptoms and ensure the soldiers' immunizations are current.


Rest is extremely important for both commanders and their soldiers. When the troop is at REDCON 3 or 4, troop leadership should ensure a sleep plan is planned and executed.


Field sanitation is vital to the prevention of the spread of disease. The medics must assist in this effort by checking troop water supplies to ensure they are potable, and by ensuring mess utensils and equipment are properly cleaned. In static situations, such as when in assembly areas, soldiers will use slit trenches or latrines; at other times soldiers will use cat holes. Slit trenches and cat holes must be covered up after use to prevent the spread of disease.

Section IV. Prisoners of War


Maps, military documents, letters, and diaries obtained on the battlefield, as well as PWs, are valuable sources of combat intelligence. Scout platoons usually obtain information while searching the battlefield in the conduct of reconnaissance operations or after contact with the enemy. They should rapidly report this information to the troop commander for evacuation instructions. The scouts may be ordered to take the documents to the troop command post or to rendezvous with the first sergeant at a specific location to turn over the documents. Proper handling and evacuation of captured documents and equipment are important. The materials must be immediately turned over to trained intelligence personnel. In most cases, captured documents lose their value over time.


In most situations, returning supply vehicles, aircraft, or troop headquarters vehicles can be used to evacuate PWs from the troop combat trains to the squadron collection point. The troop is responsible for guarding PWs until they are turned over to the S1. Wounded PWs are treated through normal medical channels, but are kept separate from US soldiers.

When support vehicles are not readily available and the troop must continue its operation, secure the PWs in a holding area such as a basement or compound. Notify the first sergeant and the S1 of the PW location and continue the mission. The first sergeant will pick up the PWs and complete their evacuation to the collection point.

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