Section I. Purpose, Fundamentals and Schemes of Maneuver
Section II. Defend From a Troop Battle Position
Section III. Defend in Troop Sector
Section IV. Delay in Troop Sector
Defense is not the decisive form of war. While defense can deny success to the enemy, it seldom assures victory. The defense is, however, the stronger form of war due to the inherent advantages of the defender. Army operations recognize the strength of the defense, but emphasize the necessity to transition to the offense quickly.
Brigades, battalion task forces, and company teams are the principal defensive forces for the corps or division. Cavalry units normally perform security missions for the defense or reconnaissance missions to support attacks. Cavalry units frequently perform defensive operations as a part of security missions, or when required to defend in an economy-of-force role for a higher headquarters.
Section I. Purpose, Fundamentals, and Schemes of Maneuver
The immediate purpose of defensive operations is to defeat an enemy attack and create opportunities to go on the offense. For both the heavy and light cavalry troops, defensive operations may also achieve one or more of the following:
- Gain time.
- Concentrate forces elsewhere.
- Attrit enemy forces as a prelude to offensive operations.
- Control key or decisive terrain.
- Retain tactical, strategic, or political objectives.
Eight fundamentals are common to cavalry troop defensive operations.
Depth.Position platoons in depth, and place obstacles in depth. Depth allows the troop to-
- Gain enemy contact early.
- Perform counterreconnaissance tasks.
- Ascertain enemy direction of attack/intentions.
- Develop the situation, providing reaction time and maneuver space to concentrate combat power when and where it is needed.
Security.The troop may employ passive or active measures, or a combination of techniques. All must be considered in the defensive plan. Examples of passive and active security measures follow:
- Disperse vehicles and Screen platoons.
Perform mounted/dismounted patrols.
Use camouflage/cover and concealment.
Establish GSR posts.
Impose radio listening silence.
Establish M8 chemical alarm net.
Use hide positions.
Enforce noise and light discipline.
Do not position in likely target areas.
- Avenues of approach.
- Reconnaissance avenues of approach.
- Restricted/severely restricted areas.
- Defiles (canalizing terrain).
- Engagement areas.
- Battle positions.
- Subsequent and alternate battle positions.
- Hide positions to support battle positions.
- OP positions forward of defensive positions.
- Subsequent and alternate OP positions.
- Positions where obstacles can be tied in with natural obstacles to turn, disrupt, or block the enemy.
- Positions that facilitate counterattacking by fire or by fire and maneuver into the flanks and throughout the depth of the enemy.
- Routes to and from each position.
Mass Combat Power at the Right Place and Time.In order to defeat a massed attack, the troop must mass fires against the enemy where and when he is least able to escape its effects. The ability of the troop to mass combat power when and where it is needed is a function of-
- Early warning/reaction time.
- Responsive/rapid maneuver by subordinate elements.
Counterattack.Draw the enemy into structured engagement areas and attack him en massewith overwhelming firepower to destroy him quickly and decisively. Wrest the initiative from him. Maneuver forces to exploit the situation. Attack by fire and by fire and maneuver into his vulnerable flanks and throughout the depth of his formation.
Defensive Schemes of Maneuver
There are three basic schemes of maneuver the commander can use in designating a course of action for a defensive mission. These schemes of maneuver center on the use of battle positions and sectors for subordinate platoons, or a combination of the two.
Defend from a Troop Battle Position.Both heavy and light cavalry troops may defend from a battle position. This method is be used when the enemy situation is clear, when there is only one avenue of approach, or when the troop commander must coordinate subordinate unit fires. In this scheme of maneuver the troop commander retains most of the authority for fighting the battle. The troop commander must understand his squadron commander's intent and concept to prevent holding the troop in place and risking its destruction.
Defend in Troop Sector.Both the heavy and light cavalry troops may defend in troop sector. This method may be used when the enemy situation is vague, when there is more than one avenue of approach, or when subordinate platoons require more freedom or action. In this scheme of maneuver, the troop commander delegates much of the responsibility for fighting the battle to his subordinate platoon leaders. He maintains control through the use of effective control measures and a clearly understood intent and concept.
Defend by Combination of Battle Positions and Sectors.Both heavy and light cavalry troops may defend using a combination of battle positions and sectors. This is the most common method of defense for a cavalry troop as it provides the troop commander maximum flexibility to maneuver and mass fires throughout the depth of the sector when changes in METT-T dictate.
Section II. Defend From a Troop Battle Position
Either the heavy or light cavalry troop may defend from a troop battle position. This mission is normally assigned when the squadron commander elects to concentrate the direct fires of the troop or squadron within an engagement area. The troop cannot maneuver outside the position without the squadron commander's permission. Within the battle position, the troop commander positions his platoons to concentrate all direct fires where the squadron has specified. The troop fights to retain the position unless ordered by the squadron commander to counterattack or withdraw. The troop may still retain the task to screen/maintain contact with the enemy forward of the battle position, depending on the squadron commander's intent. If so, the tank/AT platoons will initially be positioned within the troop battle position, and the scout platoons may assume adjacent positions within the battle position following execution of a security drill (see Security Drill paragraph in Chapter 4, page 4-15).
To defend a troop battle position, the following critical tasks must be accomplished:
- Decide where the enemy will be killed and designate the engagement area.
- Establish OPs oriented forward and to the flanks of the BP to gain contact with the enemy force and provide early warning.
- Establish primary and alternate platoon BPs to concentrate direct fires within the engagement area as directed by the squadron commander.
- Designate supplementary platoon BPs to cover other routes of enemy approach.
- Establish sectors of fire for each platoon.
- Reconnoiter and establish platoon routes from hide positions to platoon BP, and for withdrawal to subsequent platoon/troop BPs.
The squadron commander assigns troop battle positions when he can mass the fires of two or more troops in a squadron engagement area. The size of a troop battle position can vary, but it should provide enough depth and maneuver space for platoons to maneuver into alternate/supplementary positions and execute local counterattacks.
The troop commander conducts a thorough terrain study before the troop occupies the position, keeping in mind where the squadron commander wants the troop to concentrate its fires.
- Designate primary and alternate positions for each platoon.
- Position platoons to achieve flanking fires along the avenue of approach. Consider the effective range of each platoon's weapon systems.
- Position platoons to mass direct fires within the engagement area and to provide mutual support.
- Position platoons to cover any dead space in the engagement area. If not possible, plan indirect fires to cover the dead space.
- Use TRPs to control fires and orient weapon systems for each platoon.
- Occupy the BPs from the rear. Establish OPs to support the squadron plan. Allow platoon leaders time to reconnoiter and position vehicles to place effective direct fires within their sectors of fire. If better defensive terrain lies outside the BP, call the S3 or commander for approval to adjust the boundaries.
- Once platoons are set, inspect them to make sure each platoon is properly oriented and has good fields of fire. When satisfied, have the platoons reconnoiter routes to subsequent positions and select firing positions for each vehicle. If time and engineer support are available, dig prepared positions for vehicles. Have the platoon leaders prepare platoon fire plans for approval.
- After preparing the BP, have all elements except OPs move to hide positions to reduce the risk of enemy observation and to decrease their vulnerability to enemy fires.
- Maintain security. Position the command post where it has FM communications with subordinate elements and the squadron. Position the troop trains behind good cover that is out of direct-fire range and allows quick access to each platoon position. The troop commander is positioned where he can observe the engagement area and control the troop. The FSO should be nearby to ensure coordinated fire support.
- Identify trigger points/lines.
- Upon the enemy reaching what terrain feature does the troop initiate indirect fires? Direct fires?
- Upon the enemy reaching what terrain feature does the troop displace to prevent decisive engagement?
- If the troop has to disengage and displace under fire to a subsequent position, bound the troop back by platoon(s), consistent with the squadron scheme of maneuver. If the troop disengagement and displacement are covered by another element, the troop may move as a whole to a subsequent position.
Section III. Defend in Troop Sector
Both heavy and light cavalry troops may defend in sector. METT-T considerations determine optimal troop sector width; however, the troop is normally allocated a sector oriented on a single battalion-size avenue of approach.
Either troop may defend in sector when-
- The squadron cannot concentrate its fires due to--
- extended frontages.
- defending along a cross compartment.
- multiple avenues of approach.
- Retention of specific terrain features is not necessary.
- The troop may use the depth of the sector to dissipate the enemy's attack.
- Maximum flexibility to maneuver is desired.
- Maintain continuous surveillance of high-speed routes or avenues of approach into the troop sector (screen).
- Destroy or repel all enemy reconnaissance elements forward of the troop's initial defensive positions (counterreconnaissance).
- Structure engagement areas.
- Position platoon battle positions to support engagement areas.
- Engage the enemy from more than one direction.
- Determine criteria for initiating fires, counterattack, and disengagement.
- Prevent the enemy from penetrating the troop rear boundary or designated NPL (no penetration line).
When given the order to defend in sector, the squadron will usually provide the following graphic control measures: troop boundaries, an initial screen line, a rear boundary, phase lines, contact points between troops, TIRS, and TRPs that support any squadron engagement areas.
Study the terrain in sector. Identify the terrain near the initial screen line from which OPs can maintain continuous long-range surveillance of enemy avenues of approach.
Determine where platoons can be positioned astride or on the enemy avenues of approach. Look for positions that provide good observation and fields of fire into the avenue of approach, and good cover and concealment for hide and defilade positions. Take a look at proposed platoon battle positions, and determine where troop fires can be massed on the avenue of approach. Use this portion of the avenue of approach to structure a troop engagement area(s).
The engagement area is where the troop will destroy an advancing enemy force. Establish a series of TRPs and use them to assign sectors of fire to each platoon. This allows the commander to control the fires of the troop and to achieve overlapping platoon fires.
With the assistance of supporting engineers, plan obstacles within the sector to support the defensive plan. Reinforce existing obstacles within engagement areas, and plan more obstacles to slow, canalize, or turn the enemy. Obstacles can buy the troop time to engage the enemy, and increase the effectiveness of indirect fires in the engagement area by compressing threat formations, slowing them down, and detaining them in the engagement area. Obstacles can give the commander time to maneuver platoons to counterattack or to move to subsequent positions. Plan obstacles in depth so the enemy gets bottled up in the engagement area and is confronted with a series of breaching operations. Make sure the troop can observe and place fires on all obstacles in the sector. Place the obstacles to achieve different effects. Obstacles emplaced on the reverse side of a hill or depression will cause the enemy to pile into them before he sees them. Strategically emplaced obstacles will cause the enemy to turn when he sees them, exposing his flanks to direct fires.
Give the FSO planning guidance so he can develop the troop indirect-fire support plan for the mission. Plan fires to support the scouts on the screen line forward of the troop. The scouts need indirect-fire support to engage enemy reconnaissance forces, to disrupt enemy lead echelon formations, and to attack follow-on forces. Plan indirect fires to engage enemy forces in the engagement area, when they are slowed by obstacles. These fires suppress, disrupt, and confuse the enemy and allow platoons to set up the direct-fire engagement. Plan indirect fires behind the engagement area to isolate the enemy. In addition, plan fires forward of the troop's positions to help disengage from the enemy in case the troop cannot stop him from initial positions. Identify rally points in sector behind the battle positions. Crews or troop elements that become separated or disorganized during battle move to these identified rally points to reassemble or reorganize.
Position platoons to maximize their weapons' effectiveness and crew/vehicle survivability based on the given terrain and the capabilities of the enemy. Platoons positioned at the base and along one or both flanks of the engagement area will force the enemy to fight in two or more directions.
Determine how to employ the scout platoons. Although the primary role of scout platoons is to conduct reconnaissance and screening in support of the troop, the troop commander may need to use their firepower to support troop defensive missions. Depending on sector width and number of avenues of approach, one scout platoon may be employed in a screen mission forward of the troop during a mission to defend in sector. It may fall back to a battle position after identifying the attacking enemy force (security drill), or it may stay forward of the troop, continuing to screen to identify follow-on forces. The other scout platoon may fight the attacking force from a battle position. The placement of the scout platoon's BP depends on the role the commander wants the platoon to play in the troop fight.
After making final adjustments to initial battle positions with the platoon leaders, plan alternate positions and subsequent positions in depth. Give platoon leaders time to reconnoiter covered and concealed withdrawal routes to their alternate subsequent positions.
Position the troop mortars where they can support the scouts on the screen line. Ensure they can engage targets from 3 to 3.5 kilometers beyond the screen line, or as far as the scouts can observe. Plan other mortar positions so that they can support the troop fight as the threat enters the engagement area. Also, plan positions through the sector.
The first sergeant positions the troop trains behind the initial troop battle positions, where they are responsive to troop needs but not vulnerable to direct fires. The XO positions the command post behind the initial platoon BPs on terrain that affords good FM radio communications with the troop elements and squadron headquarters. If possible, the XO positions the command post behind the subsequent troop positions; this reduces its vulnerability to fires, and allows it to remain stationary and maintain good FM communications while the troop displaces to other positions. The XO and first sergeant plan subsequent positions through the sector.
Position the FIST where it can maintain good digital FM communications with the supporting artillery unit. If possible, keep the FIST where it can use the laser designator to designate high-priority targets in the engagement area for Copperhead or other laser-guided munitions.
The troop commander must be in position to see the battlefield. To control the troop fires, he must understand which areas can and cannot be engaged by platoon battle positions.
The first critical task for a defend mission is to destroy or repel the threat reconnaissance. The scout platoon(s) on the screen line is responsible for identifying enemy reconnaissance forces, engaging them with indirect fire, and defeating them if possible. The other platoons may need to assist the scout platoon(s) in defeating the reconnaissance forces after the scouts identify them.
After destroying or repelling enemy reconnaissance forces, the troop is prepared to take on the lead echelon of the enemy force. Remember the scheme of maneuver. Let the enemy enter the engagement area and then mass the direct fires of the troop to strike a decisive blow. Depending on how the obstacles are set up, the troop commander may want to strike the enemy just before he reaches the obstacles; then, as the enemy deploys in reaction to troop fires, he hits the minefields and tank ditches. The commander may wish to wait until the enemy gets into the obstacles, and strike when he is confused and his formations are compressed.
Continue the fight by maneuvering platoons into alternate or supplementary positions while counterattacking by fire to complete the destruction of the lead echelon forces. If the troop is unable to defeat the enemy in the initial engagement area, it must be prepared to displace to subsequent positions. Do not allow the troop to become decisively engaged. Use the disengagement criteria from the scheme of maneuver to ensure adequate time to bound the troop back to subsequent positions by platoon(s). Keep one or two platoons in contact with the enemy, engaging him with direct and/or indirect fires. The other platoons move back in sector to subsequent positions. Once they are set, they engage the enemy with indirect fires or long-range TOW missile shots or tank main gun fire so the remainder of the troop can break contact and move to its subsequent positions.
Once the platoons are in their subsequent positions, make any needed adjustments to their positions or orientations based on what the enemy is attempting to do. Finish off the enemy from these positions, and then move forward and reoccupy initial or alternate positions, if possible.
Example - Defend in troop sector (heavy troop)
The troop is given a mission to defend in sector and hold the threat forward of PL SABER. The troop commander completes his plan and issues the order. The 1st platoon moves forward and establishes a screen along PL SPUR. The 3d platoon prepares BP 20 at the base of the initial engagement area and occupies a hide position to the rear. BP 20 is about 2,500 meters away from the base of EA BEAR. The platoon's fires are concentrated in the direction of TRP 25. The 2d and 4th platoons occupy BP 30 and BP 40, respectively, along the eastern flank of EA BEAR. The 2d platoon orients on TRP 21, and the 4th platoon orients on TRP 27. The western flank is protected by a steep ridgeline. The troop command post is on high ground about 2 to 3 kilometers behind the initial defensive positions. The troop trains are just south of BP 30. The troop commander positions between BP 20 and BP 30, where he has a good view of all platoon positions and the engagement areas (see Figure 6-2).
A threat reconnaissance patrol of two BMPs approaches the screen line moving along the flanks of the high-speed route into the troop sector. As the patrol crosses PL SPUR, a 1st platoon scout element unmasks and quickly ambushes the patrol with cannon fire. One scout squad immediately searches the threat vehicles for intelligence information and captures two wounded prisoners. The troop commander tells the 1st platoon leader to expect a CRP within an hour. The rest of the troop stays in hide positions away from terrain most likely targeted by threat artillery units (see Figure 6-3).
The platoon leaders and troop commander move into hide positions to observe the threat approach. The FSO continues to smoke and to suppress the threat lead companies with mortar fire, which keeps them buttoned up and slows their rate of advance. The troop commander orders the 3d platoon to move into firing positions and prepare to fire at his command. The 3d platoon moves into hull-down positions. The 2d and 4th platoons remain in hide positions. Their platoon leaders stay up and continue to observe. The lead threat MRCs appear about 2,800 meters away, with tanks leading platoon columns. The troop commander orders the 3d platoon to engage. The 3d platoon sends six TOW missiles down range, targeting mine-roller tanks and the threat platoon leader's BMPs (see Figure 6-4). The threat force detects the antitank guided missile (ATGM) fire and moves toward the 3d platoon, which quickly backs into defilade.
The threat's third company comes into view in attack formation. The troop commander orders the 3d platoon to engage this force with long-range TOW missile fires. Survivors of this battalion begin to withdraw from the battlefield. The troop commander quickly orders the 2d and 4th platoons to counterattack and destroy the remnants of the battalion. The 3d platoon provides overwatch. Moving to alternate positions, the tank platoons counterattack by fire to finish off the remaining battalion vehicles. The troop commander then orders all platoons to reoccupy their initial hide positions and redistribute ammunition. He anticipates the second echelon will arrive within 30 minutes. The 1st platoon maintains its positions on the screen line. The first sergeant moves to each of the platoons to resupply. He collects the PWs from the 1st platoon. The XO collects all routine logistics reports and forwards them to squadron headquarters. The troop commander checks the status of leaders within the troop and designates replacements and cross-levels within the troop as necessary.
Section IV. Delay in Troop Sector
Delay is a continuous series of defensive actions over successive positions in depth that trades the enemy space for time while retaining freedom of action. It is an economy-of-force operation that buys time to permit something else to happen at a more critical place on the battlefield.
The critical tasks for delay include all the tasks associated with defend in sector as well as-
- Preserve freedom to maneuver.
- Cause the enemy to deploy from march or prebattle formation into attack formation as the troop moves to the rear.
Planning and tactics for delay are identical to those for defend in sector, and vary only in their purpose. The flow of a delay resembles a "hit hard, then move" technique. The troop commander and subordinate platoon leaders must be very aware of disengagement criteria. The troop must mass the effects of fires to temporarily stop the enemy advance, then disengage and move to subsequent positions in depth. The troop cannot become decisively engaged. It must maintain a mobility advantage over the enemy. This means taking advantage of terrain, being familiar with high-speed routes of withdrawal, and rehearsing engagements and movements. The commander will probably have to use one or two platoons to assist disengagement of the others.
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