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Chapter 7

Other Tactical Operations

Several combat operations are routinely associated with successfully accomplishing the missions described in Chapters 3 through 6. These operations require special planning and training considerations and techniques because of their complexity. At troop level, these operations are based on standing operating procedures (SOP) to ensure they can be conducted quickly and efficiently.

Section I. Tactical Road Marches
Section II. Assembly Areas
Section III. Relief in Place
Section IV. Battle Handover/Passage of Lines
Section V. Hasty Water Crossing
Section VI. In-Stride Breach
Section VII. NBC Defensive Operations

Section I. Tactical Road Marches

Troops not in contact with the enemy often travel long distances to position themselves for future operations. A successful tactical road march depends on unit discipline and the ability to execute the plan strictly in accordance with the SOP.

Critical Tasks

Accomplish the following critical tasks when planning, executing, and supervising a tactical road march:

  • Establish the readiness condition (REDCON).
  • Issue a warning order.
  • Reconnoiter the route to the start point.
  • Conduct quartering party operations.
  • Issue a movement order.
  • Execute a tactical road march in accordance with movement order and SOP.
  • Cross and report the start point, checkpoints, and release point on time.
  • Conduct actions at halts.
  • Conduct actions on contact.
  • Maintain security throughout movement and during halts.
  • Operate a trail party.
  • Clear the release point.


The march discipline necessary to execute a road march with routine precision is attained only by strict adherence to SOP. Ensure the tactical road march portion of the troop SOP addresses, as a minimum, the following:

  • Order of march.
  • March speed.
  • Distance between vehicles.
  • Actions on contact (air, ground, and indirect fire).
  • Actions at halts.
  • Security.
  • Contingency plans for vehicle breakdowns, breaks in column, and lost vehicles.
  • Quartering party.
  • Trail party.

The basic considerations in planning any road march are listed below.

  • Time available.
  • Distance of the move.
  • Current situation.
  • Availability and condition of routes.
  • Size of the unit.
  • Types, numbers, and characteristics of vehicles that must move.

The troop will most often move as part of a squadron operation, and the move will be based on the squadron order. The troop commander must, however, be familiar with planning considerations so he can plan and execute an independent troop move, if required.

March Planning Sequence.If time permits, follow this sequence when preparing for a road march:

  • Prepare and issue a warning order, giving the troop's movement and any follow-on missions. Give them time to prepare for the operation.
  • Analyze the situation to determine if any of the movement factors (order of march, rate of march, or interval) specified in the troop SOP must be altered to meet mission requirements. If the troop must reconnoiter two assembly areas, the two scout platoons might have to be first in the order of march.
  • Conduct a map reconnaissance of the route (if assigned) or determine the best available route.
  • Organize and dispatch reconnaissance and quartering parties (if occupying an assembly area).
  • Prepare detailed movement plans based on mission requirements and reconnaissance information.
  • Prepare and issue the march order to the orders group.

Route Reconnaissance.Reconnaissance is essential to movement planning. It reveals accurate, up-to-date information about the route. A route reconnaissance determines travel times, and identifies capacities of underpasses and bridges, locations of fords and bypasses, and critical points and obstacles. This lets the commander plan his movement and avoid areas or situations that could disrupt it.

Conduct the route reconnaissance with one of the scout platoons. Before the reconnaissance, let members know what information is needed and when and where they should submit it. Get them out as early as possible; troop plans are based on what they see and report.

If no other traffic control assets are available or if the troop is moving independent of the squadron, use the scouts from the platoon conducting the reconnaissance as traffic control teams at critical points along the route. Determine through map reconnaissance any built-up areas or key intersections that could disrupt the troop's movement, and position traffic control teams there. Based on their reconnaissance, the scouts may need to refine these positions.

If the movement is being conducted as part of the squadron, one troop will usually reconnoiter the route. The troop must, however, reconnoiter the route from its present location to the start point to determine if the route is suitable and how long it will take to reach the start point.

Quartering Party.A quartering party is used to reconnoiter and prepare a position before the troop main body arrives. The troop quartering party will often move as part of the squadron quartering party. Organize it with a scout platoon leader or the first sergeant as the party leader, with guides from each platoon, and with any additional personnel needed to clear the area.

Before the quartering party leaves, it must know the troop's route, order of march, estimated time of arrival, and any specifics on establishing the assembly area. Before the main body arrives, the quartering party reconnoiters the area, marks routes, and prepares to guide the main body as it enters the new area.

Trail Party.The troop trail party is made up of personnel and equipment (normally the troop trains) to handle emergency vehicle repair and recovery, medical aid and evacuation, and emergency refueling. The trail party moves just forward of the last maneuver platoon in the main body. The troop motor sergeant or first sergeant is in charge.

Main Body.The troop normally moves as a single march unit in column formation when conducting a tactical road march. The organization of the troop and any attached elements should be standardized during movement. Alter this organization to meet specific mission requirements as needed.

The troop commander has no prescribed place in the column. He positions himself where he can best control the movement of the troop. He will usually be well forward in the column, behind the lead platoon, to respond to contingencies while on the move. As a security measure, the troop command post should be positioned farther back in the column to disperse troop command and control.

The troop's column organization must provide adequate security against air and ground threats, while on the move and during halts. See Figure 7-1 for one way to organize a troop march column.

Figure 7-1. Troop column organization.
The 3d platoon, the first sergeant, and the quartering party move ahead of the troop. The troop order of march is 1st platoon, command group, 2d platoon, command post, mortars, trains, and 4th platoon. This order of march provides 360-degree security, disperses the command and control assets of the troop, and provides reconnaissance forward of the main body. Also, vehicle commanders assign sectors of observation to their crews, who search for air and ground threats (see Figure 7-2).

The troop performs the march in open or close column, depending on the situation. Use close column during limited visibility conditions. Vehicles are spaced 25 to 50 meters apart. This method takes advantage of the traffic capacity of the route, but provides little dispersion. Vehicle density is 15 to 30 vehicles per kilometer along the route of march. Use open column to provide greater dispersion and, thus, greater security. The distance between vehicles varies from 50 to 100 meters. Open column is normally used in daylight conditions. Base the troop's march speed on the slowest vehicle in the column. The troop trains will usually limit the rate of march.

Halts.Halts are used to rest personnel, provide personal comfort and relief, facilitate mess operations, refuel vehicles, maintain and inspect equipment, adjust the schedule, and allow other traffic to pass. The squadron march plan or troop SOP will specify the frequency and duration of halts, and will prioritize work to be done. For long movements, plan halts into the troop march table and ensure subordinate platoon leaders understand what actions must occur at the halt. When unscheduled halts occur, find the reason for the halt and let subordinates know how long it will last. Provide for security during halts, and establish OPs to provide early warning of enemy forces during long halts.

Figure 7-2. Maintain 360-degree security.
Vehicles that become disabled during movement must not obstruct traffic. The crew of the disabled vehicle must move the vehicle off the route, post guides to direct traffic, and find the problem. If the vehicle can be fixed, it rejoins the rear of the column. It does not return to its original position until the column has halted. If the vehicle cannot be readily repaired, the trail party recovers it.

Section II. Assembly Areas

An assembly area serves as a place where the troop gathers to prepare for future operations. In the assembly area, the troop prepares and issues orders, repairs and maintains vehicles, conducts resupply operations, and rests. As a minimum, assembly areas are positioned out of range of enemy light artillery.


The following tasks are associated with assembly area operations:

  • Plan the occupation of an assembly area.
  • Conduct quartering party operations.
  • Occupy an assembly area.
  • Maintain security.
  • Establish communications.
  • Prepare for future combat operations.
  • Depart an assembly area.


The troop will normally be assigned a specific assembly area location. Within the area available to the troop, conduct a map reconnaissance, and if time is available, a ground reconnaissance. Look for an area that provides overhead concealment. This is extremely important if the troop will remain in the area for any length of time. Select an area that also provides-

  • Cover from direct fire.
  • Good drainage and a surface that will support troop vehicles.
  • Good entrances and exits and an adequate internal road or trail network.
  • Space for dispersion of vehicles, personnel, and equipment.

Quartering Party.The troop will often occupy an assembly area at the end of a road march. Before the quartering party leaves the troop's present location, tell them how to organize the assembly area. They must know any special requirements, such as a site for a logistics package (LOGPAC), so they can prepare the position. The quartering party must be organized to provide their own security during this operation. When the quartering party arrives at the forward assembly area, they must-

  • Reconnoiter the area. If the area is not suitable, the leader of the quartering party must report immediately and provide a recommendation for another area.
  • Organize the area. The leader of the quartering party selects locations for the platoons, mortars, command post, trains, and any attached elements, based on the commander's instructions. He may need to deviate from the commander's guidance to position an element in a suitable location.
  • Improve and mark entrances, exits, and internal routes.
  • Mark vehicle locations. Platoon representatives in the quartering party select general locations for vehicles in their platoon. Vehicle commanders and the chain of command refine these positions when they arrive.
  • Perform guide duties. A platoon representative guides his platoon into position after the platoon clears the release point.

Occupation.Each platoon is guided from the release point into the assembly area by its quartering party member. Color-coded lights can be used to link up guides and lead vehicles (see FKSM 17-97-3). When the troop arrives at the assembly area, all elements move off the route without halting or slowing to keep the route of march clear. Keep this in mind when selecting routes, organizing the order of march for the road march, and allocating space in the assembly area. Once platoons have cleared the route and moved into their areas, they can adjust their positions without slowing the remainder of the troop.

Positioning troop elements in the assembly area is based on the size of the area, the terrain and avenues of approach, the length of time the troop will occupy the area, and any special requirements, such as resupply. Some considerations in allocating space for the troop are shown in Figure 7-3 and in the following list:

  • If possible, space vehicles at least 100 meters apart to decrease exposure to enemy observation and fire.
  • Keep vehicles in hide positions and establish OPs on terrain that provides good observation of approaches into the assembly areas for early warning of enemy movement. The vehicles can be moved up to a fighting position if necessary.
  • Position platoons based on available terrain in the assembly area. Tank platoons may need more space to move vehicles in and out of position; scout platoons may occupy terrain that is more restrictive.
  • Position the troop command post in the center of the assembly area. This makes establishing wire communications and issuing orders easier.
  • Position troop trains where they have a good road network and space to conduct their maintenance and resupply operations. They may be used to secure the perimeter of the assembly area, but this will reduce their support ability.
  • Emplace the mortars in a position from which they can support the troop with indirect fires. Overhead cover will reduce or eliminate their ability to fire.

Figure 7-3. Troop assembly area.

Security.Although the assembly area is not a defensive position, the troop must be able to see and defeat enemy ground attacks. The best defense against air attacks is to remain hidden. Post guards at all entrances and exits to stop traffic that tries to enter the area. Establish OPs to observe key terrain features and likely avenues of approach for early warning of enemy approach. Each platoon must provide overlapping observation and fires within its platoon and with the platoons on its flanks. Establish a dismounted patrol plan so platoons make physical contact with their adjacent platoons. Ensure the platoons provide 360-degree coverage of the assembly area. Camouflage vehicles and equipment to prevent enemy detection from the ground and air. Place PEWS (platoon early warning system) in heavily vegetated areas or dead space to provide early warning of enemy movement in and around the position. Emplace NBC alarms upwind and about 150 meters from the troop's positions to provide early warning of an NBC attack. Assign the mortars an azimuth of fire on the most dangerous approach into the assembly area. Give the fire support officer guidance in preparing an indirect-fire plan.

Communications.Messenger and wire are the primary means of communications from the command post to each platoon and to each OP. If practicable, lay wire from the squadron to the troop. Plan on providing a messenger to the squadron command post. Use radio when no other means of communication can be used.

Preparation for Future Operations.Several tasks are routinely accomplished in an assembly area. These tasks are listed in the troop SOP (FKSM 17-97-3) under priority of tasks upon arrival in an assembly area, and include-

  • Position vehicles.
  • Establish local security.
  • Establish OPs.
  • Prepare fire plan.
  • Establish wire communications.
  • Maintain radio watch and man turret weapons.
  • Camouflage positions.
  • Prepare obstacles/mine plan.
  • Select alternate and supplementary positions.
  • Reconnoiter routes of withdrawal.
  • Perform PMCS.
  • Emplace NBC alarms and PEWS.
  • Continue to improve positions.
  • Conduct logistics resupply (Classes I, III, and V).
  • Rest in accordance with REDCON status.
Modify this task listing to accomplish specific tasks (such as conduct rehearsals, test-fire weapons, and conduct inspections) in preparation for future operations. Ensure subordinates know how long the troop will remain in the assembly area and are told of any special requirements. Occupation of the assembly area will often be conducted and supervised by troop NCOs, while the commander and platoon leaders plan for upcoming operations.

Departure.Maintain the appropriate REDCON. Each REDCON level indicates critical tasks and time available to prepare for future operations.

  • REDCON 1--be prepared to move immediately.
  • All personnel alert and ready for action.
  • Vehicles loaded and secured, and weapons manned.
  • Vehicle engines running and OPs not manned.
  • REDCON 2--be prepared to move in 15 minutes.
  • All personnel alert.
  • OPs and wire pulled in.
  • REDCON 3--be prepared to move in half an hour.
  • Fifty percent of each crew/squad stand down for rest, feeding, and maintenance.
  • Remaining 50 percent man vehicles, OPs, weapons, and monitor radios/phones.
  • REDCON 4--be prepared to move in one hour.
  • Two men per platoon make dismounted checks of platoon area.
  • One man per vehicle monitors radios/phones and mans turret weapon.

All personnel remain at 100-percent alert until the prioritized work is complete after entering the assembly area. Initiate the appropriate REDCON when the work is finished. As the time for execution of a mission nears, increase the REDCON in accordance with guidance from squadron, assigning REDCON 1 just before the troop must move.

Section III. Relief in Place

A relief in place is an operation in which a unit in combat is replaced by another unit. Responsibilities for the combat mission and the assigned sector, battle position, or zone of the relieved unit are assumed by the relieving unit. A relief in place may be accomplished during offensive and defensive operations and may be conducted during any weather and light conditions.

The primary purpose of a relief in place is to maintain the combat effectiveness of committed units. A relief in place is conducted to replace a committed unit to give it the opportunity to reconstitute, rest, decontaminate, or perform a change in mission.


The following tasks are associated with the relief in place:

  • Plan and coordinate a relief in place.
  • Establish communications.
  • Establish liaison.
  • Conduct reconnaissance.
  • Initiate movement.
  • Occupy positions.
  • Maintain operations security.


A troop will often perform a relief in place mission as part of a squadron operation to relieve or be relieved by a brigade. The troop will usually conduct a relief in place in conjunction with a battalion. The troop may relieve a battalion and operate in an economy-of-force role or be relieved by a battalion to conduct a change in mission.

To reduce confusion and maintain security, the following factors must be considered when planning a relief in place:

  • The time that responsibility for the sector, battle position, or zone is to pass.
  • Operations security.
  • Deception plans.
  • Time, method, and sequence of relief.
  • Routes and critical control measures.
  • Concept of subsequent missions.
  • Plans for additional positions.
  • Contingency plans.
  • Location of obstacles and transfer of responsibility.
  • Transfer of ammunition; wire lines; petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL); and materiel to the relieving unit.

Communications.At a specified time or upon receipt of an order, the relieving unit minimizes radio traffic or begins to operate at radio-listening silence. The relieving unit command post monitors the command net of the unit to be relieved while continuing to operate on its internal command net.

Reconnaissance and Liaison.The orders group of the relieving unit moves to the command post of the unit being relieved for face-to-face coordination.

In preparation for the relief in place, the relieving unit moves to a forward assembly area under the command of the XO, if necessary.

If the situation permits, the relieving unit conducts a reconnaissance of the area when it completes coordination. The units establish a contact point behind the positions into which they will move; a guide from the relieved unit will meet them there to make any final coordination and guide them into position.

The commanders complete their plans and issue orders to their respective units after the reconnaissance and liaison are complete.

Methods.The relief in place can be conducted in several ways. Use the method appropriate to the troop's situation.

  • One unit at a time. This is the slowest method, but the most secure.
  • All units simultaneously. This is the quickest method, but the least secure.
  • Center units first, followed by flank units.
  • Flank units first, followed by relief of the center unit.
  • Occupy adjacent or in-depth positions that cover the area of responsibility.

Passage of Command.The troop command post and battalion TOC collocate to facilitate command and control of the operation. The relieving unit departs its location in the prescribed sequence and lines up at the contact points with the guides from the relieved unit. The relieving unit moves into hide positions behind the relieved unit. The relieving unit moves into position after all pertinent information has been exchanged and the relieved unit moves out of position. The relieved unit moves to a rally point or assembly area to link up with the rest of the unit. When each element has completed the relief, the relieving unit assumes responsibility for the area and reports by messenger, wire, or radio to the command post. The relieved unit moves along its designated route to the new location. See Figures 7-4 and 7-5 for illustration of the relief in place.

The higher headquarters will often specify a time the relieving unit assumes responsibility for the sector, battle position, or zone. The commanders conducting the relief coordinate to ensure the relief is conducted on time. The relieving unit normally assumes responsibility when the relieved unit departs its positions. The commanders of the two units are usually collocated and responsibility passed face to face.

Figure 7-4. Troop prepares to conduct relief in place with task force.

Figure 7-5. Troop completes relief in place.
Fire Support Assets.The troop fire support officer coordinates with the squadron fire support officer to ensure there is fire support throughout the operation. The fire support assets of the relieved unit remain in position throughout the relief of the maneuver forces, and are prepared to support both units. Fire support assets of the relieving unit position themselves as quickly as possible to provide additional support.

Enemy Contact.If either unit gains direct-fire contact with an enemy force, it immediately notifies the other unit and the higher headquarters directing the relief. If responsibility has not passed, the relieving unit becomes OPCON to the relieved unit. The relieving unit's mortars fire missions as directed by the relieved commander through his fire support officer. If responsibility has passed, the relieved unit becomes OPCON to the relieving unit. The collocation of the commanders and command posts facilitates rapid coordination and action in this situation.

Section IV. Battle Handover and Passage of Lines

Battle handover is an operation that transfers responsibility for fighting an enemy force from one unit to another in the close-in battle. Conducted by stationary and passing units, battle handover is designed to sustain continuity of the combined arms fight, and to prevent the enemy from getting a "free ride" anywhere on the battlefield as one force picks up the fight from another. It is also designed to preserve the fighting capabilities of both forces as they execute the operation. Battle handover is associated with almost all Army combat operations.

Passage of lines is a tactical event associated with battle handover. It is the controlled movement of one unit through the positions of another stationary unit that does not interfere with either unit's scheme of maneuver. A passage of lines is often used because the combat situation does not permit one unit to bypass another unit's positions. The passing unit must move through the positions of the stationary unit.

Passage of lines is often an integral part of the following operations:

  • Deliberate attacks or counterattacks across the FLOT.
  • Exploitation and pursuit.
  • Route, zone, or area reconnaissance.
  • Raids.
  • Movement to contact.
  • Defend, delay, or withdrawal.
  • Defensive or offensive cover.
  • Screen or guard.

Although a cavalry troop does not normally perform all of these operations, it may conduct them as part of a larger force.

Critical Tasks

The three players in battle handover and passage of lines are: the stationary unit, the passing unit, and the common commanderof both units. Each has critical tasks to perform to achieve smooth and efficient execution of the operation.

Critical Tasks of the Common Commander.The commander exercising command authority over both the stationary unit and the passing unit must accomplish three critical tasks.

  • Establish where battle handover will occur by designating a phase line forward of the FEBA as the battle handover line (BHL). The line should be where combat maneuver forces of the stationary unit along the FEBA can effectively overwatch and protect the passing unit as it withdraws behind the FEBA or advances forward of the FEBA or FLOT. The distance forward of the FEBA or FLOT is limited to available fields of fire and the effective range of weapons of the stationary unit.
  • Designate contact points just forward of the battle handover line at which stationary and passing units are required to conduct physical coordination (only in defensive operations).
  • Ensure the passing unit is provided indirect-fire support while its artillery is displacing during battle handover and passage of lines.

The stationary unit normally recommends battle handover line and contact point locations to the common commander. It remains the responsibility of the common commander to establish the line and contact points. These control measures must be reflected graphically on an overlay and identified in the appropriate operation plan (OPLAN), OPORD, or FRAGO issued to subordinate units. The battle handover line, in effect, establishes a boundary between the ground owned and controlled by the stationary unit commander and the ground controlled by the passing unit commander. The stationary unit commander controls the ground forward of the FEBA up to the battle handover line. He can place security forces, obstacles, and direct and indirect fires into this area to support his scheme of maneuver.

While the battle handover line defines the point at which the battle handover should ideally occur, events normally preclude this from happening. The moving and stationary force commanders and their common commander should understand that the actual handover may occur in a "zone" centered on the battle handover line. Both the moving and stationary force must remain active and responsive enough to perform the battle handover anywhere in this zone, and should not dogmatically "stick to the plan."

Battle handover begins on the order of the common commander. To sustain unity of command in the passing operation, the passing unit is usually placed OPCON to the stationary unit to execute battle handover and passage of lines. OPCON by the stationary unit is limited to those actions necessary to get the passing unit through the stationary unit's area as quickly as possible. In defensive operations, battle handover from the passing unit to the stationary unit is not complete until the combat maneuver forces of the stationary unit along the FEBA have visual contact with the enemy, and the stationary unit commander indicates readiness to assume responsibility for the battle. In offensive operations, battle handover from the stationary unit to the passing unit is not complete until the combat maneuver elements of the passing unit have crossed the FEBA or FLOT, deployed for combat, and maneuvered across the battle handover line.

Passing Unit Critical Tasks.The passing unit must accomplish the following critical tasks to perform battle handover and passage of lines:

  • Immediately establish communications with the stationary unit. Enter the command, operations and intelligence (OI), and fire support nets.
  • Collocate a command post with the TAC CP or TOC of the stationary unit as soon as possible to enhance communications and unity of effort.
  • Continuously report to the stationary unit the location, size, and composition of all enemy forces. Report the enemy's current activity. If the enemy is attacking, report his direction of movement, movement formation, and estimated rate of advance. If he is defending, report his locations, orientation, composition, fire sacks, reserves (if known), obstacle system, or flanks.
  • Continuously report to the stationary unit the location, size, and activity of all subordinate elements to include combat support, combat service support, and command and control facilities.
  • Given the current disposition of subordinate units, coordinate with the stationary unit to determine contact points at which each subordinate company-size unit will physically coordinate handover and passage of lines with representatives of the stationary unit. Once contact points are determined, send a FRAGO to each subordinate unit specifying where they will physically coordinate passage with the stationary unit. Confirm recognition signals that must be displayed during passage (defensive operations).
  • Once each subordinate unit acknowledges where it must physically coordinate passage, each unit will dispatch representatives to assigned contact points and coordinate passage for its unit. At the contact point, confirm recognition signals and exchange required information (defensive operations).
  • Maintain visual contact with all enemy units and delay back to the battle handover line, avoiding decisive engagement (defensive operations).
  • Display correct recognition signals and use correct challenge and password as specified in the CEOI during passage.
  • Maintain proper weapons orientation.

Stationary Unit Critical Tasks.The stationary unit must accomplish the following critical tasks when ordered to conduct battle handover and passage of lines:

  • Establish communications with the passing unit. Coordinate and direct the passing unit to contact points based on current dispositions of the subordinate units (defensive operations).
  • Ensure contact points are manned and subordinate commanders have personal communications with their representatives (defensive operations).
  • Ensure representatives at the contact points assign each passing unit a passage point into the area of operations and a route that extends from the passage points to the rear boundary or to an assembly area (defensive operations).
  • Ensure representatives at the contact points exchange required information with the passing unit as outlined in FKSM 17-97-3.
  • If security forces are employed, position them along the battle handover line to observe enemy avenues of approach. Adjust as needed for low visibility conditions (defensive operations).
  • If obstacles are emplaced between the FEBA and the battle handover line, ensure routes through the obstacle system are clearly marked and physically controlled by guides, or provide an escort to the passing unit. Ensure that reserve targets on obligated routes are manned by soldiers in direct communication with their commanders.
  • Ensure that all routes of withdrawal obligated to the passing unit are unobstructed and facilitate rapid movement to the release point (defensive operations).
  • Ensure obligated routes of advance, attack positions, and routes to the battle handover line are unobstructed and permit rapid movement (offensive operations).


Figure 7-6 shows the graphic control measures that support battle handover and rearward passage of lines.

  • Figure 7-6. Rearward passage of lines.


    At troop level, the passage of lines will usually be performed as part of a squadron operation. The passage may be forward, such as to pass through a defending unit to conduct a counterattack, or rearward, such as when a covering force unit withdraws through units in the main battle area.

    The troop is particularly vulnerable during a passage of lines. The unit may be concentrated and the fires of the stationary unit may be temporarily masked. Thorough reconnaissance and detailed coordination are critical to ensuring the operation is successful.

    A troop will often perform a battle handover and passage of lines through a single battalion while the squadron conducts the operation through a brigade. Ideally, the boundaries will correspond to the battalion boundaries so that coordination for the battle handover is conducted through a single headquarters.

    The troop commander has numerous considerations to ensure a successful passage of lines. During reconnaissance, he must confirm-

    • The disposition of the stationary force through which the troop will pass.
    • The location of contact points where both units are required to make physical contact at a predetermined time.
    • The location of passage points on the battle handover line through which friendly forces will pass.
    • The location of passage lanes that provide a clear route through a friendly position, and also facilitate a smooth and continuous passage. Areas selected for passage should be unoccupied or on the flanks of units in position. If possible, use multiple routes to reduce vulnerability during the operation.
    • The location of an attack position (for forward passage) or assembly area. This position should provide cover and concealment and be located where the passing unit will not interfere with the stationary unit.
    • The initial location for combat support and combat service support elements.

    Based on the reconnaissance, the troop commander coordinates and plans for-

    • Supporting fires. The stationary force supports the passing unit with direct and indirect fires up to the battle handover line. In forward passage, the stationary force supports the passing unit's move through the passage and until it crosses the battle handover line. In a rearward passage, the stationary unit supports the passing unit's move back across the battle handover line and through the passage of lines.
    • Time of transfer of responsibility for control of the sector and handover of the enemy.
    • Troop density. The passing troop commander should plan for multiple routes of passage to ensure rapid movement and to avoid congestion.
    • Traffic control. Guides from the stationary unit pick up passing elements at each contact point and guide them through the position. The passing unit commander tells the stationary unit the type, number, and order of vehicles passing through each contact point.
    • Communications. The leaders exchange CEOI information and mutually agreed upon recognition signals.
    • CSS. The troop commander must coordinate the evacuation of casualties, PWs, vehicles, and resupply of fuel and ammunition. The stationary unit usually provides emergency service only. The passing unit supports itself.
    • Liaison officers. The troop commander should designate a representative to perform the critical duties of a liaison officer. Commanders normally coordinate a forward passage of lines and the XO coordinates a rearward passage. Liaisons are normally located at critical points during the passage. If the commander or XO is not available, a scout platoon leader should perform liaison duties. Ensure he is thoroughly briefed on the situation and follows the checklist in the troop SOP.

    Section V. Hasty Water Crossing

    A hasty water crossing is the movement across an inland waterway using a crossing means at hand or readily available without significant delay once the waterway is reached. It is preplanned and conducted as a continuation of the operation underway. Although the crossing is termed hasty, detailed planning assures that fire support and crossing means are available on arrival at the water obstacle.

    Critical Tasks

    The following critical tasks are associated with the successful conduct of a hasty water crossing:

    • Plan the water crossing.
    • Conduct reconnaissance.
    • Establish security.
    • Cross the obstacle.
    • Provide continuous fire support.
    • Continue the mission.


    Plan. A troop may perform a hasty water crossing independently or as part of a squadron. A hasty water crossing is performed as an extension of the ongoing operation. It gives the troop the ability to sustain the momentum of an operation, and is often associated with a movement to contact and a zone reconnaissance. The hasty water crossing is characterized by speed, surprise, minimum loss of momentum, and minimum concentration of forces.

    The crossing should be preplanned to ensure fire support and crossing means are at the crossing site. The need for a water crossing should be determined in the mission analysis and added to the commander's concept of the operation. This ensures the troop's critical assets are positioned to support the water crossing. Seizing bridges intact before the enemy can destroy them is the quickest and most economical means of crossing, and is used when possible.

    Reconnaissance.Scout platoons will be the first to encounter a water obstacle. When this occurs, they report it and reconnoiter it to obtain the following information, which is forwarded to the troop command post:

    • Width and depth of the waterway.
    • Water velocity.
    • Possible entry and exit points and their conditions.
    • Enemy situation on the far bank.

    Scouts reconnoiter multiple crossing sites to prevent the enemy from discovering the true site and to reduce the concentration of vehicles at the site. If follow-on forces will cross at the same sites, scouts mark the entrances and exits for their use.

    The troop commander, with the fire support officer, positions himself forward during the reconnaissance of the water obstacle so he can personally supervise the operation. The fire support officer will support the scouts with indirect and direct fires, if needed.

    Security.A crossing can be performed with or without opposition. To avoid enemy fire while crossing, prevent him from knowing where the crossing will be.

    Before the main body crosses, the scouts must secure the far bank by fording or swimming across the water obstacle and establishing positions. They should cross on both sides of the site and secure positions on the dominant terrain of the far side to provide early warning of threat activity. After securing the far side of the water obstacle, the scouts establish positions to the flanks of the crossing site to provide local security (see Figure 7-7).

    Figure 7-7. Secure the far bank.

    The rest of the troop should not bunch up at the crossing site. Position them a terrain feature short of the water obstacle, so they have quick access to the crossing sites but are not exposed to enemy observation and fires.

    Cross the Obstacle.Once the scouts have established positions on the far bank, the troop main body is ready to cross the obstacle. Time the movement to the crossing site so that no vehicles have to pause on the near side, but all can move directly through the crossing site and to their positions on the far side to continue the operation. Once the troop starts the crossing, complete it as quickly as possible (see Figure 7-8).

    Figure 7-8. Cross the obstacle.

    Fire Support.Fire support is used during the hasty water crossing to suppress known and suspected enemy positions at the crossing site. Smoke is employed to the front or flanks to screen the reconnaissance and the crossing. The fire support officer must time the movement of the mortars so they are in position to support the water crossing operation with continuous fire support.

    Section VI. In-Stride Breach

    When obstacles are encountered, an in-stride breach will maintain the tempo of offensive operations. Treat obstacles with caution and expect them to be covered by enemy observation and fires. The troop's ability to breach obstacles using available assets is important to ensure mission accomplishment. The size of the enemy force covering an obstacle with direct fire will, however, affect the troop's ability to conduct a hasty breach.


    The following combat tasks are associated with an in-stride breach:

    • Detect the obstacle, reconnoiter it, and search for a bypass.
    • Suppress all enemy positions with direct and indirect fires.
    • Obscure enemy observation with smoke.
    • Secure the near side of the obstacle.
    • Breach or neutralize the obstacle.
    • Move forces across the obstacle.
    • Continue the mission.


    The enemy will reinforce natural obstacles with man-made ones to slow, disorganize, and canalize the troop. These obstacles may consist of-

    • Minefields.
    • Log obstacles, such as abatis, log cribs, stumps, and posts.
    • Antitank ditches.
    • Wire entanglements.

    When scouts encounter an obstacle, they must follow the procedures for actions on enemy contact described in Chapter 3.

    • Deploy and report.
    • Develop the situation.
    • Choose a course of action.
    • Recommend a course of action.

    As they develop the situation, the scouts should rapidly reconnoiter the obstacle to determine if bypass routes exist and whether or not they are covered by enemy fires, if breaches through the obstacle already exist, if the obstacle is part of an occupied defensive position, what the enemy strength is, and where he is located.

    To conserve time and manpower, the troop should attempt to bypass all obstacles. Bypassing will not always be possible because available routes around the obstacle may lead into a fire sack. Forcing through an obstacle is the least desirable method of breaching because of the resulting loss of personnel and equipment. A hasty breach may be the only viable course of action.

    Before deciding on a course of action, the troop commander should position himself to observe the situation and control the operation, if possible. Once the commander decides that a hasty breach is the only course of action, he must organize the troop into a breaching element and an overwatch element. When executing the hasty breach, the commander should avoid concentrating the troop in any one area, making it vulnerable to enemy fires.

    During zone reconnaissance or movement to contact, the troop operates over a 6- to 10-kilometer-wide zone. During the hasty breach, the commander may not be able to use all the platoons in the troop. In this situation, until the breach operation is complete, give the scout platoon not involved in the breach operation a limit of advance so it does not move too far ahead of the rest of the troop. It can provide the troop with an early warning of enemy activity.

    The Breaching Element.The breaching element is composed of scouts and engineers attached or in support of the troop. Their mission is to create lanes through the enemy obstacle system to allow the troop to pass.

    The Overwatch Element.The overwatch element is the tank/AT platoons, scouts not in the breaching force, and any additional engineers. Its mission is to provide close, continuous overwatching fires in support of the breaching element. After the breaching element has cleared lanes through the obstacle, part of the overwatch element will assault through the lane to defeat any enemy in the area of the breach. The fire support officer coordinates the fires of the mortars and any supporting artillery to suppress enemy fires with HE and to obscure his observation with smoke.

    Sequence of Events in a Hasty Breach.After encountering an obstacle and the commander chooses a hasty breach as the course of action, the sequence of events is as follows:

    • Scouts.
    • Reconnoiter the near side of the obstacle to determine its front edge and lateral limits, enemy dispositions, if the obstacle is part of a defensive position, and if a partial or complete breach exists.
    • Secure flanks in support of the breaching operation.
    • Overwatch element.
    • Occupy overwatch positions and provide direct and indirect suppressive fires on the enemy for elements moving to and through the obstacle.
    • Use smoke to obscure enemy observation of the obstacle (see Figure 7-9).

    Figure 7-9. Obscure enemy observation.
    • Breaching element.
    • Occupy covered and concealed positions to coordinate activities and prepare equipment, demolitions, and routes to the obstacles.
    • After enemy fire has been suppressed, breach the obstacle.
    • Secure fighting positions on the near and far sides of the obstacle (see Figure 7-10).

    Figure 7-10. Secure fighting positions.

    • Overwatch element.
    • As the breaching element breaches the obstacle, a tank platoon from the overwatch element prepares to attack through the obstacle.
    • Once the breaching element secures positions on the far side of the obstacle, the tank/AT or scout platoon attacks through the obstacle and destroys enemy elements that can fire directly on it. This assault element either continues to advance as the troop lead element or establishes hasty defensive positions while the remainder of the troop passes through the obstacle (see Figure 7-11).
    • Troop. Continue the mission.

    Figure 7-11. A tank platoon moves through the breach to establish positions on the far side.

    Neutralizing and Breaching Minefields.Minefields will differ in layout and composition, depending on the availability of mines and the nature of the avenue of approach. When possible, mines should be detonated in place. The objective in breaching the obstacle is to make a safe route to the far side. Multiple routes across the obstacle reduce vulnerability to enemy fires, but may be very time consuming and beyond the capabilities of the troop.

    Use the following methods to neutralize and breach minefields:

    • Foot Lanes. Establish foot lanes through the obstacle when a mounted assault breach is not at first practicable. This lane is normally two meters wide, and can later be widened into vehicle lanes. Foot lanes allow the troop to move forces through the obstacle to secure the far side.
    • The Bangalore Torpedo. This device will clear foot lanes through mines and wire obstacles. It will clear a path three to four meters wide through wire entanglements and a narrow footpath through a minefield.
    • Vehicle Lanes. After the first breach is made, foot lanes may be widened to one-way vehicle lanes at least eight meters wide. Vehicle lanes may also be breached separately from foot lanes. Use existing roads when possible. Vehicle-pushed rollers, if available, should be used to proof the lane cleared by line charges.
    • The M173 Rocket-Projected Line Charge. This is an AT minefield clearing device. When the line charge explodes, it clears a vehicle lane about six meters wide.

    Section VII. NBC Defensive Operations


    NBC defense operations reduce casualties and damage to equipment and materiel, and minimize confusion and interruption of the troop's mission in the event of enemy NBC attacks. These operations are performed concurrently with all combat operations to preserve the fighting strength of the troop.


    The following combat tasks are associated with the conduct of troop NBC defense operations:

    • Prepare for a nuclear attack.
    • Respond to the initial effects of a nuclear attack.
    • Respond to the residual effects of a nuclear attack.
    • Cross a radiologically contaminated area.
    • Conduct radiological reconnaissance.
    • Perform radiological decontamination.
    • Prepare for a chemical agent attack.
    • Respond to a chemical agent attack.
    • Cross a chemically contaminated area.
    • Conduct a chemical reconnaissance.
    • Perform hasty decontamination.
    • Coordinate for deliberate decontamination of equipment.
    • Exchange protective clothing.


    The troop's NBC defense system is composed of a trained NBC officer (usually the XO), an NBC NCO, and an enlisted alternate from troop headquarters. Troop soldiers are also designated and trained to operate all assigned NBC equipment and to assist decontamination teams.

    The NBC officer supervises troop NBC defense activities and assists the commander in training NBC equipment operators and decontamination teams. The NBC NCO and his alternate directly supervise radiological monitoring, chemical detection, and decontamination operations. During combat operations, the NBC NCO is located in the command post where he-

    • Receives, prepares, evaluates, and disseminates information and reports enemy and friendly NBC attacks.
    • Supervises employment of detection, monitoring and survey, and decontamination teams.
    • Maintains unit radiation exposure status records.
    • Assists the troop commander in analyzing guidance from squadron, mission, threat, and weather as they affect NBC operations. Recommends appropriate MOPP level based on this information.

    To facilitate operations in an NBC environment, designate the NBC teams from all platoons and sections by vehicle crews so vehicle commanders have responsibility for their crews and the execution of the NBC defense team mission. Each section in the troop has a chemical agent detection team and each platoon has a radiological monitoring and survey team.

    Chemical Agent Detection Team.Each troop has twelve chemical agent detection teams. There are three in each scout platoon and one in each tank/AT platoon, one in the mortar section, one in the command post, and one in each combat trains and field trains. Each team has an M256 detector kit, a chemical agent alarm, detector paper, 400 meters of WD-1/TT for remoting the alarm, and enough batteries and supplies for seven days of continuous operations.

    Radiological Monitoring and Survey Team.Each troop has seven teams, each equipped with an IM 174/PD dose rate instrument and an IM 93/147 dosimeter. One detection team from each platoon serves as a radiological monitoring and survey team. Also, the mortar section, maintenance section, and troop headquarters each have a radiological monitoring and survey team.

    Deliberate Decontamination Team.Deliberate decontamination teams are organized by the vehicle crew. One crew from each scout and tank/AT platoon is designated as a decontamination team. This team is used to support the deliberate decontamination of the troop. One crew from each platoon should receive special training from the squadron chemical section to execute this task.


    Proficiency in NBC defense operations is attained only by strict adherence to standardized procedures as outlined in the troop SOP. The troop must be proficient in the following three fundamentals of NBC defense to survive and remain an effective fighting unit:

    • Contamination avoidance (before, during, and after an attack).
    • Protection (before, during, and after an attack).
    • Decontamination (after an attack).

    Actions Before the Attack.The best defense against a chemical or nuclear attack is to avoid being detected and targeted. To avoid becoming a lucrative target, implement and strictly enforce the following passive avoidance measures during all operations:

    • Dispersion. Maintain dispersion between vehicles whether stationary or moving; vehicles bunched together are much easier to find. This is especially important when occupying assembly areas, conducting resupply operations, or when crossing obstacles and waterways.
    • Concealment. Concealed positions prevent the enemy from observing vehicles and personnel from the ground or air.
    • Camouflage. When concealment is not available or adequate, use camouflage to hide vehicles and positions.
    • Communications security (COMSEC)/signals security (SIGSEC). The enemy can easily locate positions with direction-finding equipment if the troop does not adhere to proper communications procedures. Ensure all troop elements properly encode messages sent over unsecured nets.
    • OPSEC. Take all possible actions to deceive the enemy about troop movement, positioning, intentions, and size. Mask movement by using folds in the terrain. Use hide positions when not moving or engaging the enemy. Enforce noise and light discipline. To deceive the enemy about the number of troop vehicles, start all vehicles simultaneously, and cover all track marks that lead into positions.

    Nuclear/Chemical Vulnerability Analysis.Based on the NBC threat and the troop mission, determine the troop's vulnerability and incorporate those factors into the commander's planning.

    Take the following actions to reduce the effects of a chemical or nuclear attack:

    • Improve positions. Use available natural and man-made cover, such as folds in the earth, buildings, and dug-in positions, to protect personnel, equipment, materials, and supplies.
    • Alert personnel. Inform soldiers to assume the appropriate MOPP level (see Table 7-1), based on the possibility of enemy attack and the MOPP analysis. Inspect unit and individual NBC equipment and prepare for operations.

    Table 7-1. Mission-oriented protection posture levels.





    Stored Nearby*
    Worn, open
    or closed based
    on temperature
    Same as
    MOPP 1
    Same as
    MOPP 1
    Worn, hood
    open or closed based on temperature
    Worn, closed
    • On combat vehicle or in fighting position.
    • Includes M258A1 kit and detector paper.

    • Protect equipment and supplies. Protect against chemical contamination inside a vehicle since it is very hard to decontaminate. Keep all hatches closed, if possible, and turn on vehicle overpressure system. Cover equipment and supplies stored outdoors or in tank bustles. Nonporous plastic sheets make good covers. Use tarpaulins if plastic is not available.
    • Position alarms. Activate and emplace automatic alarms to provide the earliest possible warning of an attack. Position the alarms upwind and at least 150 meters away from stationary positions. Keep adjacent alarms about 300 meters apart.
    • Alert NBC personnel and teams. Ensure NBC personnel and teams are available and prepared to perform their assigned missions.

    Actions in Response to an Attack.Every soldier must be proficient at individual NBC basic skills. Masking is conducted immediately in response to these conditions:

    • Chemical alarm sounds.
    • Positive reading on detector paper.
    • Individuals exhibiting symptoms of chemical or biological agent poisoning.

    All soldiers mask automatically when an attack is possible, after the initiation of chemical/biological warfare, in response to artillery shells exploding in the area, and when aircraft drop bomblets or spray a mist or fog. In response to these conditions, all soldiers assume MOPP 4 and remain at maximum protection until the absence of contamination is confirmed or the commander has completed the analysis and determined a lower level of MOPP is appropriate.

    Actions in response to a chemical or nuclear attack are standardized and included in the troop SOP.

    • Initiate immediate masking and sound alarm (visual, audible, or voice).
    • Continue mission.
    • Assume MOPP 4 as rapidly as possible.
    • Treat casualties.
    • Send NBC-1 report and update it as more information becomes available.
    • Identify the agent.
    • Initiate decontamination operations.

    These procedures must be rehearsed, and all individuals must adhere to them.

    Actions After an Attack.Warn all subordinate elements immediately so they can take appropriate actions. In addition, alert squadron and all adjacent units, giving priority to the unit downwind from the attack. The troop and squadron are extremely vulnerable at the beginning of a chemical attack. Continue the troop mission while preparing for the enemy; he will take advantage of the chemical attack by conducting tactical operations.

    In accordance with the troop SOP, prepare and send an NBC-1 report immediately. The personnel observing the attack send the report to the troop XO and NBC NCO in the command post. The XO forwards the report to the squadron TOC. Send the report immediately, and update it as more information is available. Treat any casualties of the attack using self-aid and buddy-aid, and report their status through the troop command post to the squadron S1. Operating in MOPP 4 will, over time, reduce the troop's effectiveness in combat operations. Soldiers become fatigued and lose mental and physical dexterity. Maintaining command and control becomes very difficult during extended MOPP 4 operations.

    The troop must determine the type of agent used in the attack and the extent of contamination. Initiate tests with the M256 detector kit to identify the type of agent. The M256 kit detects and identifies field concentrations of nerve, blister, or blood agents. This test will help determine when unmasking may be safe after a chemical attack. Update the NBC-1 report with any information provided by the test. Decontaminate if required, and unmask as soon as possible.

    When the troop is contaminated with persistent or semipersistent chemical agents, decontamination is necessary before reducing the MOPP level. Implement the following decontamination techniques:

    • Start the skin decontamination within one minute of contamination.
    • Apply decontaminating agents to equipment and vehicles to limit the spread of contamination and shorten the duration of the hazard. Use the M258A1 kit for personnel wipe down, and the M11 or M13 decontamination apparatus for vehicle/equipment spray down.

    Decontaminate as far forward as possible. After leaving the contaminated area, perform hasty decontamination as soon as the situation permits. Hasty decontamination consists of exchanging MOPP gear and washing vehicles with hot, soapy water or high-pressure water to remove gross contamination. This operation is conducted at platoon or troop level, assisted by the decontamination team and other assets provided by the squadron. Select a site that is uncontaminated, near a water source, and concealed. Hasty decontamination may allow temporary relief from MOPP 4 for eating, drinking, and personal hygiene. Deliberate decontamination is required later when time and additional decontamination assets are available.

    Initiate unmasking procedures as soon as possible after a chemical attack, to reduce the performance degradation that occurs while soldiers are in MOPP 4. Unmasking procedures differ based on the availability of detection equipment. When nonpersistent agents are used in the attack and an M256 detector kit is available, use the kit to determine when the agent is no longer present. Instruct two or three individuals to unmask for 5 minutes, remask, and sit in a shady area for 10 minutes. Check the individuals for chemical agent symptoms. If no symptoms appear, it is safe to unmask.

    When no detector kit is available, direct two or three soldiers to perform the following procedures. Have them keep their eyes open, take a deep breath, hold it, and break the seal on their mask for 15 seconds. Reseal and clear the mask, and wait 10 minutes in a shady area. Check them for chemical agent symptoms. Have them break the seal and take three or four breaths and reseal the mask. Wait 10 minutes and check them for symptoms. Have them unmask for 5 minutes and remask for 10. Check for symptoms. If no symptoms appear, assume it is safe for all to unmask.

    Following a persistent or semipersistent attack, begin unmasking procedures after hasty decontamination is complete and the M256 kit indicates no agent is present.

    Operations in a Nuclear Environment

    Radiological Monitoring.This is the detection of radiation and the measurement of dose rate with radiac instruments. Monitoring finds a hazard that would otherwise go unmeasured or undetected. It is conducted by the troop radiological monitoring and survey team, which monitors-

    • Total dose using the IM 93/147.
    • Dose rate using the IM 174/PD.
    • Food, water, and personnel contamination using the AN/PDR-27.

    Conduct periodic monitoring when directed, or after nuclear war breaks out. Monitor a specific point in the area at least once an hour. Start continuous monitoring after receiving a fallout warning; when conducting a movement; when a nuclear burst is reported, seen, or heard; after detecting radiation above 1 cGy/hr during periodic monitoring; or when the squadron commander orders. Stop continuous monitoring when the squadron commander orders or, except while on the move, when the dose rate falls below 1 cGy/hr.

    Based on NBC-4 monitoring reports, the troop may conduct a radiological survey to determine the degree and extent of contamination. This information is forwarded to squadron in an NBC-4 report and on DA Form 1971-R.

    Exposure Control.While operating in a nuclear environment, the troop must control exposure to nuclear radiation. An operational exposure guide is a method of determining the maximum radiation dosage to which platoons can be exposed and still accomplish a mission. Determine radiation exposure by the cumulative dose or the platoon's radiation history.

    Platoons record and report their total dose radiation daily, per SOP, to the troop command post where the NBC NCO compiles the data. The dose is determined by averaging the readings from both platoon dosimeters and rounding to the nearest 10. The NBC NCO totals each platoon's average dosage, and coverts it to a radiation status (see Table 7-2). He maintains a record of the radiation exposure status of each platoon and submits a daily radiation exposure status report to the squadron (see Table 7-3).

    Table 7-2. Radiation dose categories.

    DOSE (cGy)

    Table 7-3. Radiation exposure chart.

    The regimental and squadron commanders may move units on the battlefield, or relieve a particular unit that has been exposed to a high level of radiation. The squadron commander specifies the degree of exposure that units will not exceed for each operation. There are three degrees of radiation exposure risk-negligible, moderate, and emergency. Each level of risk is correlated to unit radiation status (see Table 7-4).

    Table 7-4. Unit radiation status.


    Figure 7-6 shows the graphic control measures that support battle handover and rearward passage of lines.

    Battle handover line. This line is established by the common commander in consultation with both commanders. The stationary commander has the major determination in locating the BHL, as his force must be able to overwatch the BHL with direct fires.

    • ·
    Contact points. These are established on identifiable terrain and normally in the vicinity of the passage lanes. For rearward passage of lines, the contact points are established forward at the BHL. For forward passage of lines, the contact points are established in the stationary unit's rear area rearward of the passage lanes.

    Passage points. The passage point is that point on the passage lane where the moving unit moves through, and responsibility for the battle is passed to the stationary unit. It is usually placed where the passage lane begins.

    • ·
    Passage lanes. The stationary unit establishes passage lanes to move the passing unit quickly through defending unit positions. This could include passing through gaps in friendly obstacles and moving near or through friendly engagement areas and battle positions. Lanes are restrictive; however, they should ideally be wide enough to allow the passing unit to move in a tactical formation. The passage lane begins at the passage point and ends at the rear of the stationary unit BPs. The passage is considered complete when the moving unit exits the lane.

    Routes. Routes are used to move the passing unit through the stationary unit rear area. The number of routes designated will vary based on METT-T, but as a general rule, multiple lanes/routes should be planned to facilitate rapid passage of moving units and to avoid unnecessary massing of units. The stationary unit may escort or guide the passing unit along the lane/route.

    • ·
    Assembly area. An assembly area in the rear area of the stationary unit allows the passing unit to conduct hasty reorganization and emergency CSS actions. This assembly area is temporary in nature.

    Infiltration points. Units should plan infiltration points and lanes for personnel unable to complete the passage with the unit. Passing unit liaison officers may remain located with stationary unit CPs to serve as a point of contact for infiltrating personnel/equipment. Personnel who infiltrate must have some way of contacting the stationary unit before crossing into friendly territory.

    Figure 7-6. Rearward passage of lines.











    RS-0 UNITS


    NEG RISK: 50

    MOD RISK: 70

    EMERG RISK: 150

    RS-1 UNITS


    0 BUT NOT

    MORE THAN 70




    RS-2 UNITS


    70, NOT MORE

    THAN 150



    RS-3 UNITS









    Minimize the Effects of Friendly Nuclear and Chemical Attacks.A NUCWARN/CHEMWARN message is normally not sent below squadron level. Squadron alerts the troops using a code word prescribed in the OPORD. Squadron will also issue a FRAGO containing relocation instructions, the level of protection required, and the time of the friendly strike. To assure maximum reaction time, each soldier in the troop must be informed. Each crew immediately prepares its vehicles, equipment, and position for the attack as is appropriate to its location within the attack area. Crews prepare their vehicles by taking the following actions:

    • Move if necessary.
    • Position vehicle behind best available cover with front of vehicle toward the blast.
    • Point gun away from blast.
    • Lock brakes.
    • Secure loose equipment in vehicle.
    • Secure inside the vehicle all exterior components that could be damaged by the blast.
    • Close and lock all hatches, to include ballistic shields.
    • Wear helmets and protect eyes.
    • Turn off and disconnect all radios but one, which is needed to retain communications with squadron.

    Complete these tasks within five minutes of receiving notification. After the friendly strike, continue radiological monitoring and report if necessary. Quickly prepare to continue operations.

    If the troop is contaminated with fallout, the level of contamination is monitored by the monitor and survey teams. Decontamination is accomplished by brushing or wiping the dust off the equipment. Brush off or shake out MOPP gear and wash down the equipment and vehicles to reduce radiological contamination. Use the AN/PDR-27 to determine decontamination requirements and to determine if supplies of food and water must be destroyed.

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