Find a Security Clearance Job!

Military

Chapter 4

Operational Deployment

This chapter describes the phased deployment process for the MSE network. Signal support elements are located throughout the battlefield in a typical corps AO. Since MSE provides an integrated ACUS with no artificial boundaries, MSE deployment requires carefully coordinated procedures throughout the supported battlefield.

DEPLOYMENT

 

4-1. The base requirement for establishing and controlling communications remains from higher to lower, left to right, supporting to supported, and reinforcing to reinforced. The element in the higher, left, or supporting category coordinates frequency plans, COMSEC keys, software, and edition and control mechanisms.

4-2. Corps signal elements may be scattered throughout the division area. Divisions will support other divisions; thus, signal unit areas will become interlocked and interconnected. Basic responsibilities of corps signal elements are covered below.

4-3. The corps G6, as a staff planner, plans for adequate and continuous area coverage throughout the corps area. In the division area, the organic four or six nodes often require augmentation. The corps G6 provides the assets needed to ensure area coverage. Normally, this requires two nodes. Allocation to the division depends on corps wide commitments. The division signal officer employs his assets to support the C2 needs of the division. He has direct control of overall network assets and planning within the division switching control group (SCG). The corps SYSCON provides centralized control of the MSE network and is responsible for its effective installation and operation. The division SYSCON works closely with the corps SYSCON to provide effective TECHCON.

4-4. Each MSE NC connects to at least three other NCs. An internodal link is a link established between two NCs or between an NC and an LEN.

4-5. Each MSE corps network needs at least two gateway connections to the EAC communications network. There should be at least one link between adjacent divisions and one between adjacent corps. The physical link connections are independent of the physical boundaries between adjacent units or echelons. Gateways are based on electronic boundaries.

4-6. The SCGs and the node switching groups (NSGs) define areas of responsibility within the integrated corps network. SCGs are based on the technical span of control of a corps or division SCC-2. In a corps network, each division SCC-2 controls the planning, engineering, and executing all signal support requirements and assets within the division SCG. The corps SCC-2 provides TECHCON for the integrated corps network while assisting the divisions, as required.

4-7. An NSG consists of an NC or LENs with a signal battalion responsible for each. The NSGs provide a hierarchy of NC and LEN switches regarding the management of COMSEC keys. The corps area signal battalion and the division signal battalion provide all command, administrative, and logistical support for the signal teams within their areas of control. Figure 4-1 shows the area signal battalion and the division signal battalion NSGs and SCGs.

Figure 4-1. The Corps Area and Division Signal Battalions

 

4-8. Corps and division signal battalions provide service to subscribers in their assigned areas. Deploying node and extension assets provide this service. Within the corps, the CPs controlling close, deep, and rear operations may be provided with dual network connectivity. Normally, this requires assigning multiple extension assets to the division main CPs, the division tactical CP, the corps main CPs, and the corps tactical CP. MSRT, SEN, or LEN access provides all other CPs dual connectivity. Extension nodes and CPs are encouraged to establish and maintain a habitual relationship. This can occur within the division and corps units like ACRs, field artillery (FA) brigades, and ADA brigades.

4-9. SYSCON exercises network management and control. In the corps network, at the corps echelon, SYSCON designates an active and a standby SCC-2. In a stand-alone division network, the single organic SCC-2 within SYSCON assumes the active role.

4-10. The active SCC-2 manages the planning, engineering, and control functions for a corps. Netting the standby corps SCC-2 and the division SCC-2s technically support this. Each is subordinate to the active corps SCC-2.

4-11. In a corps network, at least two SCC-2s must simultaneously have the primary network databases, displays, and processing services. Although one SCC-2 actively manages the network, the standby SCC-2 can assume the active SCC-2's role at anytime. As the NCSs or LENSs update the active SCC-2, the standby SCC-2's database updates automatically. For the standby SCC-2 to assume the active role, it should be involved in the physical planning and monitoring of the network. In this way, the standby SCC-2 understands and can execute the commander's intent when it becomes active. SCC-2 teams should rehearse network control transfer often to keep the teams proficient.

PHASED DEPLOYMENT

 

4-12. MSE deployment requires carefully coordinated procedures throughout the corps. The MSE deployment procedures consist of four main phases, which are broken down into subphases.

4-13. Predeployment (Phase I) includes the following subphases-

  • User requirements.
  • Interfaces.
  • RAU/MSRT deployment plan.
  • Other system considerations.
  • Team packets.
  • COMSEC.
  • OPORD.
  • Site reconnaissance.
  • Database modifications.

4-14. Installing the backbone (Phase II) includes the following subphases-

  • NC to NC connectivity.
  • NC to LEN connectivity.
  • Duplication and bypass.
  • Bulk transfer (COMSEC).
  • Database modification (as required).

4-15. Installing extensions (Phase III) includes the following subphases-

  • SCC-2.
  • RAU (local and remote).
  • SEN.

4-16. Operational management (Phase IV) includes the following subphases-

  • COMSEC.
  • Subscribers.
  • Frequencies.
  • Switch database management.
  • Teams and equipment.

4-17. Figure 4-2 shows the MSE predeployment planning flow in a corps scenario.

Figure 4-2. MSE Predeployment Planning Flow in a Corps Scenario

PREDEPLOYMENT (PHASE I)

  4-18. During predeployment, the G3 planners assess the tactical situation, mission, and commander's intent and develop this information into an overlay. The overlay contains corps and division boundaries, maneuver units down to battalion level, and dispersed support units down to platoon level. The G3 planners use this overlay to assign equipment and to support the predeployment subphases.
USER REQUIREMENTS
 

4-19. The MSE users identify their address basic and special communications support requirements initially as a basis for further planning and execution.

4-20. The G6 planners, based on command guidance and in conjunction with SYSCON, determine which headquarters will receive support. This determines the method or type of signal support used to satisfy command, control, and communications (C3) requirements. These requirements include connectivity with adjacent units, EAC, and host nation's communications resources.

4-21. The SYSCON establishes and publishes communications priorities in the OPORD or unit SOP. Installing the backbone has top priority. Once the backbone has good connectivity, local and remote RAUs are then connected followed by the major headquarters. Examples are the corps main CP, the corps tactical CP, the division main CP, and the division tactical CP. Only SYSCON can direct deviating from the assigned priorities.

4-22. The G6 planners need the initial locations of all units requiring support and, if possible, any planned jump locations. They also need to know all special requirements of the supported units, such as commercial access, TACSAT, CNR, and preaffiliation list (PAL) numbers.

4-23 SYSCON ensures that backbone priorities are established for each NC. SYSCON ensures an NC establishes priority links one at a time. Figure 4-3 shows an example of a priority listing.

INTERFACES
 

4-24. The MSE system can connect with a variety of non-MSE hardware. Connections are interfaces that require changes to the standard database. MSE has internal and external interfaces and both have special considerations. The network planner determines the requirements for database changes to the units involved in the interface. Normally, this occurs at the signal technical conference before deployment. Habitual relationships may result in the need to establish standard procedures to change the database.

Figure 4-3. Priority Listing

 

4-25. Internal interfaces are simply interfaces with non-MSE communications assets within MSE networks. Examples are combat net radio interface (CNRI), commercial access, message switch (MS), and TACSAT as a transmission means. The network planner considers the requirements for interfaces and plans accordingly. Some critical planning factors for internal interfaces are covered below.

  • Due to the wide dispersion of users and scarcity of equipment, carefully plot CNRI locations.
  • Plot commercial access locations to ensure accessibility to the SEN and LEN for authorized user access. Time is required for coordination and reconnaissance.

4-26. The corps signal brigade determines MS locations to ensure support for communications terminals throughout the corps.

4-27. The corps signal brigade coordinates TACSAT support for all requirements. Data rates and multiplex digital transmission group (MDTG) and digital transmission group (DTG) terminations must be determined to leave NCs with maximum flexibility.

4-28. External interfaces are links between MSE and other various echelons and organizations such as EAC, joint services, or allies. External interfaces require detailed planning and coordination. Examples of these interfaces are with EAC and joint services through the IATACS, tropo, TACSAT, Integrated Digital Network Exchange (IDNX), and NATO. Critical planning issues are covered below.

4-29. TACSAT planning includes-

  • Date and time the satellite is available to support the mission from the approved satellite access request (SAR).
  • Type of satellite terminals used in the link and point-to-point or hub-spoke relationship.
  • Type of link (MSE, TRI-TAC, and ABCS), terminating equipment or switches, group data rates, and any database changes.
  • Coordination for COMSEC keys.
  • Use of the NCS and LENS, which have very stable automatic timing sources and should normally be designated as master when master/slave relationships are required.

4-30. Tropo planning at EAC includes-

  • Type of link (MSE, TRI-TAC), terminating equipment or switches, group data rates, cable modulation, and any required database changes.
  • Coordinating trunk encryption device (TED) keys, common interswitch rekey (CIRK), and area interswitch rekey (AIRK) for MSE or TRI-TAC/EAC links.
  • Locating each terminal, propagation mode (LOS, diffraction, tropo), transmit and receive frequencies, bandwidth (3 or 7 MHz), antenna azimuth, and horizon angle.
  • Use of the AN/TRC-170 (tropo) that does not require timing from a slave source and normally acts as the master.

4-31. Internal and external interfaces require close coordination between gateways. This ensures signal timing relationships, DTG numbering and channel assignments, digital editing, and COMSEC exchange for successful switch interface. (See Appendix C for detailed discussion of COMSEC operations.)

  Note: Other considerations for links into other echelons are physical location of both terminals and frequencies. Make every effort to provide maximum flexibility for both ends of the system. There is no substitute for close coordination.

RAU/MSRT DEPLOYMENT PLAN
 

4-32. The RAU network provides system access to mobile subscribers in planned corridors or areas. MSRT density is greatest along main routes of march and around CP locations down to the maneuver battalion CP level. If there is not enough equipment to cover 100 percent of the battlefield, holes in coverage may occur where there are few or no subscribers. The RAU planning factor is 20 to 25 MSRTs per RAU. The procedures discussed below support RAU/MSRT deployment.

  • Before deployment, the SCC-2/NPT generates the frequency plan and transmits it to one or several RAUs for distribution. The NPT is used only as a backup.
  • The SCC-2 can generate up to 16 different plans (00-15). Only four plans are downloaded to the RAUs and MSRTs, and only one plan is in effect at any given time. Of the four plans downloaded, one plan is active, one is preactive, and the last two are in reserve.
  • The RAUs with the downloaded frequency plans are then positioned to serve as filling stations to download frequency plans directly to MSRTs via frequency fill cables provided with each MSRT.
  • The S6 is responsible for downloading the frequency plans to their units' MSRTs.
  • SYSCON turns on the RAU's marker beacon that identifies the RAU and provides affiliation instructions after deployment. The RAU's marker beacon is turned off if the NCS or RAU's extension link fails. This allows the MSRTs affiliated off the RAU to automatically reaffiliate with an operational RAU. If the NCS or LENS fails, the MSRT user must reaffiliate.

OTHER SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS

 

4-33. The present NCS software has a standard database. This database determines the allocation of the DTGs at the NCS. Assigning DTGs is the basis for planning the NC site layout for cabling and antenna configurations as shown in Figure 4-4.

 

Figure 4-4. NCS DTG/Trunk Group Cluster (TGC) Standard Database

  4-34. The configuration also defines the assignment of the nine channel multiplex-demultiplex (NCMD) chips. The NCMD assignment determines the number of channels in each TGC. This assignment can be altered within limits to meet operational requirements. The NCS operator's manual and the switch initialization procedures define the limitations. Database changes should be the exception not the rule, because changes can cause control and troubleshooting confusion. (See Table 4-1.)

Table 4-1. NCMD Chips

MDTG 25

TDSGM
Location

NCMD

DTG

TGC

1
1
1
1
9 & 10
5 & 6
19 - 22
27 - 34
11
2
3
4
7
8
1
2
MDTG 26
TDSGM
Location
NCMD DTG TGC
1
1
1
1
23 & 24
35 & 36
7& 8
11 - 18
 51
6
7
8
9
10
11
3

MDTG 27

TDSGM
Location

NCMD

DTG

TGC

2
2
2
2
9 & 10
5 &  6
19 & 20
21  -  28
161
17
18
19
13
14
15
 4
MDTG 28
TDSGM
Location

NCMD

DTG

TGC

2
2
2
1

29 - 36
7 &  8
11 - 18
25 & 26

21
22
23
9

 5
16
 6
   122

1The low-speed DTG switches permit these DTGs to bypass the MDTG.
2Nonencrypted. Used for the local RAU. Not part of an MDTG.
 

 

4-35. Complete all possible database modifications before deployment. The large-switch operator can store up to ten database modifications on the Litton disk drive. When modifying a database, always go from like data rate DTGs such as SEN to RAU, or RAU to SEN, or higher to lower if possible.

4-36. The SYSCON staff and the NC officer in charge (OIC)/ noncommissioned officer in charge (NCOIC) use the DTG/TGC planning diagram (Figure 4-5) and the NCS equipment assignment diagram (Figure 4-6) to set up site layouts. Each node manager prepares this diagram. The SYSCON staff resolves any conflict.

Figure 4-5. Site Layout Diagram

Figure 4-6. NCS Equipment Assignment Diagram

 

4-37. A standard database in the LENS determines the allocation of DTGs. Assigning DTGs is the basis for planning the LEN site layout for cabling and antenna configurations. (See Figure 4-7.)

Figure 4-7. LENS DTG/TGC Standard Database

 

4-38. The configuration also defines the assignment of the NCMD cards. The NCMD assignment determines the number of channels in each TGC. This assignment can be altered within limits to meet operational requirements. The LENS operator's manual and the switch initialization procedures define the limitations. Use reassignment only when needed. (See Table 4-2.)

Table 4-2. LENS NCMD Cards

ENCRYPTED

TDSGM
Location

NCMD

DTG/TGC

1
2
1

15 - 18
15 - 18
19 & 20

 1/1 NCS
16/2 NCS
  5/3 SEN

NONENCRYPTED

TDSGM
Location

NCMD

DTG/TGC

1
2
2
2
2

25 & 26
19 & 22
25 & 26
31 & 32
13 & 14

 9 RMC
25 RMC
26 RMC
27 RMC
28 RMC

  4-39. The SYSCON staff and the LENS OIC/NCOIC use the LENS DTG/TGC planning diagram (Figure 4-8) and the LENS equipment assignment diagram (Figure 4-9) to set up site layouts. The node manager prepares these diagrams. The SYSCON staff resolves any conflicts.

Figure 4-8. LENS Site Layout Diagram

Figure 4-9. LENS Equipment Assignment Diagram

 

4-40. The DVOW provides secure digital voice communications between local and distant LOS shelters, NCSs, LENSs, and SENSs. Use the following rules when managing the DVOW's 16 ring codes:

  • SYSCON develops the initial ring code assignments for all links.
  • Refer any ring code conflicts or duplications that affect the DVOW system to SYSCON.
  • All NMFs will keep local diagrams showing all ring code assignments and changes to channel connections.

TEAM PACKETS
 

4-41. Team packets contain the information needed to open and install the different elements of the MSE network. Team and equipment files require updating before creating team packets. SYSCON generates and issues team packets at least two days before deployment (one month for National Guard units). NCs may exercise OPCON over extension nodes outside their company. Team packets are initially distributed to their organizational unit. The company issues team packets to each NC, LEN, remote RAU, and SEN. As a minimum, team packets should include the items covered below:

  • LOS frequencies.
    • Azimuths and polarizations.
    • Locations.
    • Activation times establish priorities.
    • System profile or margin.
    • Priority.

  • Two copies of the OPORD for each NC and LEN. (One for the NCS operator and one for the node manager.)
  • An NC system recapitulation (RECAP) for platoon leaders.
  • Team locations RECAP for each battalion administrative/logistics operations center (ALOC).
COMSEC
 

4-42. The COMSEC custodian develops a sound key management plan that is understood and practiced by all operators and taught to all subscribers. Effective implementation of the plan includes the actions covered below.

4-43. The corps G6 and the division deputy G6 coordinate COMSEC key distribution to all corps and division MSRT users. The teams receive pre-positioned keys IAW the COMSEC key management plan on the day of deployment or in the staging area.

4-44. The S3 ensures the brigade COMSEC custodian distributes the pre-positioned key set to the battalion COMSEC custodian. MSE works when the correct keys are in the correct places in all equipment. SYSCON coordinates with adjacent corps and EAC for gateway keys before deployment.

4-45. COMSEC accountability helps locate keys throughout the network. It is maintained for keys distributed to each element. Pre-positioned COMSEC keys at specified locations ensure switches and users have their respective keys. These keys are needed to operate specific equipment such as switches, MSRTs, and RAUs. COMSEC work sheets help the COMSEC custodian plan and conduct orderly distribution of COMSEC keys. Completed work sheets also provide an accounting record for initial key distribution.

OPORD
 

4-46. At the end of the planning phase, the corps signal brigade OPORD is produced and distributed. For example, each successful LOS path-profiling project that is completed during the planning phase is printed and distributed to units responsible for installation. In addition, the process includes a planned schedule of events and the five-paragraph format of the OPORD.

4-47. The planned schedule of events lets the signal commander know exactly what is expected. The schedule should include-

  • Concept briefing to commanders and staff by the S3.
  • Site reconnaissance, if METT-T factors allow.
  • Briefings with platoon leaders, platoon sergeants, and switch supervisors.
  • Back brief to the battalion commander/S3 by the company commander.
  • Final OPORD briefing to commanders, staff, and NC leadership. (At this time issue the OPORD.)
  • Final team packets issued to battalions for distribution to teams.

4-48. The five-paragraph format of the OPORD is used when publishing MSE plans or annexes. Mandatory key points are-

  • Database edition.
  • COMSEC key distribution.
  • Number of RAU/MSRT frequency plans and designation of the active plan.
  • Which NCS loads which PAL?
  • Gateway area codes.
  • Geographic priority of RAU coverage (where RAUs should provide coverage).
SITE RECONNAISSANCE
 

4-49. When a team knows where it will deploy, it conducts a thorough reconnaissance if METT-T factors permit it. For an NC, this usually includes the platoon leader or platoon sergeant, LOS supervisor, and nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) team. The NC's reconnaissance must be extremely detailed, as site selection and layout are critical to network success. Ensure all site layouts are correct the first time. The platoon leader completes NC reconnaissance when he fills out the NC diagram showing at least-

  • Antenna and LOS(V3) locations.
  • RAU location.
  • NCS/NMF locations.

4-50. The LOS has first priority of siting, the local RAU second, and the NCS/NMF last.

DATABASE MODIFICATIONS
 

4-51. A platoon leader determines if the database needs modifying by conducting a back brief to his command on his site layout. The back brief includes accessibility, strip maps, dead zones for LOS radios, available area for logistics support, SEN park area, and so on. SYSCON implements the database change requirements.

NETWORK OPERATIONS
 

4-52. Network operations begin when planning is complete and the OPORD is distributed. The MSE network must respond to the operational needs of the Army, and it must support the maneuver commanders. Key factors in network operation are covered below.

4-53. The signal brigade commander has TECHCON of all corps MSE assets. Battalion commanders provide assets to support the corps' plan. They ensure movement and installation, operation, and maintenance of their assets.

4-54. The division signal battalion commander manages his network and, through his division's mission, supports the corps network. The corps G6 may designate certain areas of the battlefield to be technically controlled by a division signal battalion commander. If so, the division battalion commander must still request network changes through the corps active SCC-2. The brigade SYSCON has final approval authority.

4-55. The corps area and signal support battalions have the network control terminal (NCT), AN/GGC-66. (The ISYSCON(V2) will replace the NCT.) The NCT sends and receives messages to and from the SCC-2. The battalions may request information from the SCC-2 at any time. When an action takes place concerning one of the MSE teams, the NCT receives an information copy of the message.

4-56. SYSCON manages the MSE network, including COMSEC keys, whether at corps or at the stand-alone division level. The COMSEC key manager directs the initialization, generation, and activation of keys and maintains records on their use and location.

4-57. The SCC-2 cannot generate or distribute keys. It directs the primary node switch (PNS) to generate and transfer COMSEC keys. Normally, the SCC-2 connects directly to the PNS. The corps also designates an alternate NCS. Normally, this is where the standby SCC-2 is connected.

4-58. The stand-alone divisions designate an alternate NCS for key generation. The second NCS is designated as possible backup if the PNS cannot perform bulk transfer due to equipment or hardware problems. However, the COMSEC custodian ensures the alternate NCS has all the COMSEC keys needed to perform bulk transfer for each NCS.

INSTALLING THE BACKBONE (PHASE II)

 

4-59. The most critical element in MSE operations is establishing and sustaining the backbone network (NC to NC link). The objective is for a strong multilink system that allows the direct bulk transfer of key sets to all NCSs/LENSs and RAU/MSRT frequency plans to all RAUs. Establishing a strong backbone before allowing subscriber connectivity alleviates work arounds due to switch software, hardware, or COMSEC problems. This is also true for loading the PAL. All network managers, NCS supervisors, and node OICs must remember that a PAL is loaded only once. Network managers designate which NCSs will load and keep track of PALs (Figure 4-10).

Figure 4-10. Phased Deployment, Phase II, Internodal Links

  4-60. OIC's follows OPORD procedures for priority of backbone LOS connectivity once deployed. All radio links may work at the same time; however, only one link is engineered into the switch at a time. Duplication and bypass follow the link priority list. (See Figure 4-11.) At this stage, node OICs inform SYSCON of their NCs operation, including messages back to the SCC-2. (See Figures 4-12 and 4-13.) All NCSs/LENSs keep the duplication and bypass assignment printed and current. This information is vital when nodal links fail, or as NCs move throughout the network, or when redirection of duplication and bypass occur.

Figure 4-11. Phased Deployment, Phase II, Duplication and Bypass

Figure 4-12. Initial Deployment Orders and Reports

Figure 4-13. Displacement Orders and Reports

 

4-61. As the first backbone link is established (DTG status 13 and trunk signaling buffer (TSB) 5), the NCS operator verifies link status. He uses the display interswitch link (DIL) screen before preparing to send duplication and bypass to another NCS. This ensures the link is initialized and a transmission status of Y2 is established. Any other status is unacceptable.

4-62. Once established, each NCS duplicates all virtual trunk groups (32-40) which contain affiliated, preaffiliated, and disaffiliated subscribers and TGCs over the first backbone link. The exception is TGCs 1 through 6, unless downsized for a SEN/RAU. (See Figure 4-14.) NCSs continue to follow their priority list, and the second backbone link is established. The NCS operator deletes all even-numbered TGCs and even virtuals from the first nodal link and duplicates them over the second nodal link. (See Figure 4-15.)

4-63. When problems occur, SYSCON is notified. The problems are corrected before the RAUs turn on their marker beacon (signals). On direction from the SYSCON, the NMF directs the RAU operator to turn on his marker beacon. However, if the NCS fails, the NMF directs the RAU to turn off the marker beacon. Once the NCS recovers, the operator verifies his mode of operation and requests permission to turn on the marker beacon. Modes of operation include automatic, forced, and inhibited.

4-64. RAU or SEN subscribers affiliated with a bypassed parent switch automatically transfer to another designated NCS or LENS as a group if the RAU or SEN group is marked for bypass. Setting up EUB tables are part of the duplication process. They cannot be on separate DTGs. LEN operators set up EUB and duplication data in both NCs to which they are linked.

4-65. Upon activating EUB, the adjacent NCS provides phone service. The number of channels required determine the number of TGCs (1024) that are bypassed. A SEN requires 13, a RAU requires 8, and the SCC-2 requires 8. There are 58 channels per internodal TGC holding duplication. The NC can have 58 EUB channels per 1024 link. The LEN can have 26 EUB channels per 512 link.

4-66. When the duplication and bypass process is complete and the backbone is operational, the NCS operator performs bulk transfer of COMSEC keys. (See Figure 4-16.) To establish a COMSEC error-free network, the bulk transfer of a master key set is sent directly into the correct hardened unique storage (HUS) locations from the leader switch to the subordinate NCSs in that NSG.

Figure 4-14. Duplication and Bypass, First Nodal Link

Figure 4-15. Duplication and Bypass, Second Nodal Link

Figure 4-16. Phased Deployment, Phase II, Bulk Transfer

INSTALLING EXTENSIONS (PHASE III)

 

4-67. After installing the backbone network, each NCS installs extension links by priority. Install local and remote RAUs first as illustrated in Figure 4-17. The NMF notifies the RAU operator to affiliate the group logic unit (GLU) and his DSVT.

4-68. Once the GLU is affiliated, the NMF generates a frequency plan request message for each local or remote RAU to the SCC-2. This is not required if frequency plans are already distributed before deployment. The SCC-2/NPT then automatically sends the frequency plan to the GLU. If the NMF is not available, the SCC-2/NPT can force a frequency plan to the GLU. The RAU operator calls the call service position (CSP) of his NCS to ensure the RAU can process calls. He then calls a CSP of a distant node to ensure other keys are correct. This process ensures that the COMSEC keys are in the proper HUS locations before providing mobile subscriber access into the network.

Figure 4-17. Phased Deployment, Phase III, Extension Nodes

 

4-69. When problems occur, SYSCON is notified. The problems are corrected before the RAUs turn on their marker beacon (signals). On direction from the SYSCON, the NMF directs the RAU operator to turn on his marker beacon. However, if the NCS fails, the NMF directs the RAU to turn off the marker beacon. Once the NCS recovers, the operator verifies his mode of operation and requests permission to turn on the marker beacon. Modes of operation include automatic, forced, and inhibited.

4-70. The SEN teams deploy to support CPs and to provide service for wire subscribers. They install distribution boxes (J-1077) and enforce cable/wire-tagging procedures. The SENS operator initializes the SENS, used in either a stand-alone or MSE network configuration, and loads COMSEC keys required for operation.

4-71. Once connectivity is established, the NCS calls the SENS operator over the DVOW and directs him to affiliate his DNVT. The SENS operator affiliates his DNVT and calls the NCS CSP to verify if it can process calls. Then, the SENS operator notifies the S6 who notifies subscribers to affiliate their phones.

4-72. The DSVT subscriber off a SEN loads the proper keys (U and M), affiliates his telephone, hangs up, and waits for ring busy and nonsecure warning (NSW) lights to flash. The DSVT subscriber is marked out-of-service if he does not wait for the flashing ring busy and NSW lights. This requires the NCS/LENS operator to restore service. If the SEN has a KY-90, the NCS and SENS operators must ensure they can process calls.

4-73. At this stage, NCs use their priority list to install SENSs. NCs coordinate priority list changes with SYSCON.

OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT (PHASE IV)

 

4-74. Operational management is maintaining an effective network that best serves the subscribers and begins after establishing the network. Here, the SCC-2 becomes an operations management tool for making additional changes. The information flow between all elements, units, signal personnel, and the SYSCON becomes more important as the network changes and reconfiguration occurs. (See Figure 4-18.)

4-75. RAU coverage and frequency plans are checked continuously. Ensure SYSCON is aware of all changes that affect the network. The NC's NMF reports frequency interference, equipment failure, COMSEC, and other problems to SYSCON. To identify problems, several management screens at the active SCC-2 need printing periodically. These printed screens help make network decisions when subscribers jump and equipment fails.

4-76. RECAP screens are printed, reviewed, and stored in the station logbook. This logbook should contain at least-

  • Link data, RECAP of all planned and in-use internodal and extension node links.
  • Authorized and restricted LOS/SHF frequencies.
  • Current RAU/MSRT frequency plans.
  • Current locations of all assemblages.
  • Subscriber management cell operations.
  • SCC-2 SICPS layout diagram.

Figure 4-18. Message Flow

  4-77. The active SCC-2 issues orders to all NMFs. It receives reports from the NMFs upon execution of these orders. Thus, the SCC-2 maintains control of the network. The NMF's OIC/NCOIC sends reports by the workstation or other electronic means. This is the only means to update SCC-2 files without manual input by SCC-2 operators. (See Figures 4-19 and 4-20.) All directives and reports for SEN, RAU, NATO, NAI, and relay teams are routed to the NMF and passed by orderwire, telephone, CNR, or courier.

Figure 4-19. Open Link Sent to NC61

Figure 4-20. Open Link Report from NC 61

  4-78. The SCC-2 must have influence over COMSEC, subscribers, frequencies, switches, and teams and equipment for a successful network. (See Figure 4-21.)

Figure 4-21. Five Major Areas of Phase IV Operational Management

  4-79. COMSEC plans and operations do not change when the network deploys. SYSCON directs changes once MSE assets are employed. After installing the network, subscriber key mismatch may occur. COMSEC error messages printed on the NCS/LENS printer identify most problems. COMSEC messages, especially rekeyed terminated messages, are reported to SYSCON to determine if a network COMSEC problem exists. Table 4-3 shows some reportable COMSEC messages.

4-80. Subscriber problems are channeled from the extensions to NMFs through the SYSCON's subscriber cell. The cell includes personnel in charge of subscriber problems. The cell handles subscriber problems and passes information down to the NMF. When the cell manages network problems, it also looks for potential problems and fine-tunes the network. For MSRT subscribers, SYSCON requires all NMFs to monitor RAUs using the display group status (DGS) screens. NMFs report the number of subscribers affiliated to their RAUs. With these reports, SYSCON determines if more RAU coverage is needed.

4-81. SYSCON manages frequencies for all communications systems in the corps/division, including all MSE LOS links and MSRTs/RAUs. Operators absolutely must not flip-flop, swing, bootleg, or use unauthorized frequencies. SYSCON cannot accurately perform frequency management if problems are not reported. Interference problems occur when node OICs change or use other than SCC-2 assigned frequencies. As the network grows, overriding the SCC-2's automatic frequency allocation feature causes interference problems. The SYSCON OIC decides whether to input frequencies and override the SCC-2 manually.

 

Table 4-3. Reportable COMSEC Messages

Message

Indication

Command 42 failed, KG93xx KG82nn did not SYNCH with xx-xx DRCVR n. Indicates U key mismatch with an MSRT.
KG82nn did not SYNCH with DRCVR n. Indicates wrong M key failure to SYNCH with an MSRT.

KG82nn did not SYNCH with xx-xx, DRCVR yy.

Indicates wrong M key in LD(X) position of wire line DSVT.

Rekeyed terminated: n, [directory number] LNXXXXX, [profile] nn.

Indicates M key mismatch between the switch and an MSRT. This normally occurs with the KG82 message.

[Terminal address] xx-xx out of service.

Indicates a wire line DSVT terminal address marked out of service which occurs with M key mismatch and prints with the KG82 failed to SYNCH message.

 

 

4-82. All frequency margins should be at least +13 for internodal links and +11 for extension links. These margins are only guidelines and may be altered, depending on local conditions. Margins of +15 may cause over modulation that degrades the link. Consider remoting the LOS with SHF to obtain a higher margin.

4-83. RAU frequencies should contain as many frequency pairs as possible (up to 96; recommended minimum is 40). The frequency manager determines the number of frequency pairs. RAUs working within the same network use 20 percent of the frequency pairs of the active plan duplicated in the reserve plan. This ensures that MSRT users can reaffiliate in the network during frequency plan changes. RAUs working in different networks and occupying the same area must have zero percent of frequency overlaps between active frequency plans. The dialogue between the MSRTs and RAUs searches for a frequency pair. If they match, there is a CRYPTO alarm on the MSRT because of different M keys.

4-84. Switches assist SYSCON in managing the network by determining network performance.

4-85. Traffic metering reports provide the node OIC with a detailed look of the switch's performance. These reports include-

  • R1 - switch traffic report.
  • R2 - node pair traffic report.
  • R3 - summary for TGCs.
  • R4 - precedence reports for TGCs.
  • R5 - loop traffic report.
  • R6 - DTG binary digit error rate report. (All DTGs should average 100 percent of the time at 10-6.)
4-86. Traffic load control (TLC) limits subscriber access at each switch during low call completion rates, bad or busy trunks, or network/switch congestion. The subscriber's profile contains its TLC level. TLC levels are-
  • 1 - no restrictions.
  • 2 - restrict trunk access.
  • 3 - restrict trunk access.
  • 5 - restrict switch access.
 

Note: If TLC 2, 3, or 5 is implemented, telephones can receive calls. However, they will not have a dial tone.

 

4-87. Gateways may become overloaded with traffic due to increased use or reduced grade of service. Zone restriction limits groups of subscribers, based on profile, access to certain gateways. Two zone restriction lists have a maximum of 101 entries. The other six zone restriction lists have a maximum of 33 entries. Restricted lists prevent subscribers from calling those zones on the list, while permissive lists prevent subscribers from calling any zone that is not on the list. Each entry contains-

  • Entry number.
  • Start code (defining a single zone or the start of a zone range).
  • End code (either blank for a single zone or defining the end of the zone range).

4-88. The zone range uses two entries in the database. The start or end codes consist of a three-digit area code, a four-digit unit code, or a six-digit NATO area code in the form NYX, LNXX, or 9YX XXX, where

  • N = any digit 2 through 9.
  • L = any digit 1 through 7.
  • X = any digit 0 through 9.
  • Y = any digit 0 or 1.
  • 9 = defines NATO subscriber.

4-89. NCS/LENS operators can temporarily change subscriber profile assignments with approval from SYSCON. Profile reassignment must be coordinated through the G6.

4-90. When the number of MSRTs affiliated to the RAU exceeds 25, SYSCON should consider distributing the MSRT load to other RAUs or "shaking the blanket." This action requires the RAU operator to turn off the marker beacon and report to the NMF when all radios are free. Shaking the blanket is performed only when there is sufficient overlapping of RAU converge or during low-traffic periods. The switch operator performs an assign SEN/RAU/SCC-2 (ASR) database modification to indicate "absent" and places the remaining subscribers in the absent subscriber mode. This forces active MSRTs to transfer affiliation automatically to the strongest available RAU marker. SYSCON notifies the NMF to turn on the marker beacon and perform another DGS to determine the correct number of MSRTs. However, if the numbers have not changed, SYSCON considers the importance of subscribers and the use of RAU modes of operation. Modes of operation include-

  • Automatic: Six radios are for routine subscribers and two are reserved for priority users.
  • Forced: All radios are used for priority subscribers only.
  • Inhibited: No radios are reserved; all subscribers can access any radio.

4-91. The node OIC/NCOIC makes database changes for MSE links. SYSCON provides assistance for non-MSE links. If problems occur, SYSCON is notified. All changes are made as they are required.

4-92. SYSCON normally controls the movement of SENs or LENs. During the rapid flow of battle, SENs or LENs may displace before notifying SYSCON. If this occurs, the S6 coordinates with the corps or division deputy G6 or SYSCON. Based on the S6's coordination, the SCC-2 can engineer systems to the extension node's proposed location. If time permits, the SEN's NCOIC and the unit's S6 perform reconnaissance for the proposed site. The SEN NCOIC notifies the NC of information that is passed to SYSCON.

4-93. YSCON generates team packet FRAGOs and sends them by message to the gaining and losing NC. The SEN calls the losing NC by telephone for permission to close the link. Before closing the link, the NC gives information from the team packet to the SEN to install a link with the gaining NC. The NC enters ASR/MODIFY/ABSENT before closing the link. The NC closes the link and sends a close link report to the SCC-2. The SEN team reports leaving the site to the losing NC by MSRT or FM radio. Once the SEN team arrives on site, they report to the gaining NC who notifies SYSCON by telephone. After establishing the link to the SEN, the gaining NC sends an open link report to the SCC-2.

4-94. SYSCON takes immediate action on unexpected changes, such as destroyed or failed NCs. SYSCON first determines if the NC is destroyed or has failed. A destroyed NC can be identified if no communications can be made to the NC by FM radio or its internodal links. A failed NC is identified by contact being made from the NMF. SYSCON directs the extensions to re-home their LOS antennas to provide connectivity if the NC is inoperable for a long time. For the SENS to regain access into the network, SYSCON finds an NC that can handle the additional system. The SEN is contacted by FM radio to reorient its LOS. It is not always possible to give all the extensions access into the network. SYSCON determines which SEN is given network access.

  Note: Re-homing links require the SCC-2/NPT to generate a new project, assign new frequencies, and create new team packets.
  4-95. The SCC-2/NPT maintains team and equipment files. The files are updated before and during each operation. This ensures the SCC-2/NPT has the most current information available. It is important to update these files because without updated information, teams could be committed to a mission they are not equipped to accomplish. While in garrison, the operational readiness report (ORR) is used to update the SCC-2/NPT files. Once deployed, the node OIC must feed this information to the SCC-2 by report messages.

 



NEWSLETTER
Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list