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APPENDIX C

Major Operations Plan Model Operational-Level1

                                                Copy No._____
                                         Issuing Headquarters
                                               Place of Issue
                                 Date/Time Group of Signature

MAJOR OPERATION PLAN: (Number or code name)

References: Maps, charts, and other documents

TASK ORGANIZATION/COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS: Briefly describe the organization of the Army in theater to support the CINC's long-range strategy and campaign plan, specifically identifying the command conducting the operation. In a plan for a major operation composed of several phases, put the task organization in a separate annex (Annex A) that also outlines command relationships and their changes, if any, as the operation progresses from one phase to the next. Include task organizations for Army component support to contingencies in the annexes referring to the plans for those operations. The structure of Annex A deals with the following factors:

    a. Civil-Political Relationships. Embassies, country teams, non-DOD US Government agencies (CIA, Drug Enforcement Agency [DEA], Agency for International Development [AID]).

    b. Multinational Force Relationships. Host nations, allies, forces from regional/treaty organizations.

    c. Joint Relationships. DOD agencies (DIA, National Security Agency), unified and specified commands (subunified commands and JTFs when appropriate), other services in uniservice roles.

    d. Relationships with Other Army Commands. HQDA, USAMC, US Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), other CONUS MACOMs, and their stovepipe organizations in the theater and army components of other unified commands.

    e. Army in Theater Relationships. The structure that reflects unity of command within the ASCC or ARFOR.

      (1) Army components of subunified commands and JTFs.

      (2) Functional commands.

      (3) Area commands.

      (4) Major combat and combat support organizations directly under ASCC command in peacetime.

      (5) Army organizations providing operational-level support to the BCE and ACEs.

      (6) ARSOF, especially the theater army special operations support center.

1. Situation. Thoroughly describe the operational environment as well as appropriate aspects of the strategic environment in which the major operation will be conducted. Include tactical information for the early phases of the operation. Refer to command and staff estimates, country studies, or OPLANs. Designate the trigger event that signals execution of the OPORD.

    a. Intelligence. Use this subparagraph to refer to a separate intelligence annex (Annex B) or the intelligence estimate. The two main components include the following:

      (1) A summary of information concerning the area of operations, which consists of--

        (a) A strategic overview of the area, to include its climate, politics, geography, topography, demography, economics, and social/cultural factors.

        (b) Specific, localized information about conditions affecting the early phases of the operation, especially if a forced entry is anticipated. Include weather, key terrain, observation, cover and concealment, obstacles, avenues of approach, drop zones, landing zones, and beach and hydrographic data.

      (2) A description of the enemy, which consists of--

        (a) Strategic and operational factors such as the political roots and objectives of enemy activity, personalities, outside support, sanctuaries, logistics capabilities, levels of training and combat experience, morale, strategic and operational centers of gravity, and vulnerabilities to PSYOP.

        (b) Factors of immediate concern during the early phases of the operation such as locations, strengths, weapons systems, tactical capabilities, reserves, mobility.

        (c) Information about the military strengths of nations not allied or affiliated with US forces. Include order-of-battle information, numbers of major weapons systems, personalities of leaders, levels of training, or combat experience and affiliation with major hostile powers.

    b. Friendly Forces. Provide information on friendly forces that may affect he execution of the plan being put forth. These effects may impact directly on the command or on the organizations subordinate to that command.

      (1) Task organizations/command relationships. State the mission and applicable parts of the concept of operation of the joint or multinational command to which the ARFOR is subordinate. They will normally be as stated in the theater campaign plan. Provide sufficient detail so that key individuals know and understand the higher, joint, or multinational commander's intent, the end state desired at the conclusion of the campaign, and how their actions mesh to attain joint or multinational goals.

      (2) Higher headquarters. Include the mission, concept, and intent of the unified/joint theater CINC. His charter is to further US in the theater and should be stated so that the ASCC/ARFOR, his staff, and subordinates know and understand the part they play in achieving the CINC's strategic aim.

      (3) HQDA. Describe the missions, concepts, and intents of HQDA as they certain to the theater. In peacetime, the ASCC is a MACOM responding to CINC direction as well as to HQDA for Title 10 responsibilities. Include references to Army regulations or other service authorities.

      (4) Other service components. Highlight the roles of the Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps components of the unified command.

      (5) Joint, unified, and specified commands and DOD agencies. Highlight the roles of other commands that affect the operations in this theater.

      (6) Multinational forces. Highlight the organization, capabilities, and activities of friendly nations in the theater, with emphasis on their military forces. State their roles and missions in support of the CINC's objectives to further US policies.

      (7) Special operations forces. Describe the activities of SOF in the region that affect the operation.

      (8) US Coast Guard. Describe the role of the Coast Guard in the theater, especially its counternarcotics role.

      (9) Department of State. Highlight the contributions of US embassies and country teams in the theater as they affect and interface with elements of the ASCC/ARFOR.

      (10) Other non-DOD US agencies. Describe the activities of US Government agencies not included in country teams, such as DEA and AID, as they affect Army operations.

    c. Attachments and Detachments. Highlight critical elements of the Task Organization/Command Relationship section (Annex A).

    d. Assumptions. Provide a summary of the conditions and situations that must exist when the OPLAN becomes an OPORD. They include predictions and presumptions concerning the following:

      (1) Conditions within host countries and other nations in the region.

      (2) Consistency of US policy for the region such as the application of the War Powers Act.

      (3) Involvement by hostile powers, both from outside and within the region, in the internal affairs of nations in the theater.

      (4) Effects of US actions in the theater on relations with nations outside the theater.

      (5) Adequacy of interagency support.

      (6) Bilateral and multilateral consensus on the degree or extent of common threats, for example, the narcotics trade, and required actions.

      (7) Availability of resources.

      (8) Warning times.

      (9) Times and locations of anticipated hostile actions.

      (10) Anticipated political situations in the host nation and neighboring nations.

      (11) The timing of political decisions in friendly nations.

      (12) The timing of the release of the use of special weapons.

2. Mission. Provide a clear, concise statement of the tasks to be achieved in all phases of the major operation. Include the commander's visualization of the end state to be achieved. Examples are restoration of an international boundary, defeat of enemy armed forces, or clearing of hostile armed forces from a given geographical area. If for an MOOTW, provide a clear statement of the long-range, continuing aim of the theater army. Summarize tasks assigned by the CINC, tasks directed by HQDA, and tasks derived from the commander's analysis of the environment and his understanding of his superiors' intent. Unlike the single-paragraph narrative common to the mission statement for a wartime operation, the MOOTW mission statement is usually a list of tasks. These tasks may include the following:

    a. Plan and organize for transition to war.

    b. Support and sustain ARFOR and other designated forces.

    c. Protect the force, its personnel, and family members.

    d. Train ARFOR to maintain readiness.

    e. Participate in security assistance efforts.

    f. Conduct Army intelligence activities in conjunction with joint and multinational intelligence efforts.

    g. Plan for, rehearse, and participate in contingency operations and responses to crises. Plans for such operations may be included as annexes and generally conform to the format for an OPORD for an ARFOR in a conflict situation. Such peacetime operations include the following:

      (1) Security assistance.

      (2) Nation assistance.

      (3) Search and rescue.

      (4) Humanitarian assistance.

      (5) CA.

      (6) NEO.

      (7) Peacekeeping.

      (8) Show of force.

3. Execution.

    a. Commander's Intent. Provide a statement, in general terms, of the commander's visualization (from start to finish) of the mission accomplishment by his command. This subparagraph links the mission to the concept of operations. It binds all subordinate activities to the overall objective.

    b. Concept of Operations. Describe the commander's visualization of how the mission will be accomplished, to include his intent for the employment of the command as a whole. At the operational level, divide the concept into phases; the commander will specify the end state for each phase so that subordinates know his intent for each phase. The trigger event for the transition between phases is the achievement of some intermediate goal. This knowledge will permit subordinates to plan branches within their own plans. The subordinate commanders are empowered to demonstrate initiative in supporting the achievement of the commander's stated end state. The commander and his subordinates can also execute sequels within and at the conclusion of phases, depending on the outcome of battles and engagements. Include an operations overlay (Annex C) and the deception plan (Annex D) in the concept.

      (1) Phase I. The first operational phase of a contingency is usually the detailed preparation of the command to execute the operation. In a highly charged, time-sensitive environment characterized by political maneuvers from a diplomatic posture, the commander prepares his concept by--

        (a) Organizing his staff to conduct the proposed operation and integrating those augmentation cells from other components and agencies and subordinate Army units.

        (b) Establishing liaison with the host nation, with the unified command responsible for the target area, with other unified and commands (especially those involved in deployment), with SOF already in the target area, and with appropriate US Government agencies.

        (c) Negotiating status of forces agreements, constraints (Annex E), and ROE (Annex F) for the proposed operation with the host nation, in coordination with DOS and appropriate embassies and country teams.

        (d) Establishing or preparing to establish intermediate staging bases in the target region and directing the repositioning of supplies and equipment.

        (e) Conducting necessary operations to support political and diplomatic initiatives or to rehearse for the planned major operation.

        (f) Ordering his subordinate organizations to prepare to execute the operation.

        (g) Stating the commander's concept to attain the end state for this phase by the command as a whole.

        (h) Setting forth the commander's scheme of operational maneuver, including close battle, deep battle, and rear operations when appropriate.

        (i) Describing how operational fires will be employed. Include a phased fire support annex (Annex G) to show complex arrangements for fire support, including priorities of fires and targeting. Augment the annex with appendixes for air support, chemical support, field artillery support, naval gunfire support, and nuclear fires.

        (j) Including air defense (Annex H), electronic warfare (Annex I), engineer support (Annex J), and PSYOP (Annex K), rear operations (Annex L), protection of forces and means (Annex M), provost marshal functions (Annex N), public affairs (Annex O), and space operations (Annex P).

        (k) Using the subsequent subparagraphs to direct tasks for subordinate units not already covered in the concept for this phase.

        (l) Stating the initial location and tasks for the reserve. Propose the employment of the reserve in taking advantage of branches and sequels.

        (m) Providing coordinating instructions applicable to two or more subordinate elements. If reinforcements from outside the theater will impact on operations, include that impact here. Also include instructions for linkups with SOF or ground units involved in the deep battle.

      (2) Phase II. The second operational phase is the execution of the operation itself. It can be composed of several phases (deployment, force entry, force buildup and combat operations, decisive combat operations and achievement of end state). In this phase, the commander--

        (a) States his concept in detail to attain the phase's end state by the command as a whole. In his narration of the step-by-step execution of the phase, he specifies exactly which subordinate and supporting units will accomplish each operational or tactical task.

        (b) Sets forth the scheme of maneuver, as well as the deployment scheme, to attain initial objectives. Where appropriate, the scheme should include the forcible insertion of combat elements and necessary C² elements and their accompanying support.

          1. Changes in the form of maneuver.

          2. Changes in the nature of the operation.

          3. Major regrouping of forces.

          4. Significant changes in enemy capabilities.

        (c) Prescribes the employment of fires necessary to attain initial objectives according to the fire support Annex (Annex G). The annex includes targeting priorities and priorities of fire and may be augmented by appendixes for air support, field artillery support, and naval gunfire support. In this subparagraph or its annex, also include joint interfaces such as the joint targeting (JTB) and the BCE.

        (d) Includes provisions for air defense (Annex H), electronic warfare (Annex I), engineer support (Annex J), PSYOP (Annex K), rear operations (Annex L), protection of forces and means (Annex M), provost marshal functions (Annex N), public affairs (Annex O), and space operations (Annex P).

        (e) In subparagraphs subsequent to (d) above, includes direct tasks for subordinate units not already covered in the phase concept.

        (f) If appropriate, states the location and tasks for the reserve. This subparagraph proposes the employment of the reserve in taking of branches and sequels.

        (g) Includes coordinating instructions that apply to two or more elements. Also includes link-up procedures between the force and forces already in the operation, if appropriate.

      (3) Phase III. The third operational phase is the consolidation of the results of a successful end state for this phase. It does not contain the detail of the preceding phases. In this phase, the commander includes instructions for the--

        (a) Redeployment of combat forces to their original locations.

        (b) Deployment of CA, MP, engineer, medical, or other types of units necessary to restore peacetime stability to the target region in case a continuing US military presence is required.

        (c) Modification of the residual force's relations with US Government agencies and the host nation to aid in the transition to peacetime stability.

    c. Tasks for Major Subordinate Commands. Set forth tasks that encompass two or more phases of the major operation in a subparagraph for each major subordinate command.

    d. Coordinating Instructions. Provide instructions appropriate to two or more phases of the operation. Coordinating instructions may include--

      (1) Airspace management procedures. Include the formation of an A²C² cell and its relation with the theater airspace control authority.

      (2) Operational fires planning guidance. Refer to a separate annex (Annex G).

      (3) Force-protection guidance. Refer to a separate annex (Annex M). Include the mission-oriented protection posture (MOPP) levels.

      (4) Times, events, or situations that signal the transition between phases.

      (5) Constraints (Annex E). Operations in situations short of general war are usually constrained significantly by factors other than military ones. Describe such limitations on military actions in an annex detailing the provisions of treaties, agreements, and conventions governing the political, humanitarian, and informational limits on the military effort.

      (6) Rules of engagement (Annex F). In addition to constraints imposed by international agreements, certain self-imposed ROE govern the use of military forces and certain weapons effects during the major operation.

      (7) Times, events, or situations that signal the transition between phases.

      (8) Resource management guidance.

      (9) Training guidance. Refer to a separate annex (Annex Q).

      (10) Operational planning guidance.

      (11) Space operations planning guidance (Annex P).

      (12) Public affairs operations (Annex O).

4. Support. Provide operational support instructions that are of primary interest to the elements being supported. An ARFOR without its own inherent logistical organization will refer to the administrative/logistical plan of the ASCC for detailed procedures on how operational-level support elements and other subordinate elements may receive support from operational-level support organizations. In this paragraph or in a support annex (Annex R), the ARFOR commander describes those support matters necessary to accomplish the combat mission of his force. He must ensure that support plan phases coincide with OPLAN phases.

    a. Even without an integral support organization, the ARFOR commander may choose to include the following subjects in his plan's support paragraph or annex.

      (1) Priorities of supply and maintenance.

      (2) Submission of materiel status reports.

      (3) Controlled supply rate for Class V.

      (4) Prescribed nuclear load.

      (5) Chemical munitions allocations.

      (6) Designations of LOCs.

      (7) Labor policies (use of EPW, civilian labor).

      (8) Medical evacuation policies.

      (9) Personnel strength reports.

      (10) Replacement policies and priorities.

      (11) Reconstitution.

      (12) Reception and onward movement of reinforcements.

      (13) NEO.

      (14) CA.

      (15) Host nation considerations.

      (16) Public affairs.

    b. If a support organization is placed under command of an ARFOR, include the detailed information normally found in the ASCC plan.

    c. Identify support, such as labor, transportation, and facilities from host nations and friendly third countries. Set forth in detail the procedures for making use of these resources.

    d. Include procedures for ASCC support of contingency forces from CONUS or other theaters.

    e. Highlight routine daily force sustainment, to include the operation of installations and military communities.

5. Command and Signal.

    a. Command. Provide information concerning command post locations, succession of command, and liaison requirements.

    b. Signal. In this subparagraph or its supporting annex (Annex S), describe communications procedures and priorities such as radio silence, CEOI, codes, and interface with joint or multinational communications nets.

                     (Signed)__________________________
                                            (Commander)

ANNEXES:

Annex A - Task Organization/Command Relationships. This annex is presented in phases. For each phase, list commands directly subordinate to the headquarters issuing the OPLAN as major headings. Indent, under the title of each direct subordinate command, the direct subordinates of that command in the order prescribed in FM 101-5, Appendix G. In a numbered army, include corps and maneuver organizations smaller than corps directly under army control, army field artillery air defense units, and other EAC organizations. Additionally, this annex--

Annex B - Intelligence. This annex includes the following information:

  • Analysis of the AO. Climate, geography, political matters, aspects of economics, and social/cultural affairs affecting the operation.

    ··Strategic factors.

    ··Operational/tactical factors.

  • Enemy situation. Strengths, vulnerabilities, capabilities, dispositions, personalities.

    ··Strategic factors.

    ··Operational/tactical factors.

  • Essential elements of information.

  • IPB, to include acquisition tasks.

  • Counterintelligence.

  • Intelligence administration. Handling of prisoners of war, documents, materiel, and intelligence reports.

Annex C - Operations Overlay. A graphic representation of the concept of operations.

Annex D - Deception. This annex includes a description of the deception objective, the deception story, resources available, excerpts of higher headquarters deception plans, and the active and passive deception measures to be taken by subordinate organizations.

Annex E - Constraints. This annex contains those political, humanitarian, economic and social/cultural limitations on the application of military power during the operation. It references US laws and treaties, conventions, and international agreements. This annex includes restrictions on the use of certain weapons, limitations on tactical methods, or entry into certain areas. It may prescribe the seizure and retention of certain objectives for political and psychological reasons or the mandatory use of allied or multinational forces in certain situations. This annex includes policies of nations in or near the target area that may inhibit military actions.

Annex F - Rules of Engagement. This annex contains those guidelines to subordinate and supporting organizations regarding the rules for the control of forces and their weapons systems. The security of the force and its personnel is balanced against the need to prevent the employment of undue or excessive military force.

Annex G - Fire Support. This annex describes the concept for synchronizing operational fires with operational movement and maneuver. It includes priorities of fires, targeting considerations, and control measures. Its phases coincide with those of the OPLAN. It is augmented by appendixes.

Annex H - Air Defense. This annex includes the joint or multinational air defense organization, organic and supporting air defense capabilities, ROE, weapons control procedures, and enemy air capabilities.

Annex I - Electronic Warfare. This annex includes the EW mission, enemy EW capabilities, defensive and offensive EW measures, and coordination with other parts of the OPLAN (deception, communications, PSYOP, operational fires).

Annex J - Engineer. This annex includes priorities of engineer work to mobility, countermobility, and survival tasks. It also includes planning and execution of operational obstacles and barriers, engineer organization for combat, and engineer tasks for subordinate organizations.

Annex K - Psychological Operations. This annex refers to the intelligence annex, designates PSYOP targets, and describes the PSYOP plan, to include its integration into higher headquarters plans and deception plan operations or related tasks for subordinate units.

Annex L - Rear Operations. This annex contains instructions for the protection of the designated rear area in the host country and neighboring friendly countries from all levels of threats. It designates a joint/multinational rear area coordinator, usually the ASCC, and outlines provisions for the defense of bases, base clusters, and other facilities, using assigned and attached units, host country resources, and, if necessary, tactical combat forces.

Annex M - Protection. This annex contains instructions for the protection of bases, installations, military personnel, family members, and other US nationals in the theater from terrorism, natural disasters, and other dangers.

Annex N - Provost Marshal. This annex prioritizes the four MP battlefield missions for employed MP forces: area security, battlefield circulation control, EPW operations, and law enforcement. It should correlate with Annex M (Protection) and Annex F (Rules of Engagement).

Annex O - Public Affairs. This annex contains guidance for facilitating the media effort to cover the operation and for supporting the information needs of the soldiers and their families.

Annex P - Space Operations. This annex describes planned and available space support to the OPLAN. It explains how to obtain and coordinate space support, in addition to listing operational constraints and shortfalls.

Annex Q - Training. This annex contains guidance for the multinational, joint, and service training of individuals and units assigned or attached to the theater army.

Annex R - Support. This annex spells out in detail the necessary support for subordinate formations to accomplish their missions. The information is keyed to the phases of the OPORD when appropriate. The annex prescribes priorities of supply and maintenance, requirements for submission of reports, and sources of support (units in the force itself, the host nation, or the Army component of the unified command in the region). This annex is organized in categories and may be presented in separate appendixes if necessary.

  • Supply. Levels for each class of supply at organizational, direct support, and general support echelons. Location of MMC, map, and water supply.

  • Transportation and Movements.

    ··Strategic movements. Coordination with TRANSCOM and other services for airlift and sealift.

    ··Establishment of intermediate staging bases.

    ··Movements in operational area. Ports, airfields, railroads, airlift, LOCs.

    ··Location and functions of the MCC.

  • Services.

    ··Construction.

    ··Graves registration.

    ··Field services.

    ··Explosive ordnance disposal.

    ··Local procurement and contracting.

    ··Postal.

  • Labor.

  • Maintenance.

  • Medical evacuation and hospitalization. Evacuation policies.

  • Personnel Service Support.

    ··Strengths. Casualty reports and replacement policies.

    ··Morale, welfare, and recreation.

    ···Finance.

    ··Religious support.

    ··Discipline, law, and order.

  • CA.

  • Reconstitution.

  • NEO.

  • EPW.

Annex S - Communications-Electronics. This annex includes items contained in subparagraph 5b when its contents are too voluminous to put in the body of the OPLAN. It describes the link provided by the force headquarters between the Army tactical command and control system, which exists among its subordinate units, and the joint and multinational C² systems, as well as those of the sustaining base. A joint communications support element can be attached to the force headquarters to provide joint interface.

  • This annex provides for employment of three communications conduits: area common user (ACU), data distribution system (DDS), and combat net radio (CNR). These systems are automated, with provisions for parts of the force (allies, other services, reserve components) not possessing the degree of automation capability possessed by the bulk of the force.

  • This annex describes dealing with the possible degradation of communications, with provisions for redundancy, electronic countermeasures, OPSEC, and hardening and the use of radio silence and messengers.

DISTRIBUTION:



(SECURITY CLASSIFICATION)



1. This OPLAN format conforms to the format delineated in Joint Pub 5-03.2, as amended by CJCS Instruction 3122.03 JOPES, Volumes I and II (draft) and FM 101-5, Command and Control for Commanders and Staffs (final draft), August 1993.



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