Working with the deputy chief of staff for engineers (DCSENG), the ordnance organization plans and coordinates counterunexploded ordnance operations. Either in the corps or in logistical bases, EOD units can be quickly reassigned to meet any battlefield requirement. When EOD detachments are not readily available, the ASCC may direct engineer units to conduct counterunexploded ordnance operations. Additionally, unit level organizations must train to identify unexploded ordnance (UXO) and perform self-extraction from submunitions and scatterable mines on the battlefield. The ordnance unit (EOD) within the logistics C² headquarters acts as the information flow manager for technical intelligence dealing with UXOs. It is responsible for channeling this information out of the theater and back down to each detachment.
Additionally, the ASCC, through the logistics C² headquarters, plans and executes rear security operations in the COMMZ. The ASCC may task the logistics headquarters to provide out-of-sector support. Figure A-6 shows a typical logistics C² organization that the ASCC could design to provide the logistics C² functions (less provision for Class VIII and classified maps). The attached organizations are METT-T dependent.
The ASCC tailors LSE organization to provide area support based on its subordinate organizations, unit missions, and services required by the forces within the specific AOR. The most common situation requires an element to command and control a mix of DS and GS units, though emphasis is on DS to the units in or passing through its servicing area.
Functions normally provided on an area basis include maintenance, supply and services, and petroleum supply. Strategic logistics organizations (DLA, USAMC), as determined by memorandum of agreement (MOA) or MOU with appropriate commands, also provide support on an area basis. Additionally, medical units provide HSS on an area basis but maintain a separate C² element. The C² element may also coordinate and execute rear security operations. An area support C² organization is shown in Figure A-7.
The ASCC must provide special functions to provide GS in both the COMMZ and CZ. A deputy commander for operations, a deputy commander for logistics, or someone reporting directly to the ASCC may provide the functions to the command. If the theater matures for a long-standing mission with forward-deployed troops, then functional commands, based on METT-T, could be established for the areas of--
- Personnel service support.
- Public affairs and news media
- Combat health service support.
- Air defense.
- Special operations support.
- Civil affairs.
- Aviation support.
- Intelligence structures.
- Petroleum functions.
- Ammunition supply and storage.
- Movement control.
- Materiel management.
The ASCC, through his G6, provides information system support to all US Army elements within the theater. The ASCC signal function requires an integrated communication network within the COMMZ, out-of-theater access, and interface with the CZ systems. During the planning phase of any operation, planners must consider initial deployment through a fully mature theater, sustained operations, contingency plans, phased reduction of signal support as units redeploy, and signal support requirements supporting posthostility activities.
The ASCC tailors the organizational-level signal organization to meet his requirements for C4 support. This support includes communication, automation, visual information, printing and publications, and records management. Specific signal capabilities employed from initial entry into the theater to a mature theater are dependent upon the operational environment of the particular theater. The CINC acquires DCS access primarily through TACSAT, DSN, and MILNET/DISNET trunks. The CINC takes maximum advantage of the host nation communication infrastructure. FM 11-45 discusses the operations of operational-level signal organizations and details the information mission area (IMA) support provided by the various organizations. If required, the ASCC may establish an operational-level signal C² organization as depicted in Figure A-8.
To support the force-projection army, operational-level information services mesh seamlessly with those of the sustaining base, which may be located within CONUS or another theater. This connectivity and reachback capability allows for split-based operations and is achieved using means such as military or commercial satellite communications, high frequency radios, or commercial fiber optic links. Interoperable gateways provide the means to interface between tactical and strategic systems via DCS entry points. These gateways also provide connectivity with joint and allied forces. The net effect is to allow forces to deploy worldwide without sacrificing their ability to exchange securely and reliably information in theater and with CONUS-base information resources. See Figure A-9.
Personnel Service Support
The ASCC, through the deputy chief of staff for personnel (DCSPER), is responsible for all GS personnel operations. The theater DCSPER manages critical personnel systems and synchronizes personnel network operations throughout the theater. The operational-level personnel C² organization must be flexible and able to adjust to specific theater support requirements. The ASCC may initially deploy elements to perform the personnel management function. This element would be comprised of key sections from each functional personnel area and a C² section. Additional elements deploy in follow-on echelons according to conditions dictated by METT-T. Further adjustments take place through changes in subordinate unit number and type.
Operational-level major personnel functions are strength accounting, replacement operations, postal operations, casualty operations, personnel information systems, and personnel readiness. FM 12-6 provides detailed discussions of operational-level personnel functions. An operational-level personnel organization is illustrated at Figure A-10.
When established, the operational-level personnel functional command organization is under the staff supervision of the theater DCSPER. In fulfilling its responsibilities to synchronize the tactical functions of manning and the personnel services, the personnel organization exercises C² and provides technical guidance on personnel management to the subordinate personnel organizations.
The personnel organization can task-organize a functional area staff element. This element sustains personnel readiness, directs theaterwide personnel systems, synchronizes personnel network operations, directs GS postal and replacement activities, and manages essential personnel services. When established, the element draws personnel from personnel operations and replacement, postal, and personnel service areas within the personnel C² organization. HQDA, US Total Army Personnel Command (USTAPERSCOM), DCSPER, provides a civilian support cell, which does not include the C² elements.
The operational-level personnel organization uses the theater communications network to transmit reports and statistics in theater and to CONUS. It must have access to voice and digital communications capabilities with USTAPERSCOM to exchange information and data on personnel strengths, casualty operations, and replacement operations. The information exchange priority between these organizations demands direct, real-time electronic communication, both voice and digital. The personnel community must also maintain close coordination with medical, mortuary affairs, provost marshal, and other communities that provide replacements (such as hospital or straggler returnees) or casualty information. The total theater personnel community, comprised of personnel units and personnel staff elements, including the theater DCSPER and the G1-S1 staffs, is responsible for the support of personnel operations. Its primary mission at the operational level is to sustain theater personnel strength and manage theater personnel support systems. As such, it enhances soldier combat capability through a full range of sustainment activities and thereby increases combat power. The theater personnel community must perform the following functions:
- Report total Army theater strength to Army PERSCOM and HQDA.
- Integrate all personnel support activities within the theater.
- Establish general theater-unique personnel policies and manage services to soldiers, civilians, and joint or allied personnel.
- Assist the ASCC in evaluating and influencing the theater command climate.
- Direct morale, welfare, and recreation activities; alcohol and drug abuse prevention and control; equal opportunity; and safety programs.
- Prepare the personnel estimate.
- Recommend theater replacement priorities to the DCSPER HQDA.
- Prepare personnel service support plans and orders to support the theater campaign plan and its branches and sequels and ensure subordinate plans support the commander's desired end state.
- Direct GS activities within the postal and replacement management systems.
- Track the force, project replacement needs, and ensure subordinate unit personnel plans support branches and sequels of the campaign plan.
- Prepare to function as the J1, if designated by the theater CINC and augmented by additional joint personnel.
Whether committed to MOOTW or war personnel service support organizations are tailored to satisfy the operational requirement of the theater independently or with allied forces. To ensure unity of effort, joint personnel services require formal agreements, MOUs, and exchanges of liaison officers.
Public Affairs and News Media
A key factor that must be considered at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels is the presence of national and international media representatives and the effects of global visibility on the planning and execution of operations. Leaders must understand that the perception of an operation can be as important to success as the actual execution of the operation. Leaders must recognize that the global visibility of today's media is bridging the gap between the strategic and tactical levels, so that a tactical victory can be an operational or strategic loss and vice versa. The media's ability to provide detailed, graphic, and live coverage of events from anywhere in the world has made military operations into spectator events watched in real time by the American public, allies, and adversaries. This allows media personalities, politicians, pundits, critics, and academics to become active participants in the debate about the way the operation is being executed.
Also, the American people have a right to know about Army operations. More importantly, the Army has a vital interest in ensuring an expedited flow of complete, accurate, and timely information about Army operations. Doing so fulfills the Army's obligation to keep the American people informed. It also helps to establish the conditions that lead to confidence in America's Army and its conduct of operations in peacetime, conflict, and war. When soldiers, their families, the nation's political leaders, and the general public perceive that the Army is conducting operations competently, professionally, and ethically, the morale, esprit, and effectiveness of the Army force is enhanced. This is critical to successful mission accomplishment.
The key to achieving an expedited flow of complete, accurate, and timely information about Army operations is the integration of PA estimates and recommendations into the planning and decision-making process. PA elements must assess internal and external information needs and expectations and analyze what is being published by the media. They must develop strategies that support open and independent reporting. They must ensure that their strategies are synchronized with the PA guidance of higher headquarters. They need to carefully coordinate their effort with related information communication functions, such as combat camera, as well as CA and PSYOP. PA success comes from open, honest, proactive information communication. PA personnel serve as the interface between the military and the media. They work to communicate the Army perspective and to ensure that reporting is fair and balanced. They try to educate media representatives on the military and the operation, and they prepare military personnel to interact with the media. Although the commander and the PAO are the organization's official spokespersons, all soldiers are potential spokespersons. The media often perceive junior soldiers as especially candid, honest, insightful, credible. PA personnel play a key role in facilitating media-soldier interaction.
Besides serving as the interface between the military and the media, PA supports the commander's program to ensure that the information needs of soldiers and their families are met. PA personnel develop a strategy based upon the critical information soldiers and their families need to understand the operation and the mission and the information they need to maintain their morale and esprit. This strategy identifies the product requirements for communicating information within the theater and between the theater and home station. It synchronizes commercial contract services and Army production capabilities to most effectively and efficiently provide those products.
The ASCC provides finance support to the force through his operational-level finance unit commander, who also serves as the staff finance officer. Separately, the DCSRM provides the operational-level resource management support to the ASCC. The operational-level finance function is to sustain Army, joint, and multinational operations by providing timely commercial vendor and contractor payments, various pay and disbursing services, and essential accounting. Military pay, travel, and disbursing are missions that impact morale support and, as such, provide an additional combat multiplier. If established, the operational-level finance C² organization provides finance support to all joint and multinational commands, as ordered, and provides policy and technical guidance to finance units. FM 14-7 covers finance activities. A possible operational-level finance function is shown in Figure A-11.
The finance function includes centralized theater support missions such as currency funding, commercial accounts, foreign national pay, and appropriated and nonappropriated fund accounting. When designated by DOD, it also provides currency funding support to other US and allied organizations in the theater. The operational-level finance command--
- Establishes theater financial policy to ensure consistent application of DOD finance and accounting policy.
- Coordinates finance support requirements within the theater.
- Recommends allocations of finance units in theater.
- Reviews theater operations plans and prepare annexes to ensure proper support of operations.
- Coordinates HNS for finance and accounting requirements.
- Supports NEO.
- Performs/coordinates logistical, operational, and administrative actions for assigned finance units.
- Ensures operational readiness of assigned finance units.
Finance units provide the full range of finance and accounting services to all soldiers and units in the theater. These units formulate command financial policy, establish finance procedures, and provide finance support for the AOR within the theater, to include--
- Preparing and paying commercial vouchers.
- Cashing negotiable instruments.
- Preparing and paying foreign national payrolls.
- Funding tactical exchange facilities and other nonappropriated fund instrumentalities (NAFIs).
- Preparing and paying travel vouchers.
- Accounting for pay to EPWs and civilian internees.
- Providing currencies for local procurement payments, foreign national payrolls, imprest funds, combat payments, day laborer payments, intelligence and counterintelligence operations, and claims.
During operations, the level of formal accounting services that finance elements perform in the theater depends on the intensity, duration, and location of the operation. Following coordination by the CINC or CJTF with the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Financial Management (ASA-FM) the ASCC may approve the transfer of accounting functions to a designated finance support activity (DFSA) in CONUS. The finance element continues to ensure that necessary documentation and data are provided to the DFSA to accomplish the accounting function. The ASCC establishes the amounts of monthly cash payments made to individual soldiers. Finance support teams (FSTs) pay soldiers when and where their commanders desire. FSTs are able to make contract payments, commercial vendor payments, and combat payments and process pay inquiries.
The ASCC tailors the engineer structure to the theater requirements with the staff advice from his DCSENG. The operational-level engineer commander provides C² and a central organizational framework for the engineer effort. Engineer forces outside corps focus on reinforcing and augmenting corps engineer efforts, developing the theater support base and maintaining an infrastructure for sustainment. This focus involves--
- Ensuring operational mobility.
- Coordinating all theater engineer assets.
- Providing direction of construction, real property maintenance activities, LOC sustainment, rear area damage control engineer logistics management, and base development.
The ASCC tailors the engineer structure to his theater requirements. Engineers must be closely tied into current and future operations. Engineer units provide versatility to the operational commander. All engineer units (combat, construction, or topographic) focus on operations in the CZ. In addition, they support the theater by providing general engineering support at the operational level. The engineer's operational-level topography unit and a variety of specialized engineer teams support or augment engineer forces throughout the theater. Combat heavy engineers weight the main effort and provide sea, air, and land operational and strategic mobility. A typical operational-level engineer C² organization is shown in Figure A-12. FM 5-116 discusses the operational-level engineer function.
Theater construction management often spans multiservice requirements. The CINC may direct the establishment of a regional contingency engineering manager (RCEM) to control all theater-level engineering. The operational-level engineer commander can perform this role if the CINC designates the ASCC as the RCEM and the ASCC designates the operational-level engineer commander as his agent. To support force-projection requirements for early deploying engineer units, an engineer element may deploy by sections to meet highly variable work loads and situations. The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) may establish field offices that specialize in contract construction, real property management, and host nation construction support.
The ASCC provides theaterwide transportation support. This operational-level transportation function includes mode operations that involve inland waterways, rail, motor, and air and terminal services, to include water, beach, air, motor transport, and rail. The operational-level transportation units move personnel, mail, and materiel, except bulk fuel, from point of arrival in theater to the CZ. The operational-level transportation units must coordinate with the MCA and interact with joint and allied transportation managers. The transportation function requires flexible organizations that the ASCC configures to meet theater needs. FM 55-1 discusses the operational-level transportation function. A typical operational-level transportation organization is shown in Figure A-13.
Combat Health Support
In the theater, CHS encompasses ten functional areas to meet the needs of the service member. These functional areas are--
- Patient evacuation and medical regulation.
- Health service logistics/blood management.
- Dental services.
- Combat stress control services.
- Preventive medicine services.
- Veterinary services.
- Area medical support.
- Medical laboratory services.
The senior command surgeon and CHS C4I organization in theater provide centralized C² of all Army medical department (AMEDD) units assigned to the ASCC and located in the COMMZ. The operational-level army medical force structure under the CHS C4I organization provides support to both forward-deployed and nonforward-deployed ARFOR. This C² organization provides the capability and flexibility to shift assets to support additional numbered army or corps buildups, to reallocate medical assets to accommodate patient work loads, and to reconstitute tactical-level CHS units.
Since all CHS units in the COMMZ are under the senior CHS C4I organization, units without organic CHS receive CHS on an area basis. This is the most efficient and economical way to provide support to all COMMZ units. The senior CHS unit commander located within the geographical boundaries of a major unit normally provides CHS staff advice to the unit commander. The senior CHS C4I commander and ASCC develop standing operating procedures to govern the relationship between each unit commander and the senior CHS unit commander in his area. CHS units are not subordinate to the logistics area support units but do provide CHS on an area basis.
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