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Lesson 3

FUTURE antiarmor WEAPONS STRATEGY

OVERVIEW

Lesson Description:

In this lesson, you will learn to identify the characteristics of the antiarmor weapons strategy of the United States with regard to the Multipurpose Individual Munition (MPIM); the TOW Sight Improvement Program (TSIP) and the development of the TOW 2B. In addition, you will learn to identify the characteristics of opposing forces' future antiarmor weapons strategy with regard to the light-armored vehicles in the Third World.

Terminal Learning Objective:

Action: Identify future antiarmor weapons strategy of both the United States and its opposing forces.
Condition: Given the subcourse material contained in this lesson.
Standard: You will identify the future antiarmor weapons strategy of both the United States and its opposing forces.
References:

The material contained in this lesson was derived from the following publications: COLLECTIVE TRAINING PLANS (DOTD) and OPERATIONAL AND ORGANIZATION PLANS (DCD).

INTRODUCTION

Future antiarmor weapons strategy on the part of the United States includes improvements to the TOW Weapon System and the introduction of the new Multipurpose Individual Munition (MPIM). The improvements to the TOW Weapon System pertain to the employment of a new missile (the TOW 2B) and improvements which have been made to the TOW sight. Future antiarmor weapons strategy on the part of the Soviet Union and other opposing forces pertain to new light-armored personnel carriers (wheeled and tracked). This lesson will teach you to identify the characteristics of these future antiarmor weapons strategies U. S. and opposing forces.

PART A - FUTURE U.S. antiarmor WEAPONS STRATEGY

1. Development of TOW 2B.

A new missile is being developed for the TOW weapon system. It will be a tandem design which exploits new technology in Explosively Formed Penetrators (EFPs) and evaluating new metals for liners.

The TOW 2B has dual warheads and dual sensors for fly-over, shoot-down (top attack) capability which attacks the most vulnerable part of an armored vehicle. The TOW 2B will replace the TOW 2A via a production line cut-in 1990.

The model number for the TOW 2B missile is BGM 71F.

No further training is required for TOW gunners as a result of fielding the TOW 2B missile, which has a center mass aimpoint.

The TOW 2 missile can be fired from all existing firing platforms.

Currently, the overall TOW 2B program is on schedule for FY91 fielding.

The TOW 2B has a unique marking system (shown in Figure 3-1) for easy identification of it as a fly-over, shoot-down missile.

2. TOW Sight Improvement Program (TSIP).

Technological advancements have resulted in improvements to the TOW sight. These improvements will be applied to both the ground/HMMWV and the Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV) systems.

The principal improvements of the TOW Sight Improvement Program (TSIP) are as follows:

  • A new Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) sight.

  • A new processor which replaces the Digital Missile Guidance Set (DMGS). The new processor incorporates automatic tracking and multiple launch capability.

  • The visual telescope and the shortwave length infrared tracker will be upgraded.

  • An eyesafe laser rangefinder.


Figure 3-1. Missile Markings for Identification (BGM 71F).

The FLIR technology is being developed by the CECOM Center for Night Vision and Electro-Optics (CCNVEO). The two major CCNVEO technology programs are Standard Advanced Infrared Systems (SAIRS) and Advanced Longwavelength Infrared Circuit and Array Technology (ALICAT). The new processor incorporates automatic tracking and multiple launch capability. This technology is being developed in the Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) program. A portion of the critical technology will be the Kinetic Energy Missile (KEM) program. The new system also includes:

  • An eyesafe laser rangefinder.

  • Automatic boresight.

  • TV display.

  • Advanced signal processing MIL-STD-1553 software bus.

  • ADA language.

  • Automatic target cueing.

  • Built-in training.

  • Built-in test.

  • Room for growth.

a. Ground/HMMWV. The new FLIR and redesigned telescope will be repackaged with the short wavelength Infrared (IR) tracker to make up an Integrated Sight Unit (ISU) for ground/HMMWV application. This will provide improved FLIR performance and single target engagement at increased ranges. Automatic boresight of the telescope, short wavelength IR tracker, and FLIR will be incorporated as well as target cueing (moving target indicator) and simultaneous multiple target engagement. The dismounted mode of employment will use a tripod to support the ISU and a single TOW missile. Batteries will provide power for operation of the system when dismounted. A power cable to use vehicle batteries and power for extended periods of operation at locations for the sight/launcher remote from the vehicle can be provided.

b. BFV (CFV). The Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV) ISU contains a visual telescope, a short wavelength IR tracker, a CCD camera, TV display, and a FLIR. The new FLIR and redesigned telescope will be repackaged with the short wavelength IR tracker to make up an ISU for the BFV application. This will provide FLIR performance and target engagement at increased ranges. Auto boresight of the telescope, short wavelength IR tracker and FLIR will be incorporated as well as target cueing (moving target indicator), simultaneous multiple target engagement, and multiple launch.

c. Benefits. The TSIP benefits include:

  • Reduced target acquisition time.

  • Wider field of view for search.

  • Increased probability of a hit.

  • Increased system/crew survivability.

  • Increased rate of fire.

  • Improved man-machine interface.

  • Commonality of components between ground/HMMWV and BFV configurations.

  • Improved combat effectiveness for the HMMWV and Bradley fighting vehicles due to a longer recognition range, automatic multiple target tracking, multiple missile launch, and improved fire control.

  • Embedded training.

  • Improved built-in test.

  • Automatic boresight.

  • Capability of firing all existing and future TOW missiles.

  • Modular subsystems for maximum HMMWV and Bradley commonality.

  • Retrofitable product improvement program.

3. MultiPurpose Individual Munition (MPIM).

The Multipurpose Individual Munition (MPIM) will enable the soldier to engage and defeat a variety of targets. The system will allow the individual soldier both to destroy light armor and incapacitate personnel within or behind structural barriers or field fortifications. It will be used by soldiers in all geographical areas under any climatic and battlefield conditions. Combat arms, as well as combat support and combat service support units, will use this weapon to accomplish their missions. The weapon will be employed as a round of ammunition and will not require any maintenance other than inspection and cleaning. The MPIM is a multipurpose weapon system that is projected to supplement and eventually replace the Launcher and Cartridge, 84-MM, M136 (AT4), HEAT and the M72A2/A3 Light Antitank Weapon (LAW).

Presently, two technologies are under consideration: a shoulder-launched munition and two rifle-launched munitions.

The MPIM will be a basic self-protection weapon for use against lightly armored vehicles for all Army units. It will be used as an assault weapon for combat arms use against enemy field fortifications and in military operations urban terrain (MOUT) environments. Tactical use is envisioned as being similar to the AT-4/LAW.

The MPIM will allow the individual soldier to engage targets and exploit his own firepower without dependence upon specialized support weapons.

The MPIM will be designed to replace the M72A2/A3 LAW and the AT4 with a single individual weapon/munition capable of defeating multiple types of targets in the close combat scenario.

The MPIM must incapacitate personnel inside or defeat the following multiple targets:

  • Boyevaya Machina Pekhotnaya (BMP), BMP follow-on, and BMP postulated.

  • 12-inch brick structures.

  • Eight-inch concrete structures.

  • Soviet field fortifications.

In addition, the MPIM can destroy or damage high-value material such as ammunition storage, POL, and communications.

PART B - FUTURE OPPOSING FORCES antiarmor WEAPONS STRATEGY

1. Wheeled Armored Personnel Carrier.

The most likely light armored vehicles that a US infantryman might encounter in the Third World in the future (1997-2007) is the wheeled armored personnel carrier.

This vehicle will be protected against 7.62-mm or .50 caliber armor piercing (AP) rounds and could have add-on armor that will reduce the effectiveness of 14.5-mm, 20-mm, and 25-mm ammunition. The vehicle will not have reactive armor.

The vehicle will have a night sight, either an image intensifier (II) or an active infrared (IR) system. This vehicle may also have a white light or an infrared searchlight.

The vehicle will be armed with a 7.62-mm coaxial machine gun and either a 12.7-mm (.50 caliber), a 14.5-mm, a 20-mm, a 23-mm, or a 25-mm gun. The vehicle may also have a 30-mm AFS-17 or a 40-mm Mark 19 automatic grenade launcher on it. The vehicle will have smoke grenade launchers. Examples of these vehicles are the

  • Soviet BTR-152 (a Chinese copy Type 56).

  • Soviet BTR-60 (copies of the BTR-60 are the Czech OT-64, the Romanian TAB-72, and the Polish SKOT-2).

  • French Panhard M3.

  • USA's Commando.

  • West German UR-416.

  • British Saracen.

  • Brazilian EE-11.

These vehicles will appear on the battlefield in groups of three or four.

The size of the element dismounting will be eight to ten. In this element, there will be an antiarmor gunner with an RPG-7 type weapon and one or two light machine guns. Some of the characteristics of these vehicles are shown in Figure 3-2.

2. Tracked Armored Personnel Carrier.

The next most likely light armored vehicle that a US infantryman might encounter in the Third World in the future (1997-2007) is a tracked armored personnel carrier.

It will be protected against 7.62-mm or .50 caliber armor-piercing (AP) rounds. The vehicle will not have reactive armor.

The vehicle will have a night sight, either an image intensifier (II) or an active infrared (IR) system.

The vehicle may be armed with a 7.62-mm coaxial machine gun and either a 12.7-mm (50 caliber) or a 14.5-mm machine gun. The vehicle may have smoke grenade launchers. Examples of these vehicles are the

  • M113 (produced by the USA, Belgium, Italy, and Pakistan).

  • Soviet BTR-50 (copies of the BTR-50 are the Czech OT-62 and the Chinese Type 77).

  • Chinese YW 531 (the North Koreans make a copy called the M-1973).

  • USA's M3 half truck.

The M113 is the most widely used of its type, and more than 80,000 M113s have been built and sold to 47 countries. Some countries have fitted their M113 vehicles with turret-mounted weapons, including 7.62-mm/12.7-mm machine guns and 20-mm or 60-mm cannons. When upgunned and equipped with AP/APDS ammunition, the vehicle will be able to engage and destroy light armored vehicles in addition to providing fire support to the infantry.

These vehicles will appear on the battlefield in groups of three or four. The size of the element dismounting will be eight to twenty. The element will include an antiarmor gunner with an RPG-7 type weapon and one or two light machine guns. Figure 3-3 lists some of the characteristics of these vehicles.

3. Armored Reconnaissance Vehicle.

The third most likely light armored vehicles that a US infantryman might encounter in the Third World in the future (1997-2007) will be an armored reconnaissance vehicle

It will be protected against .50 caliber armor piercing (AP) rounds. This vehicle will not have reactive armor. The vehicle will have a night sight, either an image intensifier (II) or an infrared (IR) system. The vehicle will be armed with a 7.72-mm coaxial machine gun, either a 12.7-mm (.50 caliber) or a 14.5-mm machine gun or a 30-mm, 37-mm, 60-mm, 76-mm, or 90-mm gun. The vehicle may have smoke grenade launchers. Examples of these vehicles are the

  • Soviet BRDM-2 and BRDM-1 (copies of the BDRM are the Czech OT-65, the Hungarian PSZH-IV, and the Romanian FUG and FUG D-944).

  • French AML-90 and AML-60.

  • British FERRET, Scorpion, and Scimitar.

  • USA's M8 armored car.

  • Brazil's EE-9 Cascavel.

The size of the dismounting element may be three.

Figure 3-4 lists some of the characteristics of these vehicles.

4. Infantry Fighting Vehicle.

The least likely light armored vehicles that a US infantryman might encounter in the Third World (except in the Mideast) in the future (1997-2007) is the infantry fighting vehicle.

It will be protected against .50 caliber armor piercing (AP) rounds and could have add-in armor that reduces the effectiveness of 14.5-mm, 20-mm, and 25-mm ammunition. The vehicle will not have reactive armor. The vehicle will have an image intensifier (II) night sight. The vehicle will be armed with a 7.62-mm coaxial machine gun, either a 73-mm, 30-mm, or 25-mm gun, and possibly an ATGM. The vehicle will have smoke grenade launchers and a vehicle exhaust smoke system. Examples of these vehicles are the

  • Soviet BMP-1 and BMP-2.

  • Chinese BMP-1, NVH-1, and NFV-1.

The BMP-1 was or is produced in the USSR, Czechoslovakia, and China. The BMP-1 is in service with the following Third World countries:

NOTE: The numbers in the parentheses following the name of the country represent the number of vehicles each country has.

  • Afghanistan (40).

  • Algeria (650).

  • Angola.

  • Cuba (50).

  • Egypt (220).

  • Ethiopia (40).

  • Finland (85).

  • India (700).

  • Iran (100+).

  • Iraq (1,000).

  • Jordan.

  • North Korea (150).

  • Libya (520).

  • Mongolia (420).

  • Syria (2,350).

  • South Yemen (100).

  • Yugoslavia.

The BMP-2 is in service in the following Third World countries:

  • Algeria (50).

  • Finland (20).

  • India.

  • Iraq.

  • Kuwait (245 on order).

The Chinese version of the BMP-1 is called the WZ 501. The Chinese, in cooperation with the British, also produce and sell infantry fighting vehicles: the NVH-1 and the NFH-1, with a choice of the Rarden 30-mm, the Oerlikon 25-mm, or the Bushmaster 25-mm chain gun as the main armament.

Figure 3-5 lists some of the characteristics of these vehicles:

 


Practice Exercise

 

 
Page last modified: 27-04-2005 07:30:26 Zulu