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Military

LESSON 4

ADA ORGANIZATIONS

TASK

This lesson does not specifically relate to enlisted or officer tasks, but provides general information on the structure of US Army AD organizations.

CONDITIONS

Use only this lesson material to complete the examination.

STANDARDS

You must attain a grade of 70 percent or more on the examination to receive credit for this subcourse.

REFERENCES

The following references are sources for additional information.  You do not need them to complete this lesson.

FM 44-1
FM 44-2
FM 44-3
FM 44-15
FM 44-15-1
FM 44-90
FM 44-90-1

 

Learning Event 1:
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES

AD is defined in JCS Pub 8 as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of attack by hostile aircraft or guided missiles after they are airborne."

All US services and allied forces have an AD capability.  However, no single element has enough AD weapons to ensure complete AD against a threat having a large, modern air force.  For this reason, the fires of all AD weapons within a force are integrated into an overall AD operation under direction of a single AD commander.  An integrated AD ensures that AD weapons are employed to achieve effectiveness against enemy aircraft without hindering friendly air operations.

No single commander can personally control or direct the fires of thousands of AD weapons of various types and capabilities; therefore, routine direction is normally delegated to subordinate commanders.  However, all systems operate under the AD rules and procedures established by the single AD commander.  This provides for an integrated AD within the force while still allowing subordinate commanders to provide AD for their critical assets or areas.

AD organizational structures are designed to facilitate the integration and mixing of AD weapon systems in the AirLand battle.

As with the other Army branches, ADA is undergoing a transition phase.  Many new and improved ADA systems are being introduced into the Army inventory, and doctrine to support forces on the modern battlefield is evolving.  This has resulted in the creation of new organizations as older ones are either phased out or modified.  During this transition period, all types of ADA units are available.  This block of instruction introduces these ADA organizations as well as the overall AD organization in various situations.  Emphasis is on how units are organized rather than the capabilities of their weapon systems.

 

Learning Event 2:
TAADCOM

In large theaters, a TAADCOM (TOE 44-1H) is normally provided to support the theater AD commander in accomplishing his AD responsibilities.  All Army ADA units not organic or specifically assigned to corps and divisions are normally assigned to the TAADCOM.  As explained in Lesson 3, the theater army commander exercises command (less operational command) of the TAADCOM.  Operational command is vested in the AADC.  The TAADCOM headquarters is basically organized in accordance with TOE 44-1.  However, a TAADCOM is tailored to meet the AD requirements of the force deployed in each theater of operations.  A type of TAADCOM is shown in Figure 56.

FIGURE 56.  TAADCOM ORGANIZATION.

FIGURE 56.  TAADCOM ORGANIZATION.

The mission of TAADCOM is to command TAADCOM forces in accordance with the theater commander's guidance, thereby accomplishing the ADA mission within the capability of TAADCOM force.  TAADCOM accomplishes this mission by using the following methods.

  • Exercising command, less operational control, of US ADA organizations not organic to corps or divisions.

  • Planning for and coordinating AD support within the guidelines given by the AADC or RADC for critical assets in the COMMZ and rear combat zone.  This includes the use of passive AD measures (camouflage, dispersion, decoys, obscurants, et cetera), as well as the deployment of ADA weapons.

  • Planning for and supervising personnel, administrative, and logistical support to nondivisional and noncorps US ADA forces in the theater, to include reconstituting combat power in accordance with mission priorities.  Availability, location, and combat readiness of AADCOM assets are provided by automated management systems located both at command headquarters and at subordinate elements.

  • Establishing and ensuring continuous operation of a highly automated, digital, data-based command, control, and communications system throughout the area of ADA employment.

  • Establishing requirements for and planning the allocation of ADA-related PWRMS.

  • Providing, when augmented, liaison to senior ground force and AD elements.

  • Providing tactical and technical data to various interfacing agencies as required.

Currently, the only deployed TAADCOM is the 32nd AADCOM in Europe.  Operational command of that force is exercised by the Commander, 4th Allied Tactical Air Force.  The 32nd AADCOM headquarters is tailored as shown in Figure 57.

FIGURE 57.  ORGANIZATION OF THE 32nd AADCOM.

FIGURE 57.  ORGANIZATION OF THE 32nd AADCOM.

The AADC and or RADC assigns tactical missions and AD priorities to the TAADCOM commander who tasks, organizes, and deploys ADA forces accordingly.  AD operations are conducted in accordance with joint and combined force rules and procedures issued by the AADC and or RADC.

ADA Brigades

ADA brigades (TOE 44-2H) command and coordinate the operations of ADA battalions and other assigned or attached units.  They may be assigned to a corps, to a TAADCOM, or to other major headquarters.  An ADA brigade may replace a TAADCOM in a smaller theater of operations or in a theater in which a limited number of ADA units are available or required.  In these cases, responsibilities of the brigade commander are essentially the same as those of a TAADCOM commander.

When assigned to TAADCOM, the brigade commander usually exercises command (less tactical control) of the ADA units assigned to his organization.  However, tactical control may be retained (subject to theater AD rules and procedures) if the theater AADC and or RADC delegates operational control of the brigade to a ground force commander.  This is appropriate if the mission of the brigade is to defend maneuver force assets.  When assigned or attached to a maneuver force (that is, corps), the brigade commander normally acts as the force AD officer.

The composition of an ADA brigade is tailored based on the mission.  In a large theater, the ADA units assigned to a brigade may be of the same type (that is, a "pure" Hawk brigade) to facilitate command and control.  However, if the mission requires a mix of SHORAD and HIMAD weapons, brigades are so organized.  The basic organization of an ADA brigade is illustrated in Figure 58.

FIGURE 58.  ADA BRIGADE (BASIC ORGANIZATION).

FIGURE 58.  ADA BRIGADE (BASIC ORGANIZATION).

This organization can be augmented by specialized teams from TOE 44-520 (see TOE 44-520, Teams, pages 3-14 and 3-15) to accomplish various operational tasks and perform required coordination.  These include--

  • Controlling AD fires by use of fire distribution systems.

  • Providing target information by use of an early warning radar.

  • Providing the AMLS to the AD section of an Air Force control and reporting section.

  • Providing the AD element to the AME of the corps TOC.

 

Learning Event 3:
HIMAD MISSILE BATTALIONS

Hawk

Hawk AD units provide LOMAD for organizations and installations.  Hawk organizations in the current Army force structure still call for battalions of either three or four firing batteries.  Every Hawk firing battery consists of two AFPs and a battery headquarters.  The Hawk unit organic to the corps ADA brigade is a 3 x 2 battalion.  It consists of an HHB and three firing batteries, each of which has two AFPs.  The Hawk unit organic to the theater army is a 4 x 2 battalion.  It consists of an HHB and four firing batteries, each of which has two AFPs.

The corps and theater configurations do not provide the firing batteries with organic medium- to high-altitude acquisition radars.  The fire units must rely on outside sources (AN-TSQ-73 or AWACS) and the CWAR for target acquisition data.  The organization of the units is shown in Figure 59.

FIGURE 59.  CORPS AND THEATER HAWK BATTALIONS.

FIGURE 59.  CORPS AND THEATER HAWK BATTALIONS.

Patriot

The role of Patriot is to provide very low- to very high-altitude AD of high-value assets and ground combat forces.  Patriot's fast-reaction capability, high firepower (ability to engage several targets simultaneously), and ability to operate in a severe ECM environment are features necessary for effective AD on the modern battlefield.

The Patriot battalion is normally assigned to an ADA brigade.  It is usually employed by the AADC and or RADC to defend theater assets but may be assigned to support maneuver forces.  A Patriot battalion is usually employed in at least battalion strength.  However, the Patriot battery is the fire unit.

The battalion (Figure 60) consists of an HHB and six firing batteries.  The HHB provides command and control, a technical supply facility, missile resupply, and DS maintenance of communications-electronics, IFF, and engineer equipment.  It also furnishes medical and multichannel communications relay support for the battalion.  The battery headquarters has sufficient equipment to form a Stinger team.

FIGURE 60.  PATRIOT BATTALION ORGANIZATION.

FIGURE 60.  PATRIOT BATTALION ORGANIZATION.

The Patriot firing battery includes a battery headquarters, maintenance platoon, fire control platoon, and a launcher platoon.  The maintenance platoon has three separate sections--one for system maintenance, one for communications, and the other for vehicle maintenance.  The fire control platoon is composed of a fire control section and a decoy section.  The launcher platoon has four launching sections, each with two launchers per section.  In addition, the launcher platoon headquarters and fire control platoon headquarters have sufficient equipment to form Stinger teams.

 

Learning Event 4:
SHORAD ARTILLERY BATTALIONS

SHORAD weapons are primarily used for the defense of the ground commander's forces and assets.  However, they are also employed to defend theater assets such as air bases.  Most SHORAD units are organic to divisions and consist of combinations of short-range guns and man-portable missile systems.  At the present time, both new SHORAD systems and product improvements to existing systems are being introduced into the Army.  In some cases this has resulted in the reorganization of some SHORAD units to support the Army of the 1980s and 1990s.

C/V Battalion

The Chaparral and SP Vulcan battalion is the organic ADA battalion for AIM infantry divisions and is the most common of the SHORAD battalions.

Besides an HHB, the battalion has four SP firing batteries--two Vulcan and two Chaparral.  Each firing battery is organized with a headquarters section, three Chaparral or Vulcan platoons, and a Stinger platoon.  Each C/V platoon has 4 weapon squads for a total of 12 in the battery and 48 (24 Vulcan and 24 Chaparral) in the battalion.  Each Stinger platoon is composed of four sections containing from three to five Stinger teams.  The HHB has a radar platoon consisting of eight FAARs to provide early warning.

Light Division ADA Battalion

The light division ADA battalion counters the low-altitude air threat against the light division.  The battalion is capable of quickly accepting augmentation from the corps ADA brigade in the event the division is deployed to a high-intensity conflict.  Personnel and equipment are rapidly air transported to support contingency operations.  The battalion is organized with an HHB and two Gun and Stinger batteries.  Each firing battery has two FAARs.  The Gun and Stinger batteries have three PIVADS platoons.  Each PIVADS platoon has 3 guns, for a total of 18 for the battalion.  Each Stinger platoon has four sections of 5 crews each, for a total of 40 Stinger crews for the battalion.

Airborne Division ADA Battalion

The airborne division ADA battalion is organized with an HHB and four towed Vulcan and Stinger batteries.  All equipment is airlanded or, if necessary, dropped by parachute.  Each towed Vulcan battery has three Vulcan platoons and a Stinger platoon.  Each Vulcan platoon has four guns, while the Stinger platoon has four Stinger sections.  Eight FAARs are assigned to the radar platoon in the headquarters battery.

Air Assault Division ADA Battalion

The air assault division ADA battalion is organized into an HHB and three PIVADS and Stinger batteries.  Each battery consists of three platoons of towed PIVADs, with each platoon having three guns.  The Stinger platoon consists of four sections with five teams each.  Four FAARs are assigned to the radar platoon in the headquarters battery.  All equipment is air transportable and is displaced by UH-60 and CH-47 helicopters.

M42 (DUSTER) ADA Battalions

National Guard Duster battalions are assigned to support National Guard and Reserve divisions when federalized.  The battalion is organized with an HHB (containing early warning radars) and four firing batteries.  Each firing battery has four Duster platoons.  There are 4 Dusters in each platoon for a total of 16 in the battery and 64 in the battalion.

 

Learning Event 5:
NONDIVISIONAL SHORAD UNITS

Nondivisional C/V Battalion

The mission of a nondivisional C/V battalion is to provide AD for corps and theater combat elements or installations against attack by low-altitude hostile aircraft and to destroy surface targets as required.  The organization is essentially the same as the division C/V battalion with the exception that the gun batteries have towed Vulcans rather than SP Vulcans.  The firing batteries of nondivisional C/V assigned to NATO were reorganized into three gun and missile batteries, each having eight towed Vulcans and eight SP Chaparrals.  This modified organization has only six FAARs rather than the eight that are available in AIM divisions.

FAAR Augmentation Teams

Separate brigade and armored cavalry regiment SHORAD batteries are normally augmented by FAAR teams.  Each team consists of three FAARs and the necessary personnel and equipment to operate them.

Corps AD Element

Because ADA forces are allocated to the corps based on an operational need, there is a continuous requirement for the corps to have an assigned ADA element on the staff.  Corps assets, such as nuclear delivery means, logistic complexes, artillery, and command and control facilities, are high-priority targets for the enemy that are provided AD protection.  The planning and coordination necessary to ensure that these assets are protected require ADA expertise and a dedicated staff element.  The corps obtains this staff element in one of two ways: (1) An ADA brigade that is assigned or attached to the corps will provide an AD element to the corps.  The ADA brigade commander is the corps AD officer.  (2) A corps that does not have an ADA brigade assigned or attached should augment its headquarters and headquarters company with an AD element from TOE 44-520.

When an ADA brigade not assigned or attached to a corps receives a tactical mission to support the corps, or is positioned within the corps area without a tactical mission to support the corps, its commander becomes an AD advisor to the corps commander.  Functions of the corps AD element include--

  • Advising the corps commander on corps AD needs and acting as his agent in negotiating for the resources required.

  • Acting as interface between the corps and ADA forces of subordinate divisions and also interfacing with theater-level AD forces on corps ADA matters.

  • Providing ADA expertise to corps staff members.

  • Providing ADA representation to the corps AME.

ADA Signal Operations Battalion

The mission of the ADA signal operations battalion is to provide signal communications support for a TAADCOM with three to five assigned or attached ADA brigades.  The battalion is normally assigned to a TAADCOM and consists of a headquarters and headquarters detachment, a command signal operations company, and up to five brigade signal operating companies (one for each brigade assigned to the TAADCOM).  The battalion provides--

  • A low-capability, multichannel communications system and repeater facilities for telephone, teletype, and data channels between the TAADCOM and the brigades to include lateral systems between brigades.

  • A command communications center.

  • FM radios for operation of the battalion command and SYSCON nets and to provide initial lineup for the multichannel communications system.


Practice Exercise

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Page last modified: 27-04-2005 07:23:08 Zulu