Air Force Special Operations Command
Air Force Special Operations Command was established May 22, 1990. AFSOC is the Air Force component of U.S. Special Operations Command, a unified command.
AFSOC's mission is "America's specialized air power ... a step ahead in a changing world, delivering special operations combat power anytime, anywhere." The command is committed to continual improvement to provide Air Force special operations forces for worldwide deployment and assignment to regional unified commands to accomplish the following special operations activities: unconventional warfare, counterproliferation, direct action, psychological operations, special reconnaissance, civil affairs, combating terrorism, foreign internal defense, and information operations.
Special operations forces perform special reconnaissance, psychological operations and unconventional warfare in hot spots around the world. Using high tech surveillance equipment, modified aircraft and weapons straight out of a futuristic film, they participate in military operations such as Desert Shield and Desert Storm in the Middle East, Operation Urgent Fury in Grenada, and in humanitarian missions such as Operation Provide Promise, a relief effort in the Balkans.
AFSOC has approximately 12,500 active duty, Reserve, Air National Guard and civilian professionals, with over 20 percent stationed overseas. The command has more than 160 fixed and rotary wing aircraft assigned.
In the European theater of operations, regular conventional Army Air Force (AAF) units were used to conduct special operations in high threat areas under the direction of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) and British Intelligence Service. The earliest Army Air Force special operations missions involved the Special Flight Section of the 12th Air Force's 5th Bombardment Wing in North Africa. Their first combat mission was in October of 1943 in a modified B-17F. This small adhoc unit operated highly modified and mission unique B-17, B-24, and B-25 bombers from North Africa into France and other parts of occupied Europe. They later became known as the 885th Bombardment Squadron and flew out of Brindisi, Italy. The largest Army Air Force effort in Europe was conducted by the 801st Bombardment Group nicknamed the "Carpetbaggers," which were based in England. The Carpetbaggers specialized in the delivery of supplies, agents, and leaflets behind enemy lines, using highly modified, mission unique, black painted B-24s.
Along with the conventional AAF troop carrier units, the special operations transports and bombers operating out of Brindisi, Italy, flew 3,769 successful sorties into the Balkans (79 percent to Yugoslavia). They dropped 7,149 tons of supplies to resistance groups while 989 C-47 landings behind enemy lines brought in another 1,972 tons. These special operations units also assisted in the evacuation of thousands of allied airmen and wounded partisans during 1944-1945. Prior to and during Operation OVERLORD, specially trained three-man Jedburgh teams were dropped behind enemy lines in France by Carpetbaggers and North African based units. The Jedburgh teams' mission was to coordinate Free French and partisan "Maquis" operations. Special operations crews became proficient in night low-level, long-range navigation, usually conducted in poor weather and in mountainous terrain. During early June 1944, six teams were dropped into strategic locations in Brittany, France, where they relayed vital intelligence data critical to the success of the Normandy invasion. Later, Carpetbaggers airlifted fuel to facilitate General Patton's armored drive out of France into Germany. Another special operation, like the previous missions to Yugoslavia and under the code name Halyard Mission, extracted large groups of downed American airmen being protected by Yugoslav partisans. Between June and August 1944, OSS agents using Air Force C-47 transports landed behind enemy lines and recovered 432 Americans and 80 other Allied personnel.
In August 1943, General (Gen) Henry H. "Hap" Arnold met with British Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten to discuss plans for American air support of British commando expeditions in the China-Burma-India theater of operations. General Arnold coined the term "air commando" to honor Lord Mountbatten who earlier commanded British commandos.
The general directed veteran fighter pilots Lieutenant Colonels (Lt Col) Philip G. Cochran and John R. Alison to build a self-reliant composite fighting force to support British Brigadier General (Brig Gen) Orde C. Wingate and his "Chindits" on long-range penetrations into Burma against the Japanese. By March 1944, the unit was designated the 1st Air Commando Group (1 ACG). The air commandos flew over hazardous mountains and jungles to find and resupply the highly mobile British ground forces in hostile territory. It was from these missions that the 1 ACG earned its motto of "Any Place, Any Time, Any Where," a variation of which is still used today. Their success eventually led to the creation of two other such groups, the 2d and 3d ACGs. The air commandos performed a variety of conventional and unconventional combat and support missions deep behind enemy lines. They used an array of aircraft including C-47 transports, P-51 and P-47 fighters, B-25 bombers, UC-64 utility aircraft, and a glider force of CG-4As and G-5s, augmented by R-4 helicopters. The air commandos are credited with the first combat aircrew rescue by helicopter, first combat use of air-to-ground rockets, multiple ground targets destroyed, and a number of enemy aircraft shot down. Enlisted pilots were an essential part of the 550-man force, flying resupply and medical evacuation missions with L-1 and L-5 liaison aircraft. The medical evacuation flights were extremely successful and proved to be critical to the morale of the Chindits.
Special operations capabilities were mothballed in the demobilization after World War II. These capabilities were resurrected in the late 1940s as a means to help eliminate the Communist Huk insurgency in the Philippines. The air power used to defeat the communist movement was organized along unconventional lines. Using United States (US) assistance under Lt Col Edward G. Lansdale, who in turn employed a Foreign Internal Defense (FID) mode of operation, the Philippine Air Force flew C-47s, P-51s, L-5s, AT-6 armed trainers, and a mixture of liaison aircraft against the Huks. In addition, a successful psychological warfare campaign of leaflets and airborne speaker operations was initiated. Psychological warfare, combined with air and ground attacks, kept the Huks on the defensive and led to their defeat in 1954.
Early in the Korean War, US Army intelligence and the fledgling Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), successor to the OSS, needed to deploy intelligence teams and supplies through short- and long-range low-level penetration into both North and South Korea. Initially, the Air Force provided this adhoc special air support in multiple forms of air, land, and sea assets to support the United Nations Command operations. This involved the use of C-47 and C-119 transports, B-26 medium bombers, and Air Rescue Service crash boats. The Air Force then activated, equipped, and trained the 580th, 581st, and 582d Air Resupply and Communication Wings specifically for unconventional warfare and counterinsurgency operations. These wings had tremendous capabilities using a variety of aircraft such as C-47, C-54, C-118, C-119 transports, B-29 bombers, SA-16 amphibians, and H-19 helicopters. The revitalization of special operations included the ability to recover downed airmen and the full spectrum of covert air operations. However, while three wings were activated, only one saw action in Korea, and all three were inactivated by late 1956.
Throughout the rest of the 1950s, four Air National Guard (ANG) units assumed the air resupply and communication mission; Maryland, Rhode Island, West Virginia, and California. However, both active and reserve air assets were used in secret operations in Tibet, Iran, behind the Iron Curtain, French Indo-China, and at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba. This method of operation was changed dramatically when Air Force active duty special operations units were created to counter Soviet support of "wars of liberation" in the Third World. General Curtis E. LeMay, Air Force Chief of Staff, established the 4400th Combat Crew Training Squadron (CCTS) in April 1961. Nicknamed "Jungle Jim," the CCTS was based at Hurlburt Field, Florida, with a two-fold mission: counterinsurgency training and combat operations. Aircraft such as U-10s, C-46s, C-47s, B-26s, and AT-28s soon showed up on the Hurlburt flight line. The CCTS devised FID tactics and techniques for building a counterinsurgency capability in Third World countries from Latin America to Africa, and from the Middle East to Southeast Asia. The first Jungle Jim operation, code named Sandy Beach One, involved training Malian paratroopers. In November 1961, the 4400 CCTS deployed a detachment to Bien Hoa, Republic of Vietnam, on Operation FARMGATE. Thus, Air Force special operations forces (SOF) flew some of the first US combat missions in Vietnam. A second detachment was deployed to the Panama Canal Zone. The Bien Hoa operation was soon to consume nearly all of the Air Force's commitment in supporting counterinsurgency operations.
As the Vietnam War expanded, the Air Force increased its counterinsurgency capability. The 4400 CCTS became a group in March 1962, and the next month became part of the newly activated US Air Force Special Air Warfare Center (USAF SAWC) at Eglin Air Force Base (AFB), Florida. The Special Air Warfare Center obtained additional assets in the mid-1960s, to include O-1 and O-2 observation planes, A-26, A-37, and A-1 attack fighters, C-123, and later C-130 cargo aircraft, along with several types of helicopters. In addition to being an outstanding shortfield tactical transport, the C-123s were also modified as aerial sprayers for the Ranch Hand defoliant missions in Vietnam. In 1964, air commandos deployed to Laos and Thailand on Operation WATERPUMP. This FID-like operation involved training Laotian and Thai pilots and supported the Royal Lao Army against insurgents.
By 1966, air commandos were deployed worldwide to other countries such as Malaysia, Greece, Saudi Arabia, Ethiopia, Iran, and the Congo Republic. Also in late 1964, the first gunships were introduced into combat with the deployment of AC-47s to Vietnam. By 1966, the USAF reached its high water mark for special operations forces with a total of 10,000 people, 550 aircraft, and 19 squadrons. The following year AC-119 gunships were introduced into combat, and by 1968 the first AC-130 gunships entered the Vietnam conflict. By the summer of 1968, the USAF SAWC was redesignated USAF Special Operations Force (USAFSOF) and became the equivalent of a numbered air force. Subordinate units were redesignated as special operations wings and squadrons, thus eliminating all reference to air commandos. At this time, the Vietnam War was at its peak and consumed virtually all of the Air Force's special operations efforts. One of the most notable missions supported by USAF special operations was the Son Tay prisoner of war (POW) camp raid in 1970. The Son Tay raiders trained at Hurlburt and Duke Fields, near Eglin AFB, Florida. Although no prisoners were found, the resulting boost in morale and improved treatment of our prisoners of war made the mission worth the effort.
As the Vietnam War began winding down, SOF capability gradually declined as well. In June 1974, the USAFSOF was redesignated the 834th Tactical Composite Wing (TCW), effectively bringing to a close the most aggressive, far reaching effort by the USAF to support unconventional warfare. In July 1975, the 834 TCW was renamed the 1st Special Operations Wing (1 SOW), and by 1979 it was the only SOF wing in the Air Force. It was comprised of AC-130H Spectre gunships, MC-130E Combat Talons, and CH-3E Jolly Green and UH-1N Huey helicopters. Two MC-130 Combat Talon squadrons remained overseas and the Air Force Reserve (AFRES) maintained the AC-130A gunship group and one HH-3E Jolly Green squadron.
Operation RICE BOWL, the attempt to rescue American hostages from the United States embassy in Iran, ended in disaster at the Desert One refueling site in April 1980. As a result, the Holloway Commission was convened with the tasking to analyze why the mission failed and to recommend corrective actions. This began the gradual reorganization and rebirth of United States special operations forces.
Meanwhile, in December 1982, the Air Force transferred responsibility for Air Force special operations from Tactical Air Command (TAC) to Military Airlift Command (MAC). Consequently, in March 1983, MAC activated 23d Air Force (23 AF) at Scott AFB, Illinois. This new numbered air force was charged with the worldwide missions of special operations, combat rescue, weather reconnaissance and aerial sampling, security support for intercontinental ballistic missile sites, training of USAF helicopter and HC-130 crewmen, pararescue training, and medical evacuation.
In October 1983, 23 AF participated with other Caribbean forces in the successful rescue of Americans from the island nation of Grenada. During the 7-day operation, centered at Point Salines Airport, 23 AF furnished MC-130s, AC-130s, aircraft, aircrews, maintenance, and support people. An EC-130 from the 193d Special Operations Group (SOG) of the Air National Guard (ANG), also played a significant psy-war role. During this crucial combat test of emerging SOF capability, a 1 SOW Combat Talon crew earned the Mackay Trophy and a Spectre crew earned the Tunner Award.
In May 1986, Senators William Cohen and Sam Nunn introduced a Senate bill, while the following month Congressman Dan Daniel introduced a like measure in the House of Representatives. The key provisions of the legislation formed the basis to amend the 1986 Defense Authorizations Bill. This bill, signed into law in October 1986, in part directed the formation of a unified command responsible for special operations. In April 1987, the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) was established at MacDill AFB, Florida, and Army Gen James J. Lindsay assumed command. Four months later, 23 AF moved to Hurlburt Field, Florida. In August 1989, Gen Duane H. Cassidy, MAC Commander in Chief, divested all non-special operations units from 23 AF. Thus, 23 AF served a dual role--reporting to MAC, but also functioning as the air component to USSOCOM.
From late December 1989 to early January 1990, 23 AF participated in the re-establishment of democracy in the Republic of Panama during Operation JUST CAUSE. Special operations aircraft included active and AFRES AC-130 Spectre gunships, EC-130 Volant Solo psychological operations aircraft from the ANG, HC-130P/N Combat Shadow tankers, MC-130E Combat Talons, and MH-53J Pave Low and MH-60G Pave Hawk helicopters. Special tactics combat controllers and medics provided important support to combat units during this operation.
Spectre gunship crews of the 1 SOW earned the Mackay Trophy and Tunner Award for their efforts, a 919 SOG Spectre crew earned the President's Award, and a 1 SOW Combat Talon crew ferried the captured Panamanian President, Manuel Noreiga, to prison in the United States. Likewise, the efforts of the 1 SOW maintenance people earned them the Daedalian Award.
On May 22, 1990, Gen Larry D. Welch, Air Force Chief of Staff, redesignated 23 AF as Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC). The new major command consisted of three wings--the 1st, 39th and 353d Special Operations Wings--as well as the 1720th Special Tactics Group (STG), the US Air Force Special Operations School, and the Special Missions Operational Test and Evaluation Center. The AFRES components included the 919 SOG at Duke Field, Florida, and the 193 SOG of the ANG, located at the Harrisburg International Airport, Pennsylvania. Currently, after major redesignations and reorganizations, AFSOC direct reporting units include the 16 SOW; two groups, the 352d and 353d, as well as the 720th Special Tactics Group (STG), USAF Special Operations School, 18th Flight Test Squadron (FLTS), and Air Support Operations Squadron (ASOS).
From early August 1990 to late February 1991, AFSOC participated in Operations DESERT SHIELD and DESERT STORM, the protection of Saudi Arabia and liberation of Kuwait. Active duty, AFRES, and ANG components of AFSOC deployed to Saudi Arabia and Turkey. The 1 SOW with its AC-130s, HC-130s, MC-130s, MH-53s and MH-60s; the 193 SOG with its EC-130s; and the 919 SOG with its AC-130s and HH-3s, all deployed south of Kuwait. The 39 SOW deployed north of Iraq with its HC-130s, MC-130s, and MH-53s. Special tactics personnel operated throughout the theater on multiple combat control and combat rescue missions.
Among the missions performed were direct action missions, combat search and rescue, infiltration, exfiltration, air base ground defense, air interdiction, special reconnaissance, close air support, psychological operations, and helicopter air refuelings. The Pave Low crews led the helicopter assault on radars to blind Iraq at the onset of hostilities, and they also accomplished the deepest rescue for which they received the Mackay Trophy. The Combat Talons dropped the largest conventional bombs of the war and, along with the Combat Shadows, dropped the most psy-war leaflets. The Spectres provided valuable fire support and armed reconnaissance, but also suffered the single greatest combat loss for coalition air forces with the shoot down of Spirit 03 and the death of all fourteen crewmembers aboard.
Following the Gulf War, AFSOC aircraft stood alert for personnel recovery and various other missions in support of Operations PROVIDE COMFORT and SOUTHERN WATCH. Additionally, during July 1992, AFSOC units began participation in Operations PROVIDE PROMISE and DENY FLIGHT, the humanitarian relief effort and no fly zone security in the Balkans.
Then in December 1992, AFSOC special tactics and intelligence personnel supported Operation RESTORE HOPE in Somalia, followed by the AC-130H Spectre gunships in the spring of 1993 under Operation CONTINUE HOPE and UNITED SHIELD in Somalia. In late 1994, AFSOC units spearheaded Operation UPHOLD DEMOCRACY in Haiti, and more recently, in 1995 Operation DELIBERATE FORCE in the Balkans.
The number of deployments following Operation DESERT STORM was only exceeded by the number of organizational changes. The more significant ones included the 353 SOW relocation under Operation FIERY VIGIL from Clark Air Base (AB), Republic of the Philippines, to Kadena AB, Japan, in June 1991 due to the volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo. The unit was supported by temporary duty personnel under Operation SCIMATAR SWEEP for more than a year. In January 1992, the 39 SOW relocated from Rhein-Main AB, Germany, to Royal Air Force (RAF) Alconbury, United Kingdom (UK), and later that year was inactivated, and its personnel and equipment were reconstituted as the 352 SOW. In December 1992, both overseas wings were redesignated as groups. More reorganization occurred on Hurlburt Field to include the 1720 STG becoming the 720 STG in March 1992; the transfer of ownership of Hurlburt Field from Air Mobility Command (AMC, and formerly MAC) to AFSOC in October 1992, followed by the merger of the 834th Air Base Wing (ABW) into the 1 SOW who assumed host unit responsibilities. A year later the 1 SOW became the 16 SOW in a move to preserve Air Force heritage.
Meanwhile, the Special Missions Operational Test and Evaluation Center (SMOTEC), which filled the unique role of exploring new frontiers in special operations capabilities, while pursuing better equipment and tactics development, was also reorganized. In April 1994, the Air Force in an effort to standardize these types of organizations, redesignated SMOTEC as the 18th Flight Test Squadron.
In March 1994, the price of freedom and the high operations tempo was paid by a 16th Special Operations Squadron AC-130H gunship, call sign Jockey 14. The aircraft was lost due to an in-flight explosion and ditching off the coast of Kenya while supporting Operation CONTINUE HOPE II in Somalia. Eight crewmembers were killed, while six survived.
This was soon followed by another tragedy for the Air Force when a pair of US Army UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters were shot down in a tragic friendly-fire incident during Operation PROVIDE COMFORT III in Iraq. The 9 SOS, 55 SOS, and 23d Special Tactics Squadron were called in to play significant roles in the search, support, and recovery operations.
In the fall of 1994 it was decided to send American forces into Haiti. The 16 SOW, 919 SOW, and 193 SOW led the formations of fixed and rotary winged aircraft to complete Operation UPHOLD DEMOCRACY. Air Force special operations helicopters flew from Navy aircraft carriers during this massive deployment. Most of the AFSOC aircraft operated out of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. This deployment also included the largest gathering of MH-53 Pave Lows to participate in one action, and the last real-world operation for the AC-130A's of the 919 SOW prior to their retirement.
The war in Rwanda, and the number of people victimized because of it, led to AFSOC forces of the 352 SOG becoming involved in a humanitarian effort known as Operation SUPPORT HOPE. It was also sometimes referred to as QUIET RESOLVE or PROVIDE RELIEF.
In early 1995, the 352 SOG relocated from RAF Alconbury to RAF Mildenhall, UK, along with its supporting squadrons. Also during 1995, AFSOC was called on to support a number of peace keeping and humanitarian missions. These included Operations PROVIDE COMFORT III (Turkey and Iraq), plus PROVIDE PROMISE/DENY FLIGHT, which evolved into DELIBERATE FORCE and JOINT ENDEAVOR (out of Italy and into Bosnia Herzegovina-Croatia). Pave Low helicopter crewmen received combat wounds while flying as part of a force trying to rescue two French aviators who had been shot down near Sarajevo during Operation DELIBERATE FORCE. The efforts of the Pave Low flight crew during this attempted rescue effort resulted in their receiving the 1995 Air Force Cheney Award. AFSOC also supported Operation CONTINUATION HOPE III (Somalia) which evolved into UNITED SHIELD.
Air Force Special Operations Command aircraft were also the first on the scene when the T-43 aircraft carrying US Commerce Secretary Ron Brown crashed near Dubrovnik, Croatia, killing everyone on board. The 352 SOG launched two MH-53Js and one MC-130P as part of the search and rescue effort. Crews of the 16 SOW and 20 SOS also participated. The efforts of these crewmembers, during this highly visible event, resulted in their being awarded the Air Force Cheney Award for 1996.
The crews involved in this mission were then quickly rotated into Operation ASSURED RESPONSE, which provided support to the emergency Noncombatant Evacuation (NEO) of more than 2,100 US and foreign citizens from Monrovia, Liberia. Operating in a hostile fire environment, SOF personnel conducted dozens of rotary wing evacuation flights using MH-53Js and overhead fire support sorties in AC-130H Spectres, often vectoring friendly aircraft through heavy small arms and rocket propelled grenade fire. For their efforts the Pave Low crews were presented the Lt Gen William H. Tunner Award as the outstanding strategic airlift crew of the year.
Air Force Special Operations Command began changing its readiness posture from one geared to countering the Soviet Union threat to one of cooperative engagements and peace enforcement activities, for which AFSOC forces' capabilities remained in constant demand. As part of Commando Vision, which started in 1994, the 919 SOW would not receive the AC-130Hs from the 16 SOW as had been planned. Instead the 919 SOW at Duke Field, Florida, retired its AC-130A gunships and gained MC-130P Combat Shadows, flown by the newly stood-up 5 SOS, and MC-130E Combat Talons, flown by the 711 SOS. Both conversions were a success, with the 919 SOW Reservists deploying to Brindisi AB, Italy, by Christmas 1995 in support of Operation JOINT ENDEAVOR. The conversion was completed by 1997.
In February 1997, AFSOC was notified it had captured the "triple crown" of Air Force Safety Awards for 1996, a feat accomplished only once before by a major command (1993 - Air Education and Training Command) during the history of the Air Force. The command took the Secretary of the Air Force Safety Award for the best overall mishap prevention program in Category I, and the Maj Gen Benjamin D. Foulois and Col Will L. Tubbs Memorial awards for the top flight and ground safety programs respectively. Later in the year, the 16 SOW was awarded the Columbian Trophy for military flight safety achievements in 1996. This was the first time in the 62-year history of the award it was presented to a non-fighter unit.
In April 1997, AFSOC units on temporary duty to Brindisi in support of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) missions in Bosnia took on a key support role in the evacuation of Americans trapped by Albania's civil war. Supporting Operation SILVER WAKE, they assisted State Department officials process more than 1,000 evacuees, including about 450 Americans they rescued from the warring nation.
In June 1997, fighting raged in the Republic of Congo's capital as a result of that nation's civil war. An AFSOC MC-130H Talon II from the 352 SOG delivered an American military assessment team, then evacuated 56 people from Brazzaville.
September 1997 saw three EC-130E Commando Solo aircraft from the 193 SOW, deploy in support of Operation JOINT GUARD. The Stabilization Force commander requested the deployment of the aircraft to Brindisi to serve as a NATO resource to counter Serb radio and television broadcasts misrepresenting the Dayton Peace Accords.
Two 4 SOS AC-130U Spectre gunships arrived at Taegu AB, South Korea, 24 October 1997, following a 36-hour nonstop mission from Hurlburt Field, Florida. The mission brought members of the 4 SOS to participate in Foal Eagle 1997, an annual Joint Chiefs of Staff exercise held throughout South Korea. Members of the 6 SOS, the FID squadron, also participated in the exercise. The 6 SOS made history in February 1998 when, for the first time, it operated both its UH-1 rotor wing and CASA 212 fixed wing aircraft. The importance of FID in the 21st century was the driving force in the development of this new operational capability.
Throughout 1998 AFSOC maintained a constant CSAR alert posture as part of Operation JOINT GUARD, with aircraft and personnel rotating from the 16 SOW and 352 SOG to San Vito, Italy on a routine basis. This role increased significantly in March 1999 during the crisis in Kosovo and Operation ALLIED FORCE. During the NATO air campaign to force Serbian forces from Kosovo, special operators conducted two successful CSAR operations to rescue downed American pilots (one F-117, one F-16) in the area of conflict. In addition, Operation ALLIED FORCE witnessed the employment of the EC-130E Commando Solo aircraft from the 193 SOW to counter Serb radio and television broadcasts, the MC-130H to conduct extensive leaflet drops over Serbia; and the AC-130U to provide armed reconnaissance. All told, AFSOC's special operators and aircraft played a significant role in bringing the conflict in Kosovo to an end. Following the conclusion of ALLIED FORCE, special operations units entered into a period of reconstitution, while also supporting humanitarian operations such as Operation ATLAS RESPONSE.
The security threat in Europe has diminished over the past two decades while threats in the Middle East and East Asian littoral are growing. Additionally, the SOF posture in the Pacific traditionally has focused on the threat from North Korea. The emerging threat in the Middle East and the East Asian littoral may require a realignment of forward deployed SOF/AFSOF. This research should summarize the emerging threat, determine SOF/AFSOF relevance in the threat environment, determine SOF/AFSOF capabilities required to meet the threat, and examine basing, forward deployment, and possibly SOF/AFSOF rotational requirements.
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|