Designing the Army -- the division, corps, and theater designs and all the 1,200-odd various tables of organization and equipment for "type" units, platoon through corps and above that made up the Army in the field -- is a daunting challenge. The design and adjustment of the organizations of the tactical Army is a continuous process, as new or upgraded weapons or equipment were introduced or when doctrine forced changes to tank platoons, mechanized infantry battalions, or cavalry troops.
But doctrinal, weapon, and policy changes periodically create the necessity for larger division reorganizations. The Department of the Army implemented one such major reorganization of the tactical Army during the period, the first since the ROAD (Reorganization Objective, Army Divisions) changes of the early 1960s. The tables of organization and equipment of the Army of Excellence, or AOE, designed by TRADOC in 1983-1984 and implemented between 1984-1986, gave organizational structure to Air-Land Battle doctrine and to the new generation of weaponry introduced into the force in the late 1970s and the 1980s. The AOE rested in great part, however, on major reorganization studies that preceded it, the Army 86 Studies undertaken by TRADOC between 1978 and 1982.
Since 1989, the active Army reduced in size from 18 divisions to 10; the Army Reserve has reduced from 29 command and control headquarters and training divisions to 10 support commands and 7 training divisions; and the National Guard has reduced from 10 divisions and 23 brigade equivalents to 8 divisions, 15 enhanced brigades, 2 separate brigades, and an infantry scout group. Since 1989, the active Army has reduced by 262,000 soldiers; our civilian workforce has decreased by 133,000; the Army Reserve has cut 111,000 soldiers; and the Army National Guard has reduced 90,000.
The Army Maneuver Combat Force Consists of 10 Active Divisions, 3 Active Armored Cavalry Regiments, 2 Integrated Divisions, 8 ARNG Divisions, 15 ARNG Enhanced Separate Brigades (ESBs) and 2 Strategic Reserve Brigades (SRBs). Scheduling at the NTC, JRTC and other training centers cannot accommodate all requirements. ARNG ESBs/SRBs are limited to an eight year rotation cycle. ARNG Divisional Brigades are not currently programmed to receive CTC-like experience. Local and Regional Training Centers are not large enough to accommodate doctrinal array above the Battalion level. Army National Guard Regional Training Centers focus on Platoon / Company Level / Battalion Level training.
The Total Army Analysis [TAA] is a biennial, multiphased force-structuring process that generates the tactical support forces and general purpose forces necessary to support divisional and non-divisional combat forces in executing the national strategy, given resource constraints and end-strength guidance. The TAA results are used to develop the Army POM force.
The TAA establishes the Army's force structure to support warfighting and support requirements. In the on-going TAA process, the three components [Active, Reserve and Guard] work together to determine and align the future force structure to accomplish specific Army missions. New programs such as "multi-component units" and "teaming" help determine the best mix of units and methods of employment for achieving diverse, worldwide missions.
The Army recognizes three general types of combat forces - armored, light, and SOF.
- Armored forces are armor and mechanized/motorized infantry units.
- Light infantry forces have no organic carriers, including airborne and air assault infantry.
- SOF support conventional military operations at all levels of war and influence deep, close, and rear operations. SOF are used optimally in deep operations at the strategic and operational level. SOF include Army Special Forces, Rangers, PSYOP, CA, and Army special operations aviation.
Armored and light infantry forces are not routinely mixed but can be effective given the proper situation. One advantage of mixing armored and light infantry forces is that the maneuver commander has more flexibility in synchronizing his operation. Light infantry can infiltrate to attack key command and control nodes, for example, while mechanized infantry creates a penetration for an armored task force to exploit. The mechanized infantry can then follow and support the armored task force, while light infantry air assaults or parachutes to continue to seize key terrain or to cut off enemy forces.
One of the most significant, far-reaching and invigorating changes the Army is undertaking is the seamless integration of its three components: AC, ARNG and USAR. This process is propelled by the vision published in the Chief of Staff of the Army's (CSA's) 1998 white paper titled "One Team, One Fight, One Future." The US Army conducts operations as a total force consisting of the active component (AC), reserve components (RC) (consisting of the US Army Reserve (USAR) and Army National Guard (ARNG)), and civilians acting in concert with other services and allies. This total force policy engenders public support and embraces this concept of "ONE TEAM - ONE FIGHT."
The RC of the Army consists of the ARNG and the USAR. Their purpose is to provide trained units and individuals to augment the AC in time of war or national emergency. Service in either of these components, as well as the AC, is completely voluntary. Both reserve components have Federal missions; however, the ARNG is unique in that it also has a State mission. The State mission is to provide organized units, equipped and trained to function effectively in the protection of life and property and the preservation of peace, order, and public safety under competent orders of Federal or State authorities. The State retains command of any unit not in Federal service. The chain of command differs between the ARNG and the USAR; however, both are fully integrated into the Total Army and have wartime missions.
In the RC, the terms Reserve and Reservist generally refer to the USAR. USAR units and soldiers are established by Title 10, United States Code (USC) and as such are federal troops. Traditional drilling Reservists are members of a Troop Program Unit (TPU) and are referred to as TPUs.
The traditional ARNG soldier is generally referred to as an M-day (man-day) soldier. The major legislative language governing the National Guard is in Titles 10 and 32, USC. In the 21st TSC, there are no ARNG Man-day soldiers, but subordinate "War-trace" units have guardsmen assigned.
AGR soldiers are USAR or ARNG soldiers on permanent active duty. AGR soldiers serve in the same manner as Active Component soldiers. There are two types of AGR soldiers in the ARNG. Title 10 AGR soldiers serve in the Army National Guard of the United States and are managed by National Guard Bureau. Title 32 AGR, also referred to as Full Time National Guard Duty (FTNGD), serve in the National Guard of the fifty states and four territories.
Multiple Component (Multi-compo) Units have both AC and RC personnel and/or units as part of its MTOE. This is accomplished in one or more of the following manners: AC and RC soldiers assigned by paragraph and line to the same unit. Units of one component missioned to support higher headquarters units of another component (dual or single mission units).
Approximately 54 percent of the Total Army military manpower is in the Reserve Components (34 percent ARNG and 20 percent USAR). While ARNG units are predominantly combat arms and combat support, USAR units are concentrated in combat support and combat service support.
The Guard is comprised of a balanced force structure of Combat, Combat Support, and Combat Service Support units. Several initiatives are contributing to important changes in the Guard force structure. An example is the Division Redesign process which transitions two combat divisions to combat support and combat service support roles. Other important initiatives are the implementation of Guard/Active component integrated divisions, which align an active component division headquarters with three Army Guard Brigades. The ARNG maintains more than half of the Army's total combat power and approximately one-third of its Combat Support and Combat Service support force structure.
The USAR's diverse organizations include combat support (CS), and combat service support units (CSS). It includes some types of units, such as railroad units, that are not found in the AC. There are seven training divisions that conduct Basic Combat Training (BCT), Advanced Individual Training (AIT), and/or One Station Unit Training (OSUT). Five Divisions (Exercise) that write and conduct brigade, group, and higher unit Command Post Exercises (CPX) and Field Training Exercises (FTX), plus Total Army schools that conduct enlisted MOS courses, special courses, Officer Advanced, Combined Arms Service Staff School (CAS3), and Command and General Staff School (CGSC). The USAR also has non-unit personnel who are organized in the several control groups.
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