Division Fires Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized)
Division Artillery (DIVARTY), 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized)
In December 2012, the Fires Center of Excellence (FCoE) submitted a Force Design Update (FDU) (Fires HQ FDU) to re-establish fires command headquarters at echelons above brigade (EAB), for consideration in the Total Army Analysis (TAA) process for fiscal years 2016-2020. On Oct. 3, 2013, the Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army approved the Fires HQ FDU.
The Army decision to implement DIVARTYs will provide Field Artillery (FA) capabilities (planning, synchronization, and coordination) in order to execute strategic, operational and tactical fires in support of Unified Land Operations (ULO) and to provide effective mission command for the training and readiness of attached FA units. Current Echelon Above Brigade (EAB) mission command FA force structure and organizational design does not sufficiently meet the required capabilities in support of Combatant Commander (CCDR) requirements as part of the Joint force. This results in the inability to effectively integrate and synchronize fires at Division, Corps and Theater Army in support of ULO.
The Fires HQ FDU creates a DIVARTY for each active component Division and will align an active component Field Artillery Brigade (FAB) to each Corps and one to Eighth United States Army (EUSA). The term “Fires Brigade" (FiB) is being replaced with Field Artillery Brigade (FAB). The FDU does not alter the organization of the Army National Guard (ARNG) FABs; however ARNG FABs will be aligned with ARNG Divisions for training affiliation and will be capable of serving as a DIVARTY to support ARNG Divisions during deployment and provide reinforcing and counterfire capability to a Corps or Joint Task Force (JTF). The primary task for the FAB includes coordination, integration, synchronization and employment of fires as well as provides long range precision fires to the Corps through strike operations.
The DIVARTY is a proven force design that will play a key role in reversing the continuing atrophy of FA skills, halt the erosion of professional and leader development in the fires Warfighting Function, and restore the art and science of synchronizing effects for precise and discriminating fires.
The DIVARTY had no organic firing units, but can be provided a variety of FA Battalions (rocket and cannon) and other assets to accomplish its mission for the Division Commander. This may include a combination of one to five rocket/missile (MLRS or HIMARS) and/or FA Cannon Battalions as well as other enablers. The DIVARTY consists of a Headquarters (HHB), a Signal Platoon, and a Target Acquisition Platoon (TAP), initially consisting of two AN/TPQ-37 Radars and over the six years 2014-2020 transitioning to two AN/TPQ-53 Radars. DIVARTYs will provide command oversight for training management and certification of the Brigade Combat Team (BCT) FA Battalions, and Fire Support Cells. DIVARTYs will provide synchronization of sensors such as Sentinel and counterfire radars organic to the Division as well as synchronization of Joint sensors.
As of October 2015, all 10 DIVARTYs had activated. The DIVARTY’s primary role is to ensure readiness of the Fires formations within the divisions by improving the ability to deliver operational and technical Fires. The duties and responsibilities of the DIVARTYs are defined in Field Manual 3-09 and soon to be released Army Training Program 3-09.90, DIVARTY. The United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) commander further defined their roles and responsibilities in Fragmentary Order 1 to the U.S. Army FORSCOM Division Artillery Implementation Order with DIVARTY key tasks:
- Improve the division commander’s ability to deliver operational and tactical level Fires.
- Serve as the force field artillery headquarters for the division. The DIVARTY commander serves as the division FSCOORD.
- Develop standardized approach to training and integrated Fires to ensure accomplishment of operational and tactical level fire support tasks.
- Provide support to the brigade combat team (BCT) commanders with FA subject matter expertise. Coach, mentor and develop artillery commanders and leaders, and provide readiness assessment and advice to maneuver commanders.
The bottom line: DIVARTYs are the Fires integrators for the division and BCT commanders. Through stringent training and certification programs they ensure standardization across the division in the employment of Fires assets. Their success is incumbent on building strong relationships across the division and with joint Fires resources to ensure the Fires teams deliver over-match to the division and BCT commanders.
Precision targeting is non-negotiable. So going forward the Army implemented an 80-10-10 or a “Grid Getter Standard." 80-10-10 is a ratio based on a precision mindset that makes it necessary for Forward Observers and Fire Support Teams to achieve Joint TLE categories while on the battlefield. Specifically, achieving a CAT I (6.0M TLE) and CAT II (15M TLE) “precision grid" 80 percent of the time; achieve a CAT IV (50M TLE) “near precision grid" 10 percent of the time; achieve a CAT V/VI (200M or greater TLE) as a degraded operation, the final 10 percent of the time. This 80-10-10 ratio defines the term Accurate in the First Requirement for Accurate Fires.
Due to the complexities of the operational environment, the requirements for precise and discriminating fires, as well as the restrictions on employment of fires, these demands require that Fires organizations and Fire Supporters be thoroughly trained and certified. The Field Artillery Headquarters facilitates standardized core training throughout the Fire Support chain by ensuring routine training as a complete Fire Support systems, significantly enhancing the maneuvers commanders ability to plan, integrate, task organize, and execute Fires in support of ULO.
TRADOC Pam 525-3-4, the United States Army Functional Concept for Fires, states a responsibility to establish and maintain a fire support system that can, “enable the defeat of a wide range of threats, provide timely and responsive fires in environmental and operational conditions, provide a range of precision to conventional scalable capabilities to engage ground targets, prevent fratricide and minimize collateral damage, and to provide access to and integrate joint, Army, and multinational Fires capabilities at the lowest appropriate levels." This will allow the commander to achieve his desired effects on the enemy in a manner that does not require detailed integration with the scheme of subordinate maneuver elements.
Operational-Level Fires is the transition from the Theater Joint Force Air Component Command fight to air-ground integration fight. Operational-Level Fires are usually conducted at the operational level of war, but may be conducted at any level of war. Operational-Level Fires generally integrate Army Field Artillery (surface-to-surface) fires with joint and multi-national capabilities but could be conducted by any combination of available fires assets. Field Artillery Brigades and DIVARTYs focus on the conduct of Operational-Level Fires, including the integration of sensors and intelligence assets to support the targeting process, although they can also conduct Close-Support Fires that require detailed integration with the scheme of subordinate maneuver elements. Close-Support Fires are usually planned, coordinated, integrated, synchronized and conducted by BCT Field Artillery battalions.
In 2004, as part of the Army's transformation towards a modular force, various elements of the 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) were reorganized, redesignated, or inactivated. The Division Artillery was redesignated and reorganized Division Fires Brigade. 1st Battalion, 3rd Air Defense Artillery was relieved of its assignment to the 3rd Infantry Division. The reorganized Brigade consisted of a Headquarters and Headquarters Battery and the 1st Battalion, 39th Field Artillery. The remaining Battalions were reassigned to the Brigades they had habitually supported as organic elements of the newly reorganized and redesignated Brigade Combat Teams. The Division Fires Brigade was inactivated in May 2006. The 1st Battalion, 39th Field Artillery was also inactivated.
The mission of the Division Artillery (DIVARTY), 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) was to deploy to a contingency area by air, sea, and land and provide fire support for mobile, combined arms offensive and defensive operations worldwide.
3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) Artillery was organized with 4 Battalions: 1st Battalion, 9th Field Artillery; 1st Battalion, 10th Field Artillery; 1st Battalion, 41st Field Artillery; and the 1st Battalion, 39th Field Artillery. 1-9th Field Artillery, 1-10th Field Artillery, and 1-41st Field Artillery were all equipped with the M109A6 155mm self-propelled howitzer. 1-39th Field Artillery was equipped with the M270/A1 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS). The 3 self-propelled howitzer Battalions were each habitually assigned to provide fire support to one of the Division's pre-modular Brigades. 1-41st Field Artillery supported the 1st Brigade, 1-9th Field Artillery supported the 2nd Brigade, and 1-10th Field Artillery supported the 3rd Brigade. The 1-10th Field Artillery was stationed at Fort Benning, Georgia, collocated with the 3rd Brigade. In addition, the DIVARTY also had a seperate Headquarters and Headquarters Battery.
The 1st Battalion, 118th Field Artillery, US Army Reserve, was attached in times of mobilization. The 1st Battalion, 3rd Air Defense Artillery, though assigned to the Division as a whole fell under administrative authority of Division Artillery.
The Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 3rd Division Artillery was first constituted on 12 November 1917 in the Regular Army as Headquarters, 3rd Field Artillery Brigade, and assigned to the 3rd Division. It was initially organized on 26 November 1917 at Camp Stanley, Texas. It served in France with the 3rd Division in the Champagne-Marne, Aisne-Marne, St. Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne, and Champagne 1918 Campaigns.
It was disbanded on 16 October 1939 at Fort Lewis, Washington, and reconstituted on 1 October 1940 in the Regular Army as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 3rd Division Artillery at Fort Lewis, Washington.
During World War II, the Division Artillery served with the 3rd Division in 9 campaigns throughout North Africa, the Mediterranean, Italy, Southern France, and Central Europe. It was awarded campaign streamer arrowheads for amphibious landings at Sicily, Anzio, and Southern France. The Division Artillery was also awarded the Presidential Unit Citation and the French Croix de Guerre with Palm for actions in the Colmar Pocket, and the Fourragere, French Croix de Guerre, for service in World War II.
The Division Artillery deployed to the Republic of Korea in 1950 and served in 8 campaigns from the Intervention to the Summer Campaign of 1953. The Unit awards include the Republic of Korea Presidential Citation, with streamers for UIJONGBU and THE IRON TRIANGLE, and the Chryssoun Aristion Andrias (Bravery Gold Medal of Greece), embroidered Korea.
The DIVARTY was redesignated on 1 July 1957 as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 3rd Infantry Division Artillery and in 1958 returned to the Federal Republic of Germany. For almost 20 years the DIVARTY stood guard on the front line in Europe. 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) Artillery was inactivated in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 24th Infantry Division was reflagged as the 3rd Infantry Division and the Division was reactivated at Fort Stewart, Georgia, on 15 February 1996. The split based nature of the 24th Infantry Division and subsequently the 3rd Infantry Division meant that elements of the DIVARTY were stationed both at Fort Stewart and Fort Benning, Georgia.
In 2004, as part of the Army's transformation towards a modular force, various elements of the 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) were reorganized, redesignated, or inactivated. The Division Artillery was redesignated and reorganized Division Fires Brigade. 1st Battalion, 3rd Air Defense Artillery was relieved of its assignment to the 3rd Infantry Division. The reorganized Brigade consisted of a Headquarters and Headquarters Battery and the 1st Battalion, 39th Field Artillery. The remaining Battalions were reassigned to the Brigades they had habitually supported as organic elements of the newly reorganized and redesignated Brigade Combat Teams.
The Division Fires Brigade was inactivated in May 2006. The 1st Battalion, 39th Field Artillery was also inactivated.