Division Artillery (DIVARTY), 1st Cavalry Division
In December 2012, the Fires Center of Excellence (FCoE) submitted a Force Design Update (FDU) (Fires HQ FDU) to re-establish fires command headquarters at echelons above brigade (EAB), for consideration in the Total Army Analysis (TAA) process for fiscal years 2016-2020. On Oct. 3, 2013, the Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army approved the Fires HQ FDU.
The Army decision to implement DIVARTYs will provide Field Artillery (FA) capabilities (planning, synchronization, and coordination) in order to execute strategic, operational and tactical fires in support of Unified Land Operations (ULO) and to provide effective mission command for the training and readiness of attached FA units. Current Echelon Above Brigade (EAB) mission command FA force structure and organizational design does not sufficiently meet the required capabilities in support of Combatant Commander (CCDR) requirements as part of the Joint force. This results in the inability to effectively integrate and synchronize fires at Division, Corps and Theater Army in support of ULO.
The Fires HQ FDU creates a DIVARTY for each active component Division and will align an active component Field Artillery Brigade (FAB) to each Corps and one to Eighth United States Army (EUSA). The term “Fires Brigade” (FiB) is being replaced with Field Artillery Brigade (FAB). The FDU does not alter the organization of the Army National Guard (ARNG) FABs; however ARNG FABs will be aligned with ARNG Divisions for training affiliation and will be capable of serving as a DIVARTY to support ARNG Divisions during deployment and provide reinforcing and counterfire capability to a Corps or Joint Task Force (JTF). The primary task for the FAB includes coordination, integration, synchronization and employment of fires as well as provides long range precision fires to the Corps through strike operations.
The DIVARTY is a proven force design that will play a key role in reversing the continuing atrophy of FA skills, halt the erosion of professional and leader development in the fires Warfighting Function, and restore the art and science of synchronizing effects for precise and discriminating fires.
The DIVARTY had no organic firing units, but can be provided a variety of FA Battalions (rocket and cannon) and other assets to accomplish its mission for the Division Commander. This may include a combination of one to five rocket/missile (MLRS or HIMARS) and/or FA Cannon Battalions as well as other enablers. The DIVARTY consists of a Headquarters (HHB), a Signal Platoon, and a Target Acquisition Platoon (TAP), initially consisting of two AN/TPQ-37 Radars and over the six years 2014-2020 transitioning to two AN/TPQ-53 Radars. DIVARTYs will provide command oversight for training management and certification of the Brigade Combat Team (BCT) FA Battalions, and Fire Support Cells. DIVARTYs will provide synchronization of sensors such as Sentinel and counterfire radars organic to the Division as well as synchronization of Joint sensors.
As of October 2015, all 10 DIVARTYs had activated. The DIVARTY’s primary role is to ensure readiness of the Fires formations within the divisions by improving the ability to deliver operational and technical Fires. The duties and responsibilities of the DIVARTYs are defined in Field Manual 3-09 and soon to be released Army Training Program 3-09.90, DIVARTY. The United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) commander further defined their roles and responsibilities in Fragmentary Order 1 to the U.S. Army FORSCOM Division Artillery Implementation Order with DIVARTY key tasks:
- Improve the division commander’s ability to deliver operational and tactical level Fires.
- Serve as the force field artillery headquarters for the division. The DIVARTY commander serves as the division FSCOORD.
- Develop standardized approach to training and integrated Fires to ensure accomplishment of operational and tactical level fire support tasks.
- Provide support to the brigade combat team (BCT) commanders with FA subject matter expertise. Coach, mentor and develop artillery commanders and leaders, and provide readiness assessment and advice to maneuver commanders.
The bottom line: DIVARTYs are the Fires integrators for the division and BCT commanders. Through stringent training and certification programs they ensure standardization across the division in the employment of Fires assets. Their success is incumbent on building strong relationships across the division and with joint Fires resources to ensure the Fires teams deliver over-match to the division and BCT commanders.
Precision targeting is non-negotiable. So going forward the Army implemented an 80-10-10 or a “Grid Getter Standard.” 80-10-10 is a ratio based on a precision mindset that makes it necessary for Forward Observers and Fire Support Teams to achieve Joint TLE categories while on the battlefield. Specifically, achieving a CAT I (6.0M TLE) and CAT II (15M TLE) “precision grid” 80 percent of the time; achieve a CAT IV (50M TLE) “near precision grid” 10 percent of the time; achieve a CAT V/VI (200M or greater TLE) as a degraded operation, the final 10 percent of the time. This 80-10-10 ratio defines the term Accurate in the First Requirement for Accurate Fires.
Due to the complexities of the operational environment, the requirements for precise and discriminating fires, as well as the restrictions on employment of fires, these demands require that Fires organizations and Fire Supporters be thoroughly trained and certified. The Field Artillery Headquarters facilitates standardized core training throughout the Fire Support chain by ensuring routine training as a complete Fire Support systems, significantly enhancing the maneuvers commanders ability to plan, integrate, task organize, and execute Fires in support of ULO.
TRADOC Pam 525-3-4, the United States Army Functional Concept for Fires, states a responsibility to establish and maintain a fire support system that can, “enable the defeat of a wide range of threats, provide timely and responsive fires in environmental and operational conditions, provide a range of precision to conventional scalable capabilities to engage ground targets, prevent fratricide and minimize collateral damage, and to provide access to and integrate joint, Army, and multinational Fires capabilities at the lowest appropriate levels.” This will allow the commander to achieve his desired effects on the enemy in a manner that does not require detailed integration with the scheme of subordinate maneuver elements.
Operational-Level Fires is the transition from the Theater Joint Force Air Component Command fight to air-ground integration fight. Operational-Level Fires are usually conducted at the operational level of war, but may be conducted at any level of war. Operational-Level Fires generally integrate Army Field Artillery (surface-to-surface) fires with joint and multi-national capabilities but could be conducted by any combination of available fires assets. Field Artillery Brigades and DIVARTYs focus on the conduct of Operational-Level Fires, including the integration of sensors and intelligence assets to support the targeting process, although they can also conduct Close-Support Fires that require detailed integration with the scheme of subordinate maneuver elements. Close-Support Fires are usually planned, coordinated, integrated, synchronized and conducted by BCT Field Artillery battalions.
On 30 June 2005, the Division Artillery (DIVARTY), 1st Cavalry Division was inactivated in ceremonies at Cooper Field on Fort Hood, Texas. This inactivation was part of the transformation of the 1st Cavalry Division to the US Army's modular force structure. As a part of the transformation, assets previously held at division level, but habitually assigned to brigades were made organic to those brigades.
Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, Division Artillery, 1st Cavalry Division, "Red Team," was first constituted on 1 November 1940 in the Regular Army. It was then activated on 3 January 1941 at Fort Bliss, Texas and immediately sent for extensive field training. At that time, the 82nd Field Artillery Regiment was the only artillery unit assigned to the 1st Cavalry Division. Throughout 1942, the 1st Cavalry Division Artillery underwent intensive training by honing its readiness to a fine edge.
Next, the DIVARTY wrote the first chapter of its history during operations in the Admiralty Islands Campaign. This was followed by participation in the Leyte and Luzon Campaigns beginning on 6 September 1945. After the end of the Second World War, the DIVARTY performed occupation duty in Japan and girded itself for its next call to combat.
On 18 July 1950, the DIVARTY once again entered combat, this time in Korea. During the first few weeks, the 1st Cavalry Division's artillerymen found themselves fighting with small arms alongside their artillery pieces. The cannoneers of the DIVARTY continued to do their share in the fighting in Korea during 1950-1951. The 1st Cavalry Division remained in Korea after the armistice.
In July 1965, the DIVARTY colors were transferred to Fort Benning, Georgia, as part of the reflagging of the 11th Air Assault Division (Test) as the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). In Korea, the 1st Cavalry Division reflagged as the 2nd Infantry Division. The DIVARTY deployed to Vietnam in September 1965. Across all 4 Corps areas, as well as the incursion into Cambodia, the airmobile "Redlegs" checkmated the enemy at every turn. In May 1971, the colors of the DIVARTY arrived at Fort Hood, Texas along with the bulk of the 1st Cavalry Division.
In 1991, the Red Team helped pave the way for the 1st Cavalry Division's charge into Iraq during Operation Desert Storm, showering the enemy with over 9,00 cannon round and MLRS rockets. The artillery's lethal effects directly contributed to the success of the theater's deception plan. DIVARTY units were the first United States Army artillery units to fire cannon and copperhead rounds, as well as MLRS rockets in combat during Desert Storm.
The 1st Cavalry Division Artillery deployed in support of the peacekeeping mission in Bosnia-Herzegovina in support of Operation Joint Forge.
In 2004, the Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, Division Artillery, 1st Cavalry Division deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom II as the headquarters element of the 5th Brigade (Provisional), 1st Cavalry Division. The provisional brigade combat team incorporated units from the 1st Armored Division, 1st Cavalry Division, and 82nd Airborne Division.
On 30 June 2005, the Division Artillery, 1st Cavalry Division was inactivated in ceremonies at Cooper Field, Fort Hood, Texas. The DIVARTY had been part of the 1st Cavalry Division for the past 65 years. The inactivation was part of the transformation of the 1st Cavalry Division to the US Army's modular force structure. As a part of the transformation, assets previously held at division level, but habitually assigned to brigades were made organic to those brigades.
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