1st Battalion, 22nd Infantry Regiment
The mission of the 1st Battalion, 22nd Infantry Regiment, the "Regulars," is to, on order, deploy and conduct decisive full spectrum operations while maintaining the Mission-Soldier-Family-Team focus in support of the 4th Infantry Division and US national interests. It would then, on order, redeploy to Fort Carson, Colorado and prepares for future operations.
The 1st Battalion, 22nd Infantry Regiment was originally constituted on 3 May 1861 in the Regular Army as Companies A and I, 2nd Battalion, l3th Infantry. It was organized on 15 May 1865 at Camp Dennison, Ohio. The units were reorganized and redesignated on 21 September 1866 as Companies A and I, 22nd Infantry, respectively. Companies A and I, 22nd Infantry were consolidated on 4 May 1869 and the consolidated unit was designated as Company A, 22nd Infantry.
During the Spanish American War, the 22nd Infantry fought in Cuba as part of V Corps under the command of Major General William Shafter. On 18 April 1898, the Regiment, under the command of Colonel Charles A. Wikoff, departed Fort Crook, Nebraska by rail, enroute to Mobile, Alabama prior to a declaration of war by the United States. The 22nd Infantry consisted of 29 officers and 484 enlisted men. On 7 June 1898, after war had been declared, the unit boarded a ship destined for Santiago, Cuba.
Between 2 and 4 July 1898, the 22nd Infantry Regiment engaged in battle with Spanish forces suffering significant losses yet attaining victory. Ill prepared troops remained in position for several days after the action, contending with stifling heat, poor rations and tropical illness including malaria, typhoid fever, and dysentery. The Spanish capitulated on 16 July 1898, allowing troops of the 22nd Infantry to receive replacements and medical treatment for their large number of sick troops. On 11 August 1898 the unit would receive orders to deploy back home yet would not actually leave until 13 August, 1898. In total the unit lost 350 men in combat during the campaign, and close to 2500 deaths due to disease.
The 22nd Infantry was not sent overseas to fight in World War I. It was instead assigned to guard the docks at Hoboken, New Jersey against possible saboteurs and spies. On 6 April 1917, at 3:00 AM, war was declared. At 3:01 AM, detachments of the 22nd Infantry were deployed to the Hoboken docks, where they took possession of all ships of the North German Lloyd and Hamburg American Lines. Altogether they seized 16 German ships, including the Vaterland (later named the Leviathan) and took their crews into custody. By this seizure, well-planned long in advance of the war declaration, the 22nd Infantry committed the first act of belligerence by the United States against Germany in World War I.
During the inter-war period, the 22nd Infantry as a whole was assigned on 24 March 1923 to the 4th Division (later redesignated as the 4th Infantry Division). The Regiment, including Company A, was inactivated on 30 June 1927 at Fort McPherson, Georgia.
The unit was reactivated on 1 June 1940 at Fort McClellan, Alabama. It served, along with the rest of the 22nd Infantry, in 5 major campaigns of World War II. It participated in the Normandy invasion, landing at Utah Beach, as well as the fighting during the Northern France, Rhineland, Ardennes-Alsace, and Central Europe campaigns. After the war, the unit was inactivated on 1 March l946 at Camp Butner, North Carolina.
The unit was reactivated on 15 July l947 at Fort Ord, California. Company A, 22nd Infantry was subsequently reorganized and was redesignated on 1 April 1957 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battle Group, 22nd Infantry and remained assigned to the 4th Infantry Division with its organic elements being concurrently constituted and activated. The Battle Group was reorganized and redesignated on 1 October l963 as the 1st Battalion, 22nd Infantry.
1-22nd Infantry deployed to Vietnam as an element of the 1st Brigade, 4th Infantry Division. There the unit took part in Operation Paul Revere IV, which was a search and destroy operation that took place from 18 October 1966 to 31 December 1966, in the western II Corps area. 1-22nd Infantry engaged the enemy a number of times providing crucial intelligence and causing significant damage to hostile forces.
At the end of January 1968, the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army launched an offensive throughout the entire country of South Vietnam. In what became known as the Tet Offensive, every major city and every provincial capital was attacked. The attack on Kontum, the capital of Kontum Province, was initially thwarted by elements of the South Vietnamese Army, who prevented the enemy from taking complete control of the city. However, during the attack, enemy forces managed to occupy large areas of the city and some of the outlying territory. The US Army force responsible for this area of operations was the 4th Infantry Division. Several units of the Division were tasked with clearing the enemy out of the city and pursuing him into the countryside. The Commander of 1st Battalion, 22nd Infantry was placed in charge of the operation and was directed to assume command of all 4th Infantry Division forces in the area. The ensuing 14 day battle, ending on 12 February 1968, became known as the Battle of Kontum.
During Operation MacArthur, beginning on 24 April 1968, the 1st Battalion, 22nd Infantry fought a vicious battle with elements of the North Vietnamese Army. This became known as the Battle of Chu Moor Mountain. The combat was intense, with 1st Battalion attacking, the NVA counter-attacking, and 1st Battalion attacking again. The NVA employed mortars, B-40 rockets, snipers, and even flame throwers. 1st Battalion utilized artillery, airstrikes, B-52 strikes and helicopter gunships. Elements of the 1-14 Infantry, 1-12th Infantry, and 3-8th Infantry joined the battle when it became clear the enemy was in force and had decided to stay. On 30 April 1968, After nearly 7 days of heavy fighting, the NVA finally withdrew, leaving the mountain in US hands.
Operation Wayne Grey was conducted by the 1st Brigade, 4th Infantry Division from 1 March 1969 to 14 April 1969 in Plei Trap and Cu Don, Kontum Province, Republic of Vietnam. On 2 April 1969, the 1st Battalion, 22nd Infantry was put under the operational control of the 1st Brigade. The battles in the Cu Don were significant in the fact that an enemy base area was disrupted. The tenacity with which the enemy defended the area gave evidence that there was something to protect. Reconnaissance by fire and harassing sniper fires were designed to hold US forces until enemy personnel could be evacuated and equipment hidden. When US forces came close to the base, defenses were organized as ambushes. Despite these designs, the 3-12th Infantry and the 1-22nd Infantry were successful in inflicting heavy casualties on the enemy. An unknown number of enemy were killed in the heavy air and artillery bombardment. As the operation concluded, indications were that the enemy had retreated toward Cambodia.
On 20 Jun 1970, in the mountain terrain of Binh Dinh Province, north of An Khe, the 2-day Battle of the Rock began. The Battle of "The Rock" was the largest engagement fought by the Regulars in 1970. Elements of 1-22nd Infantry, consisting of approximately 19 men, engaged the reinforced 3rd Company, 620th Battalion, 2nd Training Regiment of the NVA. The NVA force, ranging between 120-140 men decided to fight against the US troops defending a huge natural rock formation near the top of a mountain. The 2-day battle would cost the lives of 29 NVA troops, at the cost of only 1 US KIA.
The Battalion was inactivated on 1 August 1984 at Fort Carson, Colorado and was relieved from its assignment to the 4th Infantry Division (Mechanized). The unit was reactivated on 1 May 1986 at Fort Drum, New York and was assigned to the 10th Mountain Division (Light). As part of the 10th Mountain Division, the unit participated in domestic operations surrounding Hurricane Andrew. At 0500 hours on 24 August 1992, Hurricane Andrew, a Category 4 hurricane, crashed through southern Florida, devastating the town of Homestead, Homestead Air Force Base, Florida City and the surrounding areas. Its maximum sustained winds were 145 miles per hour and gusts up to 175 miles per hour were recorded. It was one of the 3 most devastating hurricanes to hit the United States in the 20th century and was thought to have been the most damaging hurricane on record in terms of property damage and total cost at the time.
The Battalion spent the daylight hours deploying into their assigned sectors, removing debris, and assisting the local population as necessary. Special equipment, whether deployed with the unit or purchased, was critical to speeding the recovery effort. In addition to soldier labor in each neighborhood, the Battalion was also responsible for oversight of several feeding sites, Mobile Kitchen Trailer Operations (MKT), the placement and maintenance of porta-potties, and the placement and emptying of large trash dumpsters. The MKT operations were manned by support units from outside of 1-22nd Infantry. Just under 900,000 meals were served off of MKTs for the first 33 days of the operation. The porta-potties and dumpsters were contracted relief initiatives that also became reporting criteria based on location within a unit's area of operations.
As life improved for the local population, the improvement manifested itself in local self-sustainment without military assistance. During the last week of September 1992, 1-22nd Infantry was no longer deployed into the neighborhoods of the Homestead area, but instead concentrated on redeployment activities. The Battalion redeployed back to Fort Drum, New York, on or about 7 October, 1992, after serving in Hurricane Andrew relief for some 40 consecutive days.
The 1-22nd Infantry deployed to Haiti in 1994 in support of Operation Uphold Democracy. As the air assault on 19 September 1994, 1-22nd Infantry completed their flight from Griffis Air Force Base, and flew in to the Port-au-Prince International Airport behind the assault forces. The mission was to conduct military operations to restore and preserve civil order; protect US citizens and interests and designated Haitians and third country nationals; create a secure environment for the restoration of the legitimate government of Haiti; and provide technical assistance to the government of Haiti.
One of the major programs that 1-22nd Infantry, along with other units, were involved in was a weapons buy-back program. The intent of this program was to remove, voluntarily, dangerous weapons and munitions from the streets of Haiti. This was an effort not only to protect the local population, but also to enchance force protection for the soldiers in the Multi-National Force. One such station manned by 1-22nd Infantry was at the front gate of Bowen Airfield, a high traffic area for Haitian civilians and US units.
In addition to the weapons buy-back program, 1-22nd Infantry participated in the 10th Mountain Division's "weapons cache operations." During these operations, units would conduct cordon and search operations to seize suspected weapons caches. Occaisonally, the search and seizure missions would be modified to include the detention of suspect Haitian personnel who were identified for apprehension and questioning.
The operational focus during October 1994 for all Port-au-Prince units was clearly the return of President Aristide to power. 1st Battalion 22nd Infantry was assigned an area of responsibility in the vicinity of the national palace and its surrounding neighborhoods. All companies from 1-22nd Infantry, to include the combat platoons and company C2 of Headquarters Company, that had elements not already involved in static security, were posted throughout the streets surrounding the palace. Each company monitored the Haitian crowds and provided security, military presence, and support to local officials as necessary.
An additional shift in operational focus for the Battalion came in mid-late November 1994. 1-22nd Infantry was relieved of several of its static security missions in the city and was assigned to a new area of responsibility. This was the security of the national palace. The focus on security of the palace by the 10th Mountain Division leadership was such that it was necessary to commit a larger force there with sole responsibility for the area. The new mission for the HHC was to provide mounted and dismounted security for President Aristide's motorcade and to provide local security at any location that Aristide stopped or spent the night. This included security operations around Aristide's residence that was located several kilometers away from the palace, outside of Port-au-Prince.
From 25 November 1994 through 15 January 1995, HHC, 1-22nd Infantry conducted 7 actual motorcade missions. Most of the motorcades involved localized Port-au-Prince moves between the palace, the residence, or to and from political engagements within the city. One motorcade operation during the last week of November 1994 and the first week of December 1994 was a major Out of Sector move and spanned 5 days, as President Aristide conducted several speaking engagements along the southern claw of the Haitian country.
Haitian soldiers had been gathering at the FAd'h headquarters starting about 22 December 1994 because they had not been paid for that month. They were angry because the government announced there was no intention of paying them and because of their summary dismissal. They had been put on leave without explanantion until 17 January 1995. The situation at the headquarters was a tinderbox. It was somewhat alleviated on the night of 23 December 1994, when Colonel Dallas and the Multi-National Force arranged for the payment of the soldiers. However, the soldiers appeared again on 26 December 1994 at FAd'h headquarters. At that time a combination of various things, including strained relations, a very confusing situation, and armed soldiers who were scared and angry, resulted in a significant shooting incident.
Heavy weapons gunfire erupted at the FAd'h headquarters in the early afternoon on 26 December 1994, causing the Quick Reaction Platoon of C/1-22nd Infantry to respond and deploy. The platoon maneuvered across the street and began assessing the situation after taking up positions around the perimeter fence of the FAd'h headquarters and effectively cordoned off the building. A call from the Battalion TOC alerted the HHC to assist by bolstering the cordon with the Anti-Tank platoon and to maneuver and clear the building with the remaining dismounted scout platoon. The scout platoon and company headquarters C2 maneuvered out of the south side palace gate, as heavy gunfire continued to emanate from the FAd'h headquarters. As the HHC element maneuvered through the park and traffic rotary to link up with the C Company commander, the C Company QRF platoon was fired upon. They returned fire and engaged a number of unidentified assailants armed with M203 grenade launchers that appeared as though they were about to engage C Company, and possibly the HHC element with indirect fires. This direct action by the C Company platoon thwarted that potential attack.
Upon arrival of the HHC element and the Battalion Commander, Colonel Hawrylak, C Company was instructed to maintain the cordon, with the help of the Anti-Tank platoon. HHC's C2, and its dismounted scout platoon were instructed to conduct a room by room and floor by floor search and clear operation to develop the situation and gain control of the building and its occupants. The HHC element cleared the first floor with no contact with Haitians, moved to the second floor and found several armed, uniformed Haitians in several different offices. All of the Haitians were disarmed, secured, searched and detained. By the day's end there had been 3 Haitians killed, 7 wounded, 83 prisoners and 500 weapons seized.
In mid-December 1994, 1-22nd Infantry and the rest of 1st Brigade, 10th Mountain Division were informed they were to be relieved by elements of the 25th Division, stationed in Hawaii.
The Battalion was relieved on 16 February 1996 from this assignment to the 10th Mountain Division (Light) and was reassigned to the 4th Infantry Division (Mechanized) at Fort Hood, Texas.
Soldiers from the 1st Battalion, 22nd Infantry Regiment deployed in late April 2002 to become part of Joint Task Force 160, as the only Army infantry deployed the detention facilities at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Approximately 200 soldiers from the 1-22nd Infantry were tasked with providing external security for the detainee facilities. This included fixed site security, patrols, observation posts, a quick reaction force, and also palying a role in escorting and transporting detainees.
In March 2003, this unit deployed to Iraq to take part in the intial stages of Operation Iraqi Freedom and participated in Operation Red Dawn, a mission consiting of 600 1st Brigade, 4th Infantry Division troops, along with special operations forces, responsible for locating and capturing Saddam Hussein, the former Iraqi president. The 1st Battalion, 22nd Infantry was operating in the northern part of Iraq, with most of its activities centered around the city of Tikrit.
In 2004, as part of the transformation of the 4th Infantry Division to the US Army's modular force structure the Battalion was relieved on 16 December 2004 from assignment to the 4th Infantry Division and assigned to the 1st Brigade Combat Team, 4th Infantry Division.
During Operation Iraqi Freedom 05-07, 1-22nd Infantry was initially attached to 2nd Brigade, 101st Airborne Division. For 6 months the unit fought in Southern Baghdad along the Tigris River. As of January 2006, the 1st Battalion, 22nd Infantry Regiment was operating in Camp Taji, an Army base approximately 10 miles northwest of Baghdad, fulfilling their second rotation in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. They were to be there until December 2006. The Regulars moved to Camp Liberty in June 2006 . 1-22nd Infantry secured the western Baghdad areas of Abu Gharib and Khandari Market. Among other exploits, the Regulars discovered more weapons caches than any other battalion while the Ironclaw teams from E Company found more IEDs than any other company in Multi-National Division - Baghdad in December 2006.
Following its return from Iraq in late 2006, 1-22nd Infantry moved from Fort Hood, Texas to Fort Carson, Colorado along with the rest of the 1st Brigade Combat Team, 4th Infantry Division. This was as part of larger realignment of US Army units.
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