First Stage (1950-1960) - companies and battalions
The history of Special Forces Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff - GRU (some sources use the name of army commandos) dates back to October 24, 1950, when the creation of the first individual companies for special purposes - this date is a day of special forces. The main reason, which served as the impetus for the creation of special forces, was the appearance of the armies of NATO mobile means of nuclear attack. Spetsnaz was the principal and most effective means of dealing with them.
The tasks included special forces reconnaissance and destruction if necessary, mobile means of nuclear attack potential enemy. Reconnaissance of enemy troop concentrations in its hinterland. Sabotage, as well as the organization of the partisan movement in the enemy rear. At the initial stage as special forces task was to destroy prominent military and political leaders, but later this object was removed from the guidance documents.
October 24, 1950 Minister of the USSR Military directive number Org/2/395832 Marshal Vasilevsky and Chief of General Staff Gen. SM Shtemenko in combined arms and mechanized armies, as well as in the military districts that do not have military associations, led by the Chief Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff was created forty six separate special purpose mouth numbering one hundred twenty people each. The total number of Army Special Forces, the first and only at that time in the country, was a little over five and a half thousand people. These men were recruited from the military intelligence, many of them, especially the leaders, have been more than one war. In developing the guidelines widely used rich experience, intelligence and sabotage activities of Soviet partisans and spies, saboteurs experience acting in the interests of staffs of fronts and the General Staff. Also study and implement the foreign experience of WWII.
First author of the "Instructions for use in combat units and special forces became Paul Agafonovich Golitsyn - former intelligence chief partisan brigade "Chekist" operating in Belarus.
In 1953, when the reduction of the armed forces were disbanded and thirty-five companies for special purposes. Runs four years and 11 January 1957, Major - General Sherstnev sends a memo to the chief of the General Staff in which sslylayas that companies are unable to provide a versatile combat training, suggested instead of eleven mouths to create three units or Special Purpose Center and one air squadron district subordination. Strength of the proposed structure was four man squad.
Directive Commander of the Land Forces of the August 29, 1957 were formed from three to five separate battalions of special purpose, obey the command of military districts and groups of forces. The 26th Battalion was part of the GSVG (Group of Soviet Forces in Germany), 27th - in the Northern Army Group, 36th - in the Carpathian Military District, 43rd - in the Transcaucasian and 61 minutes - in the Turkestan Military District . At the same time were kept four separate companies. For the formation of battalions base was used and the personnel of the disbanded mouth.
Then, on the orders of Marshal Zhukov, Chief of the General Staff, the Directive on August 9, 1957 was ordered to January 15, 1958 in the form GRU second air-landing College in Tambov. However, party leaders accused Marshal Zhukov of an anti-Soviet conspiracy. He was ousted from the leadership of the Armed Forces of the USSR. His brainchild - Tambov school for officers and special forces - was not established.
August 20, 1961 the CPSU Central Committee issued a resolution "On the training and development machinery and equipment for the organization of guerrilla groups." In accordance with the Resolution of the General Staff 5 Febrauar 1962 issued a directive which obliges commanders of military districtsy to deploy guerrilla movement in wartime select one thousand and seven hundred reserve troops, bring them to the team and to be held during the month with them fees. At the end of their assigned duties special military occupational specialties, their forbidden book of the national economy and not use for its original purpose.
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