Internal Troops (Vnutrenniye Voiska)
After the revolution, in 1918, by the order of People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the convoy guard was reorganized based on new principles and a year later the Council of Workers' and Peasants Defense adopted a resolution to merge all the troops auxiliary facilities that existed in some departments, and the establishment of internal security forces. Subsequently troops VOHR-VNUS / Cheka-OGPU / NKVD repeatedly reorganized, but the problem remained the same - protection of the population from any threat, including foreign. So it was during the Civil War, and during the incidents at Lake Khasan and Khalkhin goal, and in the Soviet-Finnish war.
Later they were subordinated to the state security police, and then in 1934 they were incorporated into the expanded NKVD. In the 1930's best team cadres were punished, the victim of trumped-up cases of the mythical "conspiracy in the NKVD." In the Great Patriotic War, MVD units and NKVD troops fought the enemy in the border areas, defended Moscow and Leningrad, Brest Fortress, Kiev, Odessa, Voronezh, Stalingrad, defended the North Caucasus, were engaged in heavy fighting at the Kursk Bulge. During the war in the battles participated 53 divisions and 20 brigades of NKVD. 18 military units were awarded orders and honorary titles awarded. In the fight with the enemy lost their lives 97700 military troops. For courage and heroism in the battles for the homeland, more than 100 thousand. Soldiers and officers were awarded state awards, 295 pupils of the internal troops became Heroes of the Soviet Union, and Major-General AI Rodimtsev, Major-General I.I.Fesin and Major V.M.Golubev won this title twice.
After the war's end, Internal Troops played an important role in fighting local anti-Soviet guerrillas in the Baltic states (such as the Forest Brothers) and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. With the beginning of the Krushchev era and de-Stalinisation, Internal Troops became significantly reduced in size, but retained their pre-war functions.
They were back under the authority of the security police in the early 1950s, but when the MVD was established in 1954, control of the Internal Troops shifted to the MVD. The chief of the Internal Troops from 1954 to late 1987 was Ivan Iakovlev. Iakovlevís successor was Uri Shatalin. A new generation of soldiers in the postwar period inherited the glorious military traditions of the Internal Troops. Internal troops were additionally charged with protecting research institutions, enterprises of the nuclear industry and rocket production. In carrying out the task of maintaining public order, important state facilities, correctional labor institutions, by escorting the convicts personnel of military units showed military skill, vigilance and courage. For the dedication and courage in the performance of military duty in parts lists ever enrolled 48 soldiers, sergeants, warrant officers and officers.
In peacetime, soldiers of law and order to protect the population from natural and man-made disasters. The troops took part in liquidation of consequences of accidents at the plant "Mayak" in 1957 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986. Among the first were deployed in the ruined Spitak earthquake. In Nagorno-Karabakh, Ferghana, North Ossetia and Ingushetia, in other hot spots warriors suppress collision of the opposing sides, disarmed the bandits guarding the refugees.
Like the regular army, the Internal Troops for the most part were composed of conscripts, who were obliged to serve for a minimum of two years. The Internal Troops accepted candidates for commission both from the ranks of the armed forces and from civilian society.The MVD had four schools for training members of the officer corps, as well as a separate school for political officers.
The Internal Troops supported MVD missions by supplementing the police in ensuring crowd control in large cities and, in emergencies, by helping to fight fires. These troops also guarded large-scale industrial enterprises, railroad stations, certain large stockpiles of food and material, and certain communication centers that were strategically significant. One of their most important functions was that of preventing internal disorder that might threaten the regimeís political stability. They took a direct role in suppressing anti-Soviet demonstrations in the non-Russian republics and strikes by Soviet workers. In this capacity, the Internal Troops probably worked together with the MVD Security Troops. There was little evidence to support the theory that the Internal Troops would serve as a counterweight to the regular armed forces during a political crisis. Most Internal Troops units were composed of infantry alone and were not equipped with artillery and tanks; in 1989 there was only one operational division of the Internal Troops in Moscow. According to some Western analysts, the Internal Troops were to perform rear security functions in the event of war, just as they did in the Great Patriotic War.
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