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Garmoniya / Harmony - RUSOSUS

After the sharp deterioration in relations with the United States following the seizure of Crimea in 2014, the Russian Ministry of Defense began to develop its own underwater sonar tracking system. She received the name "Harmony." The basis of the system are special robotic systems delivered to the site by submarines, which are deployed in two sonar stations. Their antennas allow you to listen to what is happening around, identify both underwater and surface targets. A special pop-up buoy transmits information to the command center. Several stations are able to take control of large areas of the oceans.

A state-of-the-art sonar system to protect Russia's territorial waters in the Arctic is already under development, the newspaper Izvestia quoted a Russian Defense Ministry source familiar with the situation as saying. The system will be equipped with sophisticated sonar buoys and underwater sensors that will track the acoustic signals of underwater and surface objects and transmit the information to a ground control center via satellites.

The source said that "the project is due to be finalized in 2017 and after it is approved by the Russian Defense Ministry, the new sonar system will enter service." According to the source, the fully deployed system can cover an area spanning hundreds of square kilometers. The Russian air defense manufacturer Almaz Antey was tasked with developing the project. The company cooperates with a whole array of enterprises within the Russian military-industrial complex.

Historian Dmitry Boltenkov told Izvestia that the new sonar system will most likely be deployed in the Arctic. He referred to the Cold War era, when American and British nuclear submarines were repeatedly tracked in the Arctic Ocean. In particular, they were detected in the seas bordering Russia's northern coast, he said. "But currently, they are actively trying to track the ships and submarines of the Russian Northern Fleet, especially now that the Russian navy has the most advanced Yasen- and Borei-class nuclear powered submarines," he said.

Boltenkov also drew attention to the fact that US submarines can carry Tomahawks: long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missiles capable of hitting targets at a distance of more than 1,500 kilometers. In August 2014, a high-ranking source within the Russian Navy's headquarters said that a US Virginia-class submarine was detected and "forced out" by Russian anti-sub forces after it violated the country's boundary waters in the Arctic.

"The task is quite complicated. It is necessary to create three circuits: marine, space and ground. Marine - these are sonar buoys and underwater sensors that record the situation and transmit the received data to the satellites of the space circuit. The ground loop is a management system that will already analyze the information received and give it to users,” said the representative of the Ministry of Defense.

In November 2017, the Russian media dubbed Harmony, the "global network of underwater sonars". Russian hydrophones are able to work not only in the passive, but also in the active mode (for radiation). Apparently for this reason they are called much more solidly - automatic bottom stations (ADF). The unique product, which received the Harmony Index, is based on special underwater robotic systems that exit the submarine and deploy powerful sonar stations at the bottom. Robots transmit the received information to the command control center via satellites. According to experts, some elements of the system have already begun to function, and Harmony will fully work no later than 2020.

The operation of the Russian SOSUS will be ensured by a whole range of underwater structures, for the normal functioning of which significant energy costs will be required. The simplest way to solve this problem is energy cables run from the coast station to the underwater complex. However, the engineering solution to this problem is fraught with many difficulties. Not surprisingly, Russian engineers decided to take a different path. According to known information, the modern underwater Arctic complex will operate using an underwater nuclear reactor.

According to some reports, it had previously provisionally used "SHELF", which is the name of the nuclear power generator. The American IVY BELLS equipment was powered by a uranium-238 battery. In 2014, Malachite received more than 5.5 billion rubles to carry out an integral part of the Harmony-Garage experimental design work and 1.5 billion for the Garmony-Pebble development work. As part of the work, Harmony, the Source created lithium-polymer batteries and storage batteries for powering the underwater technical equipment for developing the continental shelf.

The Russian Ministry of Defense began deploying a unique underwater sonar tracking system that can make entire regions of the oceans “transparent” by detecting all ships, submarines and even low-flying planes and helicopters located there. The unique product, which received the Harmony Index, is based on special underwater robotic systems that exit the submarine and deploy powerful sonar stations at the bottom. Robots transmit the received information to the command control center via satellites. According to experts, some elements of the system have already begun to function, and Harmony will fully work no later than 2020.

A likely complement (as part of a network-centric approach) or a full-fledged component of Harmony will be MGK-608 complexes of various adaptations, the hydrophones (receiving elements) of which involve installation to a depth of one kilometer and a distance of up to 200 kilometers from the coast. Acoustic data obtained by the bottom sensors after digitization should be transmitted via fiber-optic cable line to the shore post for further analysis.

Without Harmony (in the broad sense) and MGK-608 (in the narrow) the Russian Armed Forces unable to track and identify foreign submarines in its own Arctic waters. The direct consequence of this situation is that without an underwater surveillance system, Russia cannot provide any strategic advantage for the “Daggers” and “Vanguards”, and the carrier with the “Poseidon” simply cannot need to leave ro Russian territorial waters.

According to Izvestia, the head developer is the Comet Special Purpose Space Systems Corporation, which recently joined the Almaz-Antey aerospace defense concern. Together with her, several dozen defense industry enterprises are working on the project.

The developers of the system are the Rubin Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering (Rubin Central Design Bureau, OJSC) and the Malachite St. Petersburg Marine Engineering Bureau named after Academician Nikolai Isanin ( Malakhit SPMBM JSC ). In government contracts, the project appears under the name "Cephalopod" (from lat. Cephalopoda - "Octopus").

The main developer of Harmony is the Comet Special-Purpose Space Systems Corporation (part of the Almaz-Antey aerospace defense concern). Also involved in the work are the Central Design Bureau "Malachite" and the Research and Development Design and Technological Battery Institute "Source".

the Federal Agency for Special Construction (Spetsstroy) has begun preparations for the construction of a workshop for the preparation of robotic products for monitoring the World Ocean, which will be located in the Okolnaya Bay of Severomorsk. The work received the index "Harmony-S". At the same time, in the settlement of Belushya Guba on Novaya Zemlya, the construction of a control center for the new system began (index "Harmony-NZ"). However, while the exact deadline for the work of "Spetsstroy" is not specified.

The main developer of Harmony is the Comet Special-Purpose Space Systems Corporation (part of the Almaz-Antey aerospace defense concern). Also involved in the work are the Central Design Bureau "Malachite" and the Research and Development Design and Technological Battery Institute "Source". In 2014, Malachite received more than 5.5 billion rubles to carry out an integral part of the Harmony-Garage experimental design work and 1.5 billion for the Garmony-Pebble development work. As part of the work, Harmony, the Source created lithium-polymer batteries and storage batteries for powering the underwater technical equipment for developing the continental shelf.

By 2016, the Federal Agency for Special Construction (Spetsstroy) had begun preparations for the construction of a workshop for the preparation of robotic products for monitoring the World Ocean, located in the Okolnaya Bay of Severomorsk. The work received the index "Harmony-S". At the same time, in the settlement of Belushya Guba on Novaya Zemlya, construction began on the control center for the new system (the “Harmony-NZ” index). True, the exact deadline for the work of Spetsstroy had not yet been specified.

The main developer of Harmony is the Comet Special-Purpose Space Systems Corporation (part of the Almaz-Antey Concern for Aerospace Defense). Also involved in the work are the Central Design Bureau "Malachite" and the Research and Development Design and Technological Battery Institute "Source".

In 2014, Malachite received more than 5.5 billion rubles to carry out an integral part of the Harmony-Garage experimental design work and 1.5 billion for the Harmony-Pebble development work. As part of the work, Harmony, the Source created lithium-polymer batteries and storage batteries for powering the underwater technical equipment for developing the continental shelf.

A key element of Harmony is robotic autonomous bottom stations (ADF), which are secretly installed on the seabed with special submarines. At a depth, the ADF unfolds fixed multi-element as well as multi-meter bottom hydroacoustic hose antennas. Stations can conduct passive sonar reconnaissance, simply listening to what is happening around, trying to detect the characteristic noises of the nodes and mechanisms of ships and aircraft. ADF can also emit a special active sound signal that detects and classifies surface and underwater targets.

Several ADFs are combined into a single network capable of revealing underwater and surface conditions over an area of hundreds of kilometers. The control equipment of the bottom station processes the information received by the sonar and sends it to the command post. For this, the product includes a special pop-up buoy that transmits data via communication satellites.

The ADS power source is reportedly unique lithium-polymer batteries, with a control and monitoring system, which maximally adapt the energy consumption to the operating modes of the bottom stations. With a length of just over 30 cm, the nominal capacity of one battery is 28 A / h, and the nominal voltage is from 58 to 80 volts. The power source operates at temperatures from -10 to +45 degrees. At the command of the control station, the ADF automatically turns off all the antennas, lowers the communication buoy and returns to the submarine.

"The sonars installed on board the buoys and sensors, on the one hand, should be compact enough, and on the other hand, to ensure the capture of the acoustic signal at long range. At the same time, one should not forget about the problem of electric power supply to the equipment, since in addition to the sonar complex, satellite communication systems are installed on board buoys and sensors,” the source told Izvestia.

“The carrier of autonomous bottom robotic stations can be the Sarov special-purpose submarine,” says Dmitry Kornev, editor-in-chief of the Militaryrussia Internet project. - Already repeatedly received information that some underwater robots are being tested at the Sarov. Judging by the photographs of this submarine, it loads multi-meter cylindrical structures, which, after testing with the help of special deep-sea captures, are lifted by the Zvyozdochka vessel from the bottom. Most likely, in the future diesel Sarov will be replaced by the nuclear Belgorod and Khabarovsk, the construction of which has recently begun. These boats, along with Sarov, were also mentioned several times as carriers of underwater robots.

Submarine of project 09851 Khabarovskwas laid in July 2014 at the Sevmash plant in Severodvinsk. The boat should be part of the Russian Navy no later than 2020. Reconstructed from a project 949 submarine missile carrier (the Kursk of the same type that was lost in August 2000) special purpose boat of project 09852 Belgorod will be transferred to the Navy before the end of this year or early next year.

Analysts suggest Belgorod's main special mission will be to secretly place large submarine systems on the seabed. Russia is working on a new multi-sensor submarine detection network, similar to the classic naval SOSUS system American, intended to detect submarines operating in the Arctic at distances of 100 km or more. According to sources quoted in the Russian media (Izvestia, July 20, 2016), the new complex will include "communications underwater sensors" (sonar networks and possibly pressure / wake detectors) and sonar buoys, and will communicate with satellite control stations. The system itself, or its components, is codenamed HARMONY.

The Belgorod project is inextricably linked to the Shelf project (also known as Harmony), which is the Arctic network for detecting American submarines. Belgorod and its subsidiary submarines will be involved in the creation of an underwater network of sensors that span the Arctic Circle. In fact, the "Shelf" is the Arctic equivalent of SOSUS. Its underwater sensors and buoys equipped with sonars will record the movement of enemy submarines at a distance of 100 km.

On 06 March 2019, it became known that the first carrier of Poseidon drones would be the atomic submarine of project 09852 Belgorod. This submarine is intended for the implementation of two breakthrough Russian submarine projects. The first is Poseidon, the second is the construction of the Arctic submarine early warning network (the Russian analogue of SOSUS).

Submarine nuclear drones "Poseidon" will appear on the equipment of the Russian Navy no earlier than 2027. This was reported by CNBC, citing sources familiar with US intelligence reports. “Gazeta.Ru” figured out how realistic such forecasts are. Calling, according to experts, the absolutely unrealistic deadlines for adopting Poseidon, one of the interlocutors of CNBC noted that the Russian submarine drones would be difficult to hit. He added that the Russian military “relies heavily” on autonomous Poseidons if they don’t have the opportunity to strike with Soviet nuclear weapons.

“There is not enough information on Khabarovsk,” says Kornev. - Even while its appearance has not been officially published. There is more information on Belgorod. This boat will be the carrier of rescue deep-sea inhabited and autonomous uninhabited underwater vehicles. Officially, it is designed to conduct research in remote areas of the ocean, participate in search and rescue operations.

ADS is a rather expensive product. Therefore, they will be made reusable, - says military historian Dmitry Boltenkov. - For their maintenance, special workshops are needed where you can not only replace the batteries, but check the operation of the most complex electronic systems, as well as the mechanical components and mechanisms of the station. The slightest malfunction and costly ADF will be lost.

It can be assumed that the Russian Navy specialists will perform maintenance and prepare robot stations on the basis of the Workshop for the preparation of robotic products of a global ocean monitoring system located on the territory of military unit 77360-N in the North Sea Okolnaya Bay.

The workshop is a building measuring 80x80 m. In addition to the site for storing large-sized products, the facility also has its own boiler room, power station, sewage treatment system, and tanks for storing fuel oil. For guarding the workshop, a checkpoint, observation tower, overpass for checking vehicles and a guardhouse are provided.

But the “Harmony” command and control station, which is under construction on the territory of military unit 77510 (Novaya Zemlya), is a more modest 48x18 m building. In addition to the main building, the property also has a property storage for five cars and a checkpoint.

Probably, there are already ready ADFs that have passed tests at the Sarov, says Dmitry Boltenkov. Also, there is already a temporary control point and a station maintenance workshop. The first full-fledged ADS carrier, Belgorod, would be delivered. Given the timing of construction of facilities in Severomorsk and Novaya Zemlya, as well as the delivery of the Navy Khabarovsk, it can be assumed that the system will work in full in 2020.

Shelf underwater small nuclear power

Various underwater small nuclear power plants are also being created in Russia. Thus, the NIKIET Shelf project provides for the creation of both a ground and an underwater bottom version of a station with a capacity of 6.4 MW. The Shelf is officially proposed for future work in the Arctic to create powerful bottom-line exploration and production complexes, and unofficially in the West, many suspect that it is also needed for the new powerful hydro-acoustic underwater tracking network known as Harmony. ATGU (Autonomous Turbine Generator Set) "Shelf" has a mass, together with a strong external housing for immersion at the bottom of the order of 350 tons, and the power is about 44-50 kW, the operating time without maintenance is 5000 hours.

Autonomous Nuclear Turbine Generator (ATGU) is designed to supply electricity to the infrastructure located on the bottom of the sea. The operation of the Russian SOSUS will be ensured by a whole range of underwater structures, for the normal functioning of which significant energy costs will be required. The simplest way to solve this problem is energy cables run from the coast station to the underwater complex. However, the engineering solution to this problem is fraught with many difficulties. Not surprisingly, Russian engineers decided to take a different path. According to known information, the modern underwater Arctic complex will operate using an underwater nuclear reactor. Installation of the latter will be carried out on the ocean floor using a midget or other underwater controlled device. After installation, the reactor will be connected to other elements of the underwater station, as well as to tracking sensors.




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Page last modified: 30-07-2021 18:08:08 ZULU