FM 90-2: Battlefield Deception
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
admin administration APC armored personnel carrier ASPS all-source production section arty artillery
BAT-D battlefield deception BBC British Broadcasting Corporation bde brigade bn battalion
C3 command, control and communications C3CM command, control, and communications countermeasures CAA combined arms army C-E communications-electronics CESO C-E staff officer CEWI combat electronic warfare intelligence CI counterintelligence co company comd command COMINT communications intelligence comm communications COMSEC communications security cons consideration CP command post CS combat support CSS combat service support CTOC corps tactical operations center
DA Department of the Army D-day a day set for launching an operation, specifically, June 6, 1944, on which Allied forces began the invasion of France in World War II. div division DOD Department of Defense
EAC echelons above corps ECB echelons corps and below ECCM electronic counter-countermeasures ECM electronic countermeasures EEFI essential elements of friendly information EW electronic warfare
FEBA forward edge of the battle area FLOT forward line of own troops FM field manual FRAGO fragmentary order FSE fire support element FTI fixed target indicators
G1 Assistant Chief of Staff, G1 (Personnel) G3 Assistant Chief of Staff, G3 (Operations and Plans) G4 Assistant Chief of Staff, G4 (Logistics) G5 Assistant Chief of Staff, G5 (Civil Affairs)
HHC headquarters, headquarters company HUMINT human intelligence HVT high value target
ICD imitative communications deception IED imitative electronic deception IMINT imagery intelligence INCD imitative noncommunications deception intel intelligence inf infantry IPB intelligence preparation of the battlefield IR information requirements
J3 Operations Directorate JTF Joint Task Force
LIC low intensity conflict LOC lines of communication log logistics LOS line of sight
MCCD multispectral close contact decoy MCD manipulative communications deception MED manipulative electronic deception METT-T mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and time available MI military intelligence MNCD manipulative noncommunications deception MOP Memorandum of Policy MTI moving target indicators MTOE modified table of equipment MSD multispectral decoy
NBBS New British Broadcast Station NCA National Command Authority NLT not later than no number
obsn observation OIC officer in charge OMG operation maneuver group op operation OPCON operational control OPLAN operation plan OPORD operation order OPSEC operations security
photo photographic PIR priority intelligence requirements POL petroleum, oils, and lubricants prelim preliminary PSYOP psychological operations PWE Political Warfare Executive
RAF Royal Air Force recon reconnaissance RF radio frequency RTO radio telephone operator
S1 Adjutant (United States Army) S3 Operations and Training Officer (United States Army) S4 Supply Officer (United States Army) SALUTE size, activity, location, unit, time, equipment SAM surface-to-air missile SED simulative electronic deception SIGINT signals intelligence SIGSEC signal security sit situation SOP standing operating procedures
TAC-D tactical deception tech technicat TDSE tactical deception support element TOC tactical operations center TRADOC Training and Doctrine Command
UAV unmanned air vehicles US United States USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
acoustical intelligence Technical and intelligence (JCS Pub 1-DOD) information derived from foreign sources that generate acoustical waves.
acoustical surveillance Employment of electronic devices (JCS Pub 1-DOD) including sound recording, receiving, or transmitting equipment for the collection of information.
battlefield deception (DA) Those operations or measures (AR 310-25) conducted at echelons Theater and below to purposely mislead enemy forces by distorting, concealing, or falsifying indicators of friendly intent.
camouflage (JCS Pub 1-DOD, The use of concealment and IADB) disguise to minimize the possibility of detection and/or identification of troops, materiel, equipment, and installations. Includes taking advantage of the natural environment as well as application of natural and artificial materials.
chaff (JCS Pub 1-DOD, IADB) Radar reflectors, which consist of thin, narrow metallic strips of various lengths and frequency responses, used to reflect echoes to confuse opponents.
clandestine operation An activity to accomplish (JCS Pub 1-DOD, IADB) intelligence, CI, and other similar activities sponsored or conducted by governmental departments or agencies, in such a way as to assure secrecy or concealment. (It differs from covert operations in that emphasis is placed on concealment of the operation rather than on concealment of the identity of sponsor.)
code (JCS Pub 1-DOD, IADB) a. Any system of communication in which arbitrary groups of symbols represent units of plain text of varying length. Codes may be used for brevity or for security.
b. A cryptosystem in which cryptographic equivalents (usually called "code groups"), typically consisting of letters or digits (or both) in otherwise meaningless combinations, are substituted for plain text elements that are primarily words, phrases, or sentences.
code word (JCS Pub 1-DOD, a. A word that has been assigned NATO, IADB) a classification and a classified meaning to safeguard intentions and information regarding a classified plan or operation. b. A cryptonym used to identify sensitive intelligence data.
collection (acquisition) Obtaining information in any (JCS Pub 1-DOD) manner including direct observation, liaison with official agencies, or soliciting from official, unofficial, or public sources.
collection (intelligence) Exploiting information sources by the proper intelligence processing unit to produce and report intelligence. Collection is divided into four main functions: guidance, coverage, reporting, and selection.
command, control, and Integrated use of OPSEC, military communications countermeasures deception, jamming, and physical (C3CM) destruction supported by intelligence to deny information to the enemy, to influence, degrade, or destroy adversary C3 capabilities, and to protect friendly C3 against such actions.
communications cover and Terms that broadly identify communications deception deception and cover activities in (or communications cover and communications. Communications deception) (JCS MOP 116-DOD) cover encompasses activities not considered deception:
a. Communications cover (JCS MOP 116-DOD). The technique of concealing or altering the characteristics of communication patterns for the purpose of denying valuable information to an enemy.
b. Communications deception (JCS MOP 116-DOD). Deliberate transmission, retransmission, or alteration of communications in a manner intended to cause a misleading interpretation.
(1) ICD. Introduction by unauthorized parties of signals or traffic, which imitate valid messages, into communications channels to deceive authorized users of the communications system.
(2) MCD. Alteration or simulation of friendly communications for purposes of deception.
communications intelligence Technical and intelligence (COMINT) (JCS Pub 1-DOD, IADB) information derived from foreign communications by other than the intended recipients.
communications security The protection resulting from all (COMSEC) (JCS Pub 1-DOD, IADB) measures designed to deny to unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from the possession and study of telecommunications, or to mislead unauthorized persons in their interpretation of the results of such study. Also called COMSEC, communications security includes:
a. Crypto security. The component of COMSEC that results from providing technically sound crypto systems and their proper use.
b. Transmission security. The component of communications security that results from all measures designed to protect transmissions from interception and exploitation by means other than cryptoanalysis.
c. Emission security. The component of COMSEC that results from all measures taken to deny unauthorized persons information of value which might be derived from interception and analysis of compromising emanations from crypto equipment and telecommunications systems.
d. Physical security. The component of COMSEC which results from all physical measures needed to safeguard classified equipment, material, and documents from access thereto or observation thereof by unauthorized persons.
communications security The act of listening to, copying, monitoring (JCS Pub 1-DOD, or recording transmissions of IADB) ones own circuits (or when specially agreed, such asp in allied exercise, those of friendly forces) to provide material for COMSEC analysis in order to determine the degree of security being provided to those transmissions. In particular, the purposes include providing a basis for advising
commanders on the security risks resulting from their transmissions, improving the security of communications, and planning and conducting MCD operations.
concealment (JCS Pub 1-DOD) Protection from observation or surveillance.
confusion reflector (JCS Pub A reflector of electromagnetic 1-DOD, NATO) radiation used to create echoes for confusion purposes. Radar confusion reflectors include such devices as chaff, rope, and corner reflectors.
corner reflector (JCS Pub a. A device, normally consisting 1-DOD, NATO) of three metallic surfaces or screens perpendicular to one another, designed to act as a radar target or marker.
b. In radar interpretation, an object that, by means of multiple reflections from smooth surfaces, produces a radar return of greater magnitude than might be expected from the physical size of the object.
counterdeception (JCS Pub Efforts to negate, neutralize, and 1-DOD) diminish the effects of, or gain advantage from, a foreign deception operation. Counterdeception does not include the intelligence function of identifying foreign deception operations.
cover (JCS Pub 1-DOD, NATO) a. The action by land, air, or sea forces to protect by offense, defense, or threat of either or both.
b. Shelter or protection, either natural or artificial.
c. Protection guise used by a person, organization, or installation to prevent identification with clandestine activities.
covert operations (JCS Pub Operations that are so planned and 1-DOD, IADB) executed as to conceal the identity of or permit plausible denial by the sponsor. They differ from clandestine operations in that emphasis is placed on concealment of the identity of sponsor rather than on concealment of the operation.
deception (JCS Pub 1-DOD, IADB) Those measures designed to mislead enemy forces by manipulation, distortion, or falsification of evidence to induce him to react in a manner prejudicial to his interests.
deception concept (JCS MOP Ideas or potential courses of 116-DOD) action for using deception.
deception means (JCS Pub 1-DOD) Methods, resources, and techniques that can be used to convey or deny information to a foreign power. There are three categories of deception means:
a. Administrative means. Resources, methods, and techniques designed to convey or deny oral, pictorial, documentary, or other physical evidence to a foreign power.
b. Physical means. Activities and resources used to convey or deny selected information to a foreign power. Examples include military operations, including exercises; reconnaissance, training activities, and movement of forces; the use of dummy equipment and devices; tactics; bases, logistic actions, stockpiles, and repair activity; and test and evaluation activities. c. Technical means. Military materiel resources and their associated operating techniques used to convey or deny selected information to a foreign power through the deliberate radiation, reradiation, alteration, absorption, or reflection of energy; the emission or suppression of chemical or biological odors; and the emission or suppression of nuclear particles.
deception objectives (JCS MOP The ultimate purpose of a 116-DOD) deception plan in terms of the action or lack of action desired from the target against whom the deception is directed.
deception plan A complete plan which details and formalizes a deception operation and, when approved, authorizes execution.
a. Deception measures (DA). The deliberate provision of false indicators to meet enemy EEI. Deception measures are visual, sonic, electronic, and olfactory.
b. Deception story (PA). False information provided to the enemy to lead him to an incorrect estimate of our capabilities and intentions.
c. Deception tasks (PA). The directions given to subordinate units to carry out their roles in the projection of the deception story. Units are directed to conduct feints, demonstrations, ruses, and displays.
deception target Foreign decision makers against whom deception operations are ultimately directed.
decoy (JCS Pub 1-DOD, NATO, An imitation in any sense of IADB) person, object, or phenomenon that is intended to deceive enemy surveillance devices or mislead enemy evaluation.
demonstration (JCS Pub 1-DOD, An attack or a show of force on a NATO, IADB) front where a decision is not sought, made with the aim of deceiving the enemy.
dissimulation Altering or hiding physical, technical, or administrative evidence by concealing or protecting it from enemy observation.
diversion (JCS Pub 1-DOD) a. The act of drawing the attention and forces of an enemy frot the point of the principal operation; an attack alarm or feint that diverts attention.
b. A change made in a prescribed route for operational or tactical reasons.
diversionary attack (JCS Pub An attack wherein a force attacks, 1-DOD, NATO, IADB) pr threatens to attack, a target other than the main target for the purpose of drawing enemy defenses away from the main effort.
dummy A simulated object used to camouflage an installation, serve as a decoy, or lend reality to a decoy situation.
dummy message (JCS Pub 1-DOD, A message sent for some purpose NATO, IADB) other than its content, which may consist of dummy groups or meaningless text.
electromagnetic intrusion The intentional insertion of (JCS Pub 1-DOD) electromagnetic energy into transmission paths in any manner, with the objective of deceiving operators or causing confusion.
electronic warfare (EW) Military action involving the use (JCS Pub 1-DOD) of electromagnetic energy to determine, exploit, reduce, or prevent hostile use of the electromagnetic spectrum, and action which retains friendly use of the electromagnetic spectrum. There are three divisions within electronic warfare.
a. Electronic countermeasures (ECM). That division of EW involving actions taken to prevent or reduce an enemy's effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum. Electronic countermeasures include:
(1) Electronic jamming. The deliberate radiation, reradiation, or reflection of electromagnetic energy for the purpose of disrupting enemy use of electronic devices, equipment, or systems.
(2) Electronic deception. The deliberate radiation, reradiation, alteration, suppression, absorption, denial, enhancement, or reflection of electromagnetic energy in a manner intended to convey misleading information and to deny valid information to an enemy or to enemy electronics-dependent weapons. Among the types of electronic deception are:
(a) Imitative electronic deception (IED). The introduction of radiations into unfriendly channels that imitate hostile emissions.
(b) Manipulative electronic deception (MED). Actions to eliminate revealing, or convey misleading, telltale indicators that may be used by hostile forces.
(c) Simulative electronic deception (SED). Actions to represent friendly notional or actual capabilities to hostile forces. b. Electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM). That division of EW involving actions taken to ensure friendly effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum despite the enemy's use of EW.
c. EW support measures. That division of EW involving actions taken under direct control of an operational commander to search for, intercept, identify, and locate sources of radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition. Thus EW support measures provide a source of information required for immediate decisions involving ECM, ECCM, avoidance targeting, and other tactical employment forces. EW support-measures data can be used to produce SIGINT, both COMINT and ELINT.
electronics intelligence Technical and intelligence (ELINT) (JCS Pub 1-DOD, IADB) information derived from foreign noncommunications electromagnetic radiations emanating from other than nuclear detonations or radioactive sources.
enemy capabilities (JCS Pub Those courses of action which the 1-DOD, NATO, IADB) enemy is physically capable of and that, if adopted, will affect accomplishment of our mission. The term "capabilities" includes not only the general courses of action open to the enemy such as attack, defense, or withdrawal, but also all the particular courses of action possible under each general course of action. "Enemy capabilities" are considered in the light of all known factors affecting military operations, including time, space, weather, terrain, and the strength and disposition of enemy forces. In strategic thinking, the capabilities of a nation represent the courses of action within the power of the nation for accomplishing its national objectives in peace and war.
essential elements of friendly Key questions about friendly information (EEFI) (JCS Pub intentions and military 1-DOD) capabilities likely to be asked by opposing planners and decision makers in competitive circumstances.
execution schedule Chronological schedule of actions required to execute a deception plan.
feint (Webster's New World Something feigned or intended to Dictionary) deceive to gain advantage; a false or deceptive act or trick; a mock blow or attack on or toward one area in order to distract the opposition while one attacks another area.
imitative electronic deception The introduction of radiation into (IED) unfriendly channels that imitate hostile emissions.
infrared deception The use of sources of infrared energy for purposes of deception.
indicator (JCP Pub 1-DOD, NATO) In intelligence usage, an item of information that reflects the intention or capability of a potential enemy to adopt or reject a course of action.
meaconing (JCS Pub 1-DOD) A system of receiving radio beacon signals and rebroadcasting them on the same frequency to confuse navigation. The meaconing stations cause inaccurate bearings to be obtained by aircraft or ground stations.
military deception (JCS Pub Actions executed to mislead 1-DOD). foreign decision makers, causing them to derive and accept desired appreciations of military capabilities, intentions, operations, or other activities that evoke foreign actions that contribute to the originator's objectives. There are three categories of military deception:
a. Strategic military deception. Military deception planned and executed to result in foreign national policies and actions that
support the originator's national objectives, policies, and strategic military plans.
b. Tactical military deception. Military deception planned and executed by and in support of operational commanders against the pertinent threat, to result in opposing operational actions favorable to the originator's plans and operations.
c. Battlefield deception (Army Only). Those operations or measures conducted at echelons Theater and below to purposely mislead enemy forces by distorting, concealing, or falsifying indicators of friendly intent.
d. Departmental/service military Deception. Military deception planned and executed by military services about military systems, doctrine, tactics, techniques, personnel, or service operations, or other activities to result in foreign actions that increase or maintain the originator's capabilities relative to adversaries.
minimize (JCS Pub 1-DOD, IADB) A condition wherein normal message and telephone traffic is drastically reduced so that messages connected with an actual or simulated emergency shall not be delayed.
misinformation (Webster's New Information which is false, World Dictionary) partially false, or correct, but calculated to mislead; a technique used to mislead, confuse, or otherwise present an enemy with a seemingly authentic story which is actually false and of no real intelligence value.
notional (Webster's New World Imaginary; not actual (to inhabit Dictionary) a notional world). The adjective "notional" is used to modify such military terms as "plans," "weapons," and "order of battle," when referring to false objects or plans that the friendly force seeks to make the enemy accept as real.
observable (Webster's New World Anything that is noteworthy or Dictionary) unusual, capable of being observed, discerned, detected, or noticed.
operations security (OPSEC) The process of denying adversaries (JCS Pub 1-DOD). information about friendly capabilities and intentions by identifying, controlling, and protecting indicators associated with planning and conducting military operations and other activities.
psychological warfare (JCS The planned use of propaganda and Pub 1-DOD IADB). other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives.
radio deception (JCS Pub 1-DOD, The employment of radio to deceive IADB) the enemy. Radio deception includes sending false dispatches, using deceptive headings, and employing enemy call signs.
repeater-jammer (JCS Pub 1-DOD, A receiver-transmitter device that NATO) amplifies, multiplies, and retransmits signals received for purposes of deception or jamming.
ruse A stratagem or trick usually intended to deceive.
signals intelligence (SIGINT) A category of intelligence (JCS Pub 1-DOD, IADB) information comprising all communications intelligence, electronics intelligence, and telemetry intelligence.
simulation Using fabricated or imitative, physical, technical, or administrative evidence to deceive enemy surveillance (detection, identification, and analysis). (Simulate what isn't, mask what is.)
sonic deception Use of special sonic equipment to simulate such sounds as troop and equipment movements, landing force operations, and gunfire, to cause the target to react in a specific manner.
spot jamming (JCS Pub 1-DOD, The jamming of a specific channel NATO, IADB) or frequency.
vulnerability (JCS Pub 1-DOD, a. The susceptibility of a nation IADB) or military force to any action by any means through which its war potential or combat effectiveness may be reduced or its will to fight diminished.
b. The characteristics of a system which cause it to suffer a definite degradation (incapability to perform the designated mission) as a result of having been subjected to a certain level of effects in an unnatural (manmade) hostile environment.
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