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Intelligence

FM 90-2: Battlefield Deception

APPENDIX A
Battlefield Deception Elements


CORPS

Corps provides deception planning support, supports corps deception operations, and executes limited deception events with organic resources (such as decoys, communications deception, and logistic or critical node replication). The deception element is organic to the operation's battalion, corps MI Brigade. It is collocated with the G3 section of the corps tactical operations center (CTOC) and operates under the staff supervision of the corps G3. This section coordinates with other elements within the CTOC, adjacent tactical operations center (TOC) support elements, and higher and lower echelons. It ensures that deception operations are synchronized with integral aspects of corps operation plans. It provides deception training for corps elements.The headquarters element provides C2 of the plans and operations section. It coordinates with the corps G3 to determine the planning and execution of combat, CS, and CSS events within corps deception operations. The plans and operations section-
  • Recommends the deception objective.
  • Recommends a deception story to reach the deception objective.
  • Develops the deception plan which presents the deception story to the enemy's intelligence collection system.
  • Recommends those deception events which must be conducted to execute the deception plan.
  • Prepares the deception annex to the corps OPORD.
  • Monitors, through coordination with the appropriate elements, the execution of the deception plan.
  • Recommends appropriate changes to the deception operation as the situation dictates.
  • Interprets the deception event taskings which it executes or supports. In doing so, it must determine the:
    • - Signatures to be replicated.
    • - Deception devices required to replicate those signatures.
    • - Methods to employ those devices which will achieve event
    • reality and plausibility.
  • Task organizes materiel and manpower assets to implement deception events. This is done by deploying and employing those deception devices organic to the element.
  • Is responsible for corps deception training.

DIVISION

Division provides deception planning support to-
  • Execute derivatives of the next higher headquarter's deception operations.
  • Execute the next higher headquarter's deception operations.
  • Execute limited deception events with organic resources such as decoys, communications deception, and logistic or critical node replication.

The deception element which performs this planning is organic to the MI battalion combat electronic warfare intelligence (CEWI). It is collocated with the G3 section of the division TOC and operates under the staff supervision of the division G3. It coordinates with other elements within the division TOC, adjacent TOC support elements, as well as higher and lower echelons to ensure that deception operations are synchronized with integral aspects of division operations plans. It provides deception training for division elements.The headquarters element provides C 2 of subordinate sections. Coordinates with division G3 to determine the planning and execution of combat, combat support, and CSS deception events within division deception operations. The plans and operations section-

  • Functions as the net control station for the battlefield deception element.
  • Recommends the deception objective.
  • Recommends a deception story to achieve the deception objective.
  • Develops the division deception plan which presents the next higher headquarter's deception story to the enemy intelligence collection system.
  • Recommends those division deception events which must be conducted to execute the division deception plan.
  • Prepares the deception annex to the OPORD.
  • Monitors, through coordination with appropriate elements, the execution of the deception plan.
  • Recommends appropriate changes to the division deception operation as the situation dictates.
  • Task organizes team materiel and manpower assets to execute or support the execution of division deception events.

COMMUNICATIONS SIGNATURE TEAM

The section chief--
  • Defines electromagnetic signatures.
  • Identifies deception devices to be used in replicating electromagnetic signatures and profiles.
  • Deploys and employs deception devices in support of unit deception operations.
  • Provides communications input to the deception annex of the unit OPORD.
  • Recommends selection and use of specific electronic equipment in deception operations.
  • Plans the establishment of field sites.
  • Prepares special, periodic, and project reports on communications signatures deception activities.
  • Provides advice and assistance on deception systems.
The communications specialist--
  • Provides SIGINT expertise to support battlefield deception operations.
  • Establishes and maintains the SIGINT data base.
  • Assists in the preparation and establishment of field sites.
  • Evaluates SIGINT activities to support deception operations.
  • Prepares reports for dissemination to higher headquarters.
  • Provides advice and assistance on OPSEC surveys,
communications security (COMSEC) activities, and counter-SIGINT activities.

PHYSICAL SIGNATURE TEAM

The section chief-
  • Prepares the physical signature deception plan for the deception annex of the unit OPLAN.
  • Selects physical deception measures and organizes material and personnel to be employed.
  • Provides physical profile data base, CI threat estimates, studies, and reports.
  • Conducts liaison with other staff sections for consolidation and coordination of deception tasking.
  • Produces, disseminates, and evaluates physical deception measures for supported units.
The combat engineer performs the following duties:
  • Prepares route, road, bridge, tunnel, ferry, and ford engineering reports for deception operations.
  • Maintains unit data base for profiles for employment of deception systems.
  • Prepares and enacts systems to stimulate deception emplacement, equipment, activities, and personnel.
  • Advises supported units in camouflage and concealment techniques to increase OPSEC to support deception.
  • Recommends emplacement of and evaluates effectiveness of decoy deployment.
  • Supervises, advises, and assists in the fabrication of deception decoys, camouflage, and other activities.
The combat arms specialist--
  • Supervises tactical deployment of elements in offensive, defensive, and retrograde battlefield deception operations.
  • Evaluates terrain for deployment of deception equipment and systems.
  • Uses technical and tactical expertise to evaluate effectiveness of decoy deployment.
  • Supervises the construction of deception fortification and camouflage.
  • Establishes site security.
The visual specialist-
  • Analyzes aerial and ground photos to assist in planning, execution, and evaluation of deception operations.
  • Provides input on mission planning.
  • Prepares situation maps and maintains target folders.
  • Assists in the preparation of map overlays, plots, mosaics, and charts to support deception operations.
  • Supervises the preparation and maintenance of required administration, intelligence, and reference files.

ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE TEAM

The section chief-
  • Establishes and maintains noncommunications profile of replicated units for deception operations.
  • Establishes and maintains the noncommunications electromagnetic signature data base and technical reference material for deception employment.
  • Determines mission objectives and priorities based on tasking received from higher headquarters.
  • Provides input for the deception annex of the unit OPORD.
The electronics specialist-
  • Identifies noncommunications indicators associated with friendly forces that should be considered in deception planning.
  • Provides advice and assistance on deception plans and operations.
  • Assists in developing noncommunications data base.



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