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Intelligence

FM 34-54: Battlefield Technical Intelligence

CHAPTER 4

RESPONSIBILITIES

INTRODUCTION

This chapter outlines the various responsibilities of each staff officer or unit on the battlefield when supporting the overall Battlefield TECHINT effort.

Battlefield TECHINT elements are resourced and responsible for collecting and processing CEM. Yet the Battlefield TECHINT system depends on many other units to work properly, like combat units that capture and the transportation units that evacuate items of TECHINT interest.

STAFF OFFICERS

This section describes the responsibilities and duties of coordinating staff officers, as these duties relate to TECHINT direction, collection, processing, and dissemination. From the G1 to the G5, every staff officer contributes in some way to the successful production and use of TECHINT.

ASSISTANT CHIEF OF STAFF, G1, PERSONNEL

The G1 is the principal staff officer for the commander on all matters concerning human resources. The G1's involvement in the Battlefield TECHINT effort is a result of his or her primary coordinating staff responsibilities for--

    º Planning and handling EPW evacuation and imprisonment. The prisoner evacuation channel is one of the richest sources of CEE and technical documents.
    º Directing the command surgeon in captured medical supply disposition and medical intelligence responsibilities
    º Identifying and coordinating with the G3 on assigning special duty personnel as CMEC translators and SMEs.

ASSISTANT CHIEF OF STAFF, G2, INTELLIGENCE

The G2 is the principal staff officer for the commander on all MI matters and, as such, has primary responsibility for the command's Battlefield TECHINT effort. The G2's primary Battlefield TECHINT responsibilities include, but are not limited to:

    º Supervising the TECHINT program, including: interrogation of captured and detained persons with technical or scientific expertise; and exploiting captured technical documents and equipment.
    º Supervising Battlefield TECHINT planning, directing, processing, and disseminating.
    º Exercising staff supervision over the CMEC or attached Battlefield TECHINT team operations.
    º Coordinating Battlefield TECHINT collection taskings, with the G3, MI, MP, NBC, EOD, and other combat and combat support units.
    º Supervising CMEC's preparation of instructions to units capturing enemy materiel.
    º Supervising CMEC's coordination of captured medical materiel exploitation, evacuation, and disposition with the command surgeon.
    º Coordinating CEM evacuation with the G4. This includes coordinating transportation priorities, disposition, and opportunities to screen CEM logistic channels.
    º Coordinating with the G5 the screening of materiel obtained from local nationals, displaced persons, and civilian detainees.
    º Coordinating with the Staff Judge Advocate (SJA) to ensure compliance with the Geneva Conventions regarding exploitation of captured personnel and materiel.

ASSISTANT CHEIF OF STAFF, G3 , OPERATIONS

The G3 is the principal staff officer for the commander in matters concerning operations, plans, organization, and training. The G3's involvement in the Battlefield TECHINT effort is a result of his or her primary staff responsibilities. As they relate to Battlefield TECHINT, these responsibilities include:

    º Exercising primary staff responsibility over the aviation officer, chemical officer, engineer officer, fire support coordinator, and the provost marshal (PM).
    º Preparing, coordinating, and publishing the command SOP and operation plans and orders. This includes instructions for handling CEM, such as collection, reporting, exploitation, evacuation, and disposition.
    º Reviewing subordinate command SOPs, plans, and orders to ensure provisions for Battlefield TECHINT are included.
    º Incorporating TECHINT into current and future operations and plans.
    º Assigning, attaching, and detaching Battlefield TECHINT assets to subordinate and adjacent commands.
    º Assigning Battlefield TECHINT collection missions to subordinate elements of the command.
    º Recommending to the commander our own use of CEM. This includes who the materiel should be allocated to, such as guerrillas or other local national forces.
    º Training our troops in the safe disposition and use of CEM.

ASSISTANT CHIEF OF STAFF, G4, LOGISTICS

The G4 is the principal staff officer for the commander in matters concerning supply, maintenance, transportation, and services. As the logistic planner, the G4 has a vital coordination function essential to the TECHINT system. This includes--

    º Exercising primary staff responsibility over the EOD officer and the transportation officer.
    º Coordinating with the support command commander, who is responsible for logistic support operations; and the G3 for support of Battlefield TECHINT collection operations.
    º Coordinating and developing command policy for the evacuation and disposition of captured materiel.
    º Recommending to the G3 the main supply route and hence the main evacuation route of captured enemy personnel and materiel.
    º Supervising the establishment and coordinating the operation of CEM collection points in the unit support area.
    º Planning and coordinating the construction of the CMEC laboratory and operation facilities.
    º Ensuring inventory and storage location records are properly maintained and are reported through materiel management centers (MMC) channels.
    º Recommending policies and procedures for the use of captured nonintelligence-value equipment; and providing technical staff assistance to the commands unit.

ASSISTANT CHIEF OF STAFF, G5, CIVIL AFFAIRS

The G5 is the commander's principal staff officer in all matters concerning civilians and their impact on military operations. This includes the political, economic, and social effects of military operations on civilian personnel. The G5's involvement in the Battlefield TECHINT effort is a result of his or her primary coordinating staff responsibilities for civilian liaison and CA. These responsibilities include:

    º Supervising CA functions of the command regarding care and handling of displaced persons, refugees, and any incidental foreign scientific or technical materiel CA personnel may secure.
    º Ensuring inclusion of TECHINT collection and notification procedures in all CA operational SOPs, plans, and orders.
    º Coordinating with the command's Battlefield TECHINT unit the screening, exploitation, and evacuation of any CA-secured foreign materiel or CEM.
    º Coordinating with the G2 and G4 the return of CEM to the civilian populace.

SPECIAL STAFF OFFICERS

Because TECHINT covers such a broad spectrum of disciplines, activities, and operations performed on the battlefield, the following special staff officers also play an important role in Battlefield TECHINT.

AVIATION OFFICER

The aviation officer is responsible for coordinating with staff movement and transportation personnel for air evacuations of CEM.

CHEMICAL OFFICER

The chemical officer is responsible for advising the commander on NBC intelligence matters. This officer recommends employment of chemical troops in support of Battlefield TECHINT teams, analysis, and collection operations.

ENGINEER OFFICER

The command engineer officer is responsible for engineer planning and construction. The command engineer must incorporate Battlefield TECHINT analyses and studies regarding mobility and survivability characteristics of enemy weapon systems into these plans and operations. The command engineer is also responsible for construction support to CMEC activities.

EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL OFFICER

The EOD officer is responsible for supervising the EOD unit's technical and training activities. The EOD officer exercises operational control over assigned or attached EOD units.

In Battlefield TECHINT, the EOD officer has specific responsibility for establishing, operating, and supervising TECHINT reporting procedures.

PROVOST MARSHAL

The PM is responsible for MP support to all command operations. The PM, depending on echelon, either commands the MP headquarters or exercises operational control over all assigned or supporting MP units. The PM's relationship to Battlefield TECHINT is extensive. The PM's responsibilities for planning and supervising include:

    º Providing security for designated units, facilities, and convoys, including CEM, along the evacuation route and for TECHINT facilities when tasked by the G3.
    º Accounting for and evacuating EPWs and associated captured documents and equipment.
    º Establishing procedures to ensure MPs identify, confiscate, report, and turn over to MI personnel new or unidentified equipment and technical documents discovered incidental to EPW handling operations.

COMMANDER, MI BATTALION (TECHINT)

The battalion commander (TECHINT) is responsible for Battlefield TECHINT support to all command operations. This commander serves as the theater commander's TECHINT adviser. This battalion is subordinate to the theater MI brigade and performs all coordination through the MI brigade commander.

In peacetime, the AC TECHINT battalion commander directs the FMIG at Aberdeen proving Ground. In wartime, the battalion commander directs the CMEC. The Battlefield TECHINT mission is accomplished through a CMEC formed from resources of the battalion commander's subordinate TECHINT analyst company, the headquarters and headquarters company, and other SMEs. (See Chapter 3.)

The TECHINT battalion commander's specific responsibilities for planning and supervising include:

    º Producing TECHINT by exploiting CEE and technical documents.
    º Organizing TECHINT teams from CMEC assets to support tactical commands.
    º Supervising the implementation of MI brigade policies and directives as they pertain to the theater's TECHINT effort.
    º Recommending theater souvenir and war trophy policy.
    º Coordinating the TECHINT training program with the G2/G3.
    º Requesting technical document translation support from the MI brigade commander.
    º Coordinating Air Force, Navy, S&TI, and foreign TECHINT operations within the MI brigade's area of operations.
    º Coordinating CA participation in the Battlefield TECHINT system.
    º Coordinating priority shipment authority with the transportation officer for large or unusual items.

COMMAND SURGEON

The command surgeon advises and assists the commander on medical matters. The command surgeon has extensive responsibilities to the Battlefield TECHINT system, including:

    º Using TECHINT analyses when advising the commander on medical effects of the environment and NBC weapons on personnel.
    º Developing procedures to confirm or deny enemy use of NBC.
    º Using medical intelligence to examine and process captured medical supplies and equipment. This includes planning and coordinating the use of medical laboratories and personnel to assist in analysis by Battlefield TECHINT elements.
    º Recommending medically related PIR and IR to the G2.
    º Recommending use of captured medical supplies in support of EPWs and local nationals. This includes ensuring no usable captured medical supplies are ever destroyed.
    º Analyzing biological warfare agent specimens collected on the battlefield. With the G2/G3, coordinating countermeasures, quarantine recommendations, and other appropriate actions to safeguard friendly forces.

UNITS AND ORGANIZATIONS

This section describes the responsibilities and duties of specific organizations and units on the battlefield. These responsibilities relate to TECHINT collection and the overall Battlefield TECHINT system.

CAPTURED MATERIAL EXPLOITATION CENTER

The CMEC's primary function is processing CEM into combat information and TECHINT. The CMEC is organized around the Theater MI Brigade's TECHINT Battalion; it is also augmented from other SMEs. When augmented by experts from other services, it becomes a Joint CMEC or JCMEC. When augmented by experts from other nations it becomes a combined CMEC or CCMEC. Regardless of the command or echelon it supports, it has the same capabilities. The CMEC--

    º Exploits CEE and technical documents.
    º Analyzes friendly weapon systems damaged in battle.
    º Produces TECHINT reports, that include countermeasures, for tactical commanders.
    º Provides studies, operational plans and orders, maps, and special reports to disseminate the CMEC findings.
    º Provides render safe procedures (RSP) to combat units for found or captured enemy munitions and weapon systems.
    º Coordinates the safe handling and evacuation of CEM with EOD elements.
    º Coordinates subordinate Battlefield TECHINT team supervision of evacuation of special-interest CEM from ECB to theater.
    º Supervises evacuation of CEM from theater to CONUS.
    º Coordinates with the joint interrogation center the selection of EPWs for TECHINT exploitation.
    º Provides accountability for captured enemy documents and equipment within the theater TECHINT system.
    º Provides CEM disposal instructions to tactical commanders.
    º Maintains TECHINT data files.
    º Maintains S&TI and Battlefield TECHINT PIR and IR.

CAPTURING UNITS

Combat units are usually the first to encounter new or modified enemy materiel. However, other units such as engineers, NBC teams, and logistic units may also encounter or capture such materiel. With this materiel often comes operating instructions and other technical documents. The intelligence officer at each echelon must coordinate with G3/S3 regarding TECHINT and captured or encountered enemy materiel. Together, they establish unit security, render-safe, reporting, and dissemination procedures.

If possible, capturing units must strive not to destroy TECHINT material known or believed to answer PIT and IR (including unidentified or new items) before receiving disposition instructions. Captured enemy equipment, documents, and logistic complexes must be promptly safeguarded and reported through intelligence channels. Captured items known or believed to answer PIR and IR will be SALUTE reported through higher command to the first Battlefield TECHINT element.

MI Unit

The MI unit is especially responsive to specific requests for TECHINT. The MI unit's activities and operations often result in incidental discovery or acquisition of Battlefield TECHINT materiel. Such activities include interrogation, CI, document exploitation, imagery interpretation, EW, and unnamed aerial vehicle operations.

All MI units are responsible for establishing SOPs for handling, screening, and reporting TECHINT-related items encountered incidental to organizational activities. See Figure 4-1 for examples of items requiring immediate MI screening; this list is not all inclusive.

Special Operations Forces

Special operations forces consist of special forces and ranger units psychological operations (PYSOP) teams, and CA elements.

Special forces and ranger units. These forces usually operate deep in enemy controlled areas. This means they are generally the first to discover, identify, and provide information on a variety of TEHINT-related equipment, documents, or facilities. They can provide--

    º New or previously unacquired materiel.
    º Locations of enemy materiel.
    º Other tactical data.

Psychological operations teams. PSYOP personnel support theater, corps, and division. Historically, PSYOP has supported TECHINT collection through creative PSYOP operations designed to secure TECHINT-related materiel, equipment, information, or personnel.

An example of a successful PSYOP operation comes from the Korean War: We paid $100,000 to a North Korean pilot for flying his soviet MIG to the south, after broadcasting the MIG bounty by leaflet and radio. The benefits were enormous. The communists grounded all MIG flights for eight days; and getting the MIG turned out to be a TECHINT windfall.

A PYSOP operation specifically designed to provide TECHINT occurred during the Vietnam War: A PSYOP campaign encouraged enemy soldiers to surrender with their weapons and equipment intact; rewards were offered and paid to Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army troops who did this.

This type of campaign not only reduced the number of weapons available to the enemy but also provided a continuous source of materiel for exploitation by the CMEC.

Civil affairs elements. These elements provide support to tactical and operational commanders by coordinating liaison between military forces, civil authorities, and area of operations personnel. CA support to the Battlefield TECHINT system includes:

    º Providing SMEs to assist in the TECHINT analysis of food and agriculture; public communications, health, transportation, and supply: public works and utilities; and centers of commerce and industry.
    º Securing TECHINT-related materiel and foreign experts having CA wartime responsibility for civil administration and refugee handling.

Engineer Topographic and Terrain unit

These units are responsible for collecting, evaluating, and disseminating topographic information and terrain intelligence. They normally function at theater, corps, and division levels. TECHINT units use engineer topographic and terrain products to support TECHINT collection planning. Engineers also support analysis and exploitation of foreign equipment and technical documents when this materiel is within their field of expertise.

Military Police

MPs operate throughout the theater of operations providing route security and ETW handling and evacuation. They often confiscate foreign equipment and documents from EPWs. MPs follow specific procedures for notifying MI personnel of equipment or documents of intelligence interest discovered incidental to EPW handling operations.

If not done previously, MPs mark or tag all enemy materiel and personnel in their custody. Since EPWs and materiel may become separated, MPs use a three-part capture tag to clearly identify which prisoner the captured material came from. Accurate identification on the capture tag helps TECHINT analysts and interrogators match materiel with associated EFWs. It also makes it easier to return certain property to the EPW. Figure A-5 shows the front and back of a captured enemy equipment tag; Figure A-6 shows the front and back of an EPW capture tag.

Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Reconnaissance Team

NBC reconnaissance teams locate, identify, and mark contaminated areas. They collect, identify, and evacuate suspected samples of nuclear materials and chemical and biological (CB) warfare agents. This function is an important supplement to normal TECHINT unit collection capabilities. Collection, handling, storage, and shipment of these samples must be done using SOPs developed in a coordinated effort between the command surgeon, the staff NBC officer, and the staff intelligence officer.

Medical unit

Combat zone and communications zone medical support units are capable of giving specialized medical, laboratory, and medical intelligence assistance to TECHINT and other MI disciplines.

The medical unit's S2/S3 coordinates this assistance to MI. Some examples of the types of assistance medical units can provide are in Figure 4-2.

Explosive Ordnance Disposal

One of the most critical, yet deadly, sources of TECHINT on the battlefield is explosive ordnance. To safely exploit this source, EOD units provide specially trained personnel to support TECHINT teams and units in the area of operations.

EOD personnel examine existing reports and prepare reports on new and unusual items of explosive ordnance for TECHINT purposes.

TECHINT personnel should be familiar with EOD activities and responsibilities, as described in AR 75-15. Foreign explosive ordnance is extremely important to TECHINT analysts. TECHINT personnel must coordinate closely with EOD personnel for proper disposal and evacuation of explosive ordnance.

ONLY EOD PERSONNEL DO THE ACTUAL HANDLING OF EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE. Conversely, EOD units must notify TECHINT personnel of types and locations of foreign equipment and munitions they encounter. See Appendix C for more information on EOD units.



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