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Intelligence

FM 34-54: Battlefield Technical Intelligence

CHAPTER 2

ORGANIZATION

INTRODUCTION

This chapter describes the two parts of TECHINT: S&TI at the strategic level and Battlefield TECHINT at the operational and tactical levels. It introduces the members of the TECHINT community and provides an overview of the major players. This chapter also describes how the strategic level and the operational and tactical levels interface and interact with each other.

S&TI is designed to track and analyze foreign technological developments. It is used to analyze the performance and operational capabilities of foreign materiel that may have military application.

Although mainly a function of EAC and departmental level MI units, S&TI makes significant contributions toward fulfilling tactical unit battlefield TECHINT requirements. Enemy equipment and facilities are typical S&TI targets at tactical levels. When tactical units capture items of S&TI interest, the item are quickly evacuated to the theater TECHINT unit.

If it is possible to exploit the captured item to support immediate tactical and strategic requirements, the unit does this before sending it to a Continental United States (CONUS) S&TI center. However, if exploitation is not expected to result immediate tactical gain, the theater TECHINT unit quickly evacuates it to S&TI centers in CONUS for detailed exploitation and analysis.

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INTELLIGENCE STRUCTURE

Elements of the Department of Defense (DOD) perform military S&TI activities for the US Government. These elements are discussed below. The S&TI community handles the nation's overall TECHINT needs during peacetime, and the strategic TECHINT requirements in wartime. Figure 2-1 shows DOD intelligence activities with S&TI and TECHINT functions and authority.

DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY

The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) manages and reviews overall TECHINT activities throughout DOD. The S&TI directorate is the DIA action element for TECHINT. This directorate coordinates with external TECHINT agencies on nonpolicy matters concerning the production of S&TI. The National Photographic Interpretation Center (NPIC) is subordinate to the DIA. It contributes to the TECHINT effort through the exploitation of imagery.

NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY

The National Security Agency (NSA) is the signals intelligence (SIGINT) organization of the US Government. It is responsible for the exploitation of cryptologic materiel.

ARMED FORCES MEDICAL INTELLIGENCE CENTER

The Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center (AFMIC) is a DOD production center. The director of AFMIC is responsible for exploiting foreign medical materiel. The director Supports the Army Foreign Materiel Exploitation Program (FMEP) and Army Medical Research and Development (R&D) requirements. The director does this by coordinating with the Army Deputy Chief of staff for Intelligence (DCSINT) in planning programming, and budgeting. The AFMIC--

    º Studies and reports foreign medical S&TI and general medical intelligence to DOD and other federal agencies.
    º Studies and reports foreign biological warfare S&TI capabilities.
    º Administers the DOD Foreign Medical Materiel Exploitation Program (FMMEP).
    º Provides "quick response" foreign medical intelligence support to the groups mentioned above.

The AFMIC maintains a mutually beneficial S&TI exchange with the Army Intelligence Agency (AIA) to round out Army capabilities.

AIR FORCE FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION

The Air Force Foreign Technology Division (FTD), Air Force Systems Command, is the primary DOD agency producing foreign aerospace S&TI. It supports the Air Force Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence (AFACSI) and satisfies DIA requirements. It acquires, analyzes, produces, and disseminates S&TI related to current and future enemy capabilities.

NAVAL TECHNICAL INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES

The Navy proponent agency for TECHINT is the Naval Technical Intelligence Center (NTIC). The NTIC provides S&TI on technical characteristics and capabilities of foreign naval forces and merchant system. It provides S&TI support to the Commander of the Naval Intelligence Command (NAVINTCOM) and the Chief of Naval Operations.

ARMY TECHNICAL INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES

Although the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence (ODCSINT) does not produce intelligence, it does have general staff responsibilities for all Army TECHINT activities. The ODCSINT--

    º Formulates policies and procedures for S&TI activities.
    º Supervises and carries out the Army S&TI program.
    º Coordinates DA staff and major subordinate command requirements for TECHINT.
    º Is responsible for the Army foreign materiel program (FMP). °

Army Intelligence Agency

The AIA is a field operating agency of the DCSINT. The AIA--

    º Produces and disseminates intelligence on foreign ground forces, ground force systems, and related sciences and technologies in response to DA and DOD requirements.
    º Provides Threat analysis and related projections to the Army combat development community to support force modernization programs.

The AIA commander is also the Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence. The AIA manages the Army FMP, as well as executing the FMEP for the DCSINT. The AIA is composed of three subordinate Army intelligence production centers:

    º The Intelligence and Threat Analysis Center (ITAC).
    º The Foreign Science and Technology Center (FSTC).
    º The Missile and Space Intelligence Center (MSIC).

The FSTC and the MSIC are the Army's S&TI centers.

Army Intelligence and Threat Analysis Center. The Army ITAC produces comprehensive intelligence and CI analysis of the capabilities, vulnerabilities, and the threat posed by foreign ground and security forces today and in the future. These analyses emphasize from a tactical and doctrinal standpoint how the Threat uses key systems.

Army Foreign Science and Technology Center. The Army FSTC produces and maintains intelligence on foreign scientific developments, ground force weapon systems, and technologies (except missile and medical). The FSTC analyzes--

    º Military communications-electronics (C-E) systems.
    º Types of aircraft used by foreign ground forces.
    º Scientific R&D activities.
    º Nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) warfare.
    º Basic research in fields of possible military interest.

Army Missile and Space Intelligence Center. The Army MSIC acquires, produces, maintains, and disseminates S&TI pertaining to missile and space weapon systems, subsystems components, and activities. This S&TI represents state-of-the-art technology and supports DA and DOD strategic intelligence production, as well as the FMEP. The MSIC analyzes--

    º Foreign antiparticle missiles.
    º Antisatellite technology.
    º Tactical air defense.
    º Short-range ballistic missiles (SRBM).
    º Antitank guided missiles.

The MSIC plans, organizes, and manages a unique form of Threat support: The Army's development and acquisition of Threat simulators. These simulators support TRADOC and system program managers during the operational and training phases of new systems. They provide a visual and technological replication of the battlefield threat, when the actual foreign materiel cannot be acquired or is too costly to buy.

Army Materiel Command

The Army Materiel Command (AMC) shares responsibility for managing the overt acquisition of foreign materiel for TECHINT purposes. AMC buys foreign materiel domestically, as well as through its centers in Europe and the Far East. Through this program, the AMC also supports AIA and AFMIC.

Intelligence and Security Command

Under the direction of Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA), the Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) is the major command responsible for peacetime TECHINT operations. INSCOM fulfills its responsibilities through its TECHINT oversight function and by exercising operational control over the foreign materiel intelligence group (FMIG) during peacetime.

Oversight function. INSCOM fulfills its oversight function by--

    º Providing the interface with strategic S&TI agencies in support of foreign materiel exploitation.
    º Organizing, training, and equipping EAC TECHINT organizations during peacetime. This supports TECHINT development under contingency operations and aids in our transition to total war.
    º Conducting worldwide human intelligence (HUMINT) operations in support of foreign materiel acquisition.

Foreign Materiel Intelligence Group. The FMIG is an EAC TECHINT battalion-size organization. It is located at Aberdeen Proving Ground. FMIG consists of a headquarters and headquarters company, an analyst company, and two training detachments. The training detachments are located at Aberdeen Proving Ground and at the National Training Center (NTC).

This group is the Army's only active-duty TECHINT unit. In peacetime, FMIG is subordinate to INSCOM and performs a primarily S&TI role.

During wartime, INSCOM gives up operational control. The unit deploys as an MI Battalion (TECHINT) to the theater commander's EAC MI Brigade and becomes a battlefield TECHINT asset. This supports TECHINT development under contingency operations and aids in our transition to total war.

In peacetime, FMIG--

    º Conducts TECHINT operations and produces TECHINT reports.
    º Maintains the capability to conduct TECHINT collection operations in support of Army, joint, and combined requirements.
    º Prepares TECHINT reports in support of Army, joint, and combined requirements.
    º Acts as the HQDA executive agent for foreign materiel used for training purposes. FMIG also provides TECHINT training to DOD analysts and strategic MI detachments. This supports the Army Threat program.

In addition, FMIG supports AIA with--

    º Foreign materiel acquisition operations.
    º Foreign materiel exploitation operations.
    º Foreign Medical Materiel Exploitation (FMME) operations.

BATTLEFIELD TECHNICAL INTELLIGENCE STRUCTURE

The Army Battlefield TECHINT organization is designed to support both the operational and tactical levels of war. It includes elements to support EAC commanders and ECB commanders. EAC TECHINT assets consist of the AC TECHINT Battalion mentioned above and CAPSTONE EAC TECHINT Reserve units. CAPSTONE units are units with a wartime mission to deploy with Active and reserve units.

ECB TECHINT assets include Army Reserve TECHINT elements with a corps mission and detached teams from the AC TECHINT battalion.

Regardless of the echelon, TECHINT units are equipped to provide the supported commander with countermeasures based on CEM exploitation. This includes: identifying, analyzing, and supervising the evacuation of foreign and enemy equipment, weapon systems, technical documents, and other captured materiel.

ECHELONS ABOVE CORPS TECHNICAL INTELLIGENCE UNITS

In wartime, EAC TECHINT units consist of the Army's AC TECHINT battalion and activated RC TECHINT companies. The AC TECHINT battalion is organized to deploy as an entire unit, as in the case of total war. It is also capable of deploying teams in support of low-intensity conflict. In any case, the AC TECHINT battalion must fulfill all Battlefield TECHINT support requirements until RC TECHINT companies are activated and deployed.

Captured Materiel Exploitation Center

The TECHINT commander's mission is carried out through a Captured Materiel Exploitation Center (CMEC). This center is formed from the assets of organic and attached TECHINT elements and is augmented by other subject matter experts (SMEs). The CMEC--

    º Manages the command's Battlefield TECHINT system, through the MI Brigade commander and the G2.
    º Processes battlefield TECHINT.
    º Coordinates, through proper channels, required support to the TECHINT effort. (See Chapters 3 and 4.)

The CMEC, through the MI Brigade commander, also serves as the point of contact for strategic S&TI activities on the battlefield. (The CMEC organization is shown at Figure 2-2.) The DIA and strategic-level S&TI centers support the CMEC with data base updates, requests for intelligence information (RII), and disposition instructions. (See Figure 2-3.)

Where possible, it is desirable for other armed services to combine assets for the acquisition and exploitation of foreign materiel. When this happens, the CMEC is called the Joint Captured Materiel Exploitation Center (JCMEC). (See Figure 2-4.)

Joint Captured Materiel Exploitation Center

The JCMEC consists of TECHINT personnel from each participating service. The United States Marine Corps (USMC) provides an RC Battlefield TECHINT detachment to augment the JCMEC and deployed USMC combat elements ashore. As in the CMEC, the commander of the JCMEC is the TECHINT advisor to the Joint Command J2. When a joint task force (JTF) is formal that does not have organic TECHINT support, the Active Army EAC TECHINT unit forms the nucleus of a JCMEC that provides that support.

The JCMEC either provides TECHINT reports through the Joint Intelligence Center (JIC) to the Theater or Joint Command J2 or through other reporting procedures established by the joint commander.

Combined Captured Materiel Exploitation Center

The Combined Captured Materiel Exploitation Center (CCMEC) is composed of scientific, technical, and military TECHINT managers and analysts from the United States and its allied countries. It is organized the same as the JCMEC. (See Figure 2-4.) The CCMEC directs the overall combined TECHINT effort, under the supervision of the combined intelligence staff. The CCMEC--

    º Allows a free flow of information, reports, and TECHINT exploitation summaries between allies.
    º Coordinates scientific exploitation assistance from allied scientists.
    º Provides TECHINT teams for on-site exploitation and to assist specific echelons.

ECHELONS CORPS AND BELOW TECHNICAL INTELLIGENCE UNITS

ECB TECHINT assets are all in the RC. Their primary peacetime role focuses on training. However, certain Reserve TECHINT units and individuals continue to accomplish live, real world missions when tasked. In wartime, until the mobilization and arrival of the ECB TECHINT assets into the corps area of operations, TECHINT teams from the Active Army EAC TECHINT unit are dispatched to perform required TECHINT support to the corps. Once the ECB TECHINT units arrive, the TECHINT teams either are redeployed or remain in the corps area of operations exploiting materiel based on EAC intelligence requirements.

After mobilization, the CAPSTONE Reserve TECHINT assets are deployed with the Tactical Exploitation Battalion (TEB) supporting their designated corps. They form the TECHINT section of the Operations Analysis Company of the TEB (RC), under the operational control of the corps G2.

The TECHINT section of the Operations Analysis Company, TEB, analyzes the foreign materiel, including supplies and technical documents, acquired on the battlefield. This section also includes a packing and crating element. The TECHINT section normally deploys in the Corps Support Command (COSCOM) area to help evacuate equipment, but may locate near the enemy prisoner of war (EPW) holding area.

Battlefield TECHINT teams at ECB, whether they are organic to the TEB or the CMEC, are task organized and deployed to the target area. This is based on the type and location of the item discovered or secured and the assets available. These teams are equipped based on field conditions and the nature of the TECHINT found. In the field, they use common communications links from the nearest available unit -- usually the capturing unit -- to report their location and to request transportation and logistic support.



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