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FM 34-45: Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Electronic Attack

Chapter 5

Detect

This Chapter discusses the deployment of ES systems and the collection and dissemination of ES data in support of EA. For EA to be successful on the battlefield, the commander must understand the role of ES and how to coordinate the ES effort in support of EA.

ELECTRONIC SUPPORT DATA

 

5-1. ES assets collect information for three purposes:

  • To provide intelligence.
  • To develop the database in the SIGINT team to aid the DECIDE function.
  • To cue the EA assets to active targets.

5-2. Currently database development relies heavily on exploiting signal internals, which include what is said that specifically identifies the target and gives target intent. Future ES systems, like PROPHET, will detect and collect signal externals. Signal externals only identify that an emitter is active and is located at a specific grid coordinate. If the ES system is designed to identify what kind of unit is associated with the peculiar characteristics of the emitter, then you will know a little about the unit but not the specifics of its purpose, capabilities, and intent. More detailed analysis, often at echelons higher than that supporting the EA asset, is required to provide this information.

5-3. DETECT is composed of three functions:

  • Deploy ES and EA assets.
  • Collect ES data.
  • Process SIGINT data.

DEPLOY ELECTRONIC SUPPORT AND ELECTRONIC ATTACK ASSETS

 

5-4. Deploying assets is naturally divided into the three basic categories of platforms:

  • Ground vehicle platforms.
  • Ground manpack platforms.
  • Airborne platforms.

5-5. ES assets are not deployed in the same manner as EA systems. ES systems deploy in various formations to create a baseline which will provide area coverage for specific missions. For example, the "Lazy W" configuration is used for a wide coverage along a front where enemy positions are unknown. Systems will deploy to high ground for best LOS, while still remaining in proximity to adjacent systems in order to maintain system parameters and good baseline for DF and cueing operations. Targets from the HPTL will be found, identified, located, and targeted for a predesignated mission. In the defensive, ES assets are used primarily to identify targets on AAs into the AO.

5-6. EA assets deploy to cover specific areas in response to targeting requirements. EA assets will move to high ground to achieve optimal LOS; generally valleys, passes, roads, and bridges are ideal target areas because they create choke points in which EA is most effective. EA assets will not deploy in the same area unless a high number of targets require two systems or more to cover them.

GROUND AND AIR ASSETS CAPABILITIES

 

5-7. Air and ground assets have unique capabilities to consider when employing. Employ air and ground assets to complement their capabilities. The collection manager must ensure that the ISM is configured to efficiently fulfill the requirements. Use of EAC assets should never be the sole source of ES. Because EAC ES assets are not organic to the ground commander, they lack the responsiveness and flexibility to collect within a specific area and cross-cue other sensors.

Ground Capabilities

 
  • Advantages:
    • Ability to continue long-term collection and EA regardless of the weather.
    • Can quickly respond to changes in requirements.
  • Disadvantages:
    • Assets limited in LOS considerations will shut down to jump forward in battle.
    • Terrain limited.

Air Capabilities

 
  • Advantages:
    • Ability to overcome the LOS problems encountered by ground assets.
    • Has a standoff capability.
    • Has minimized terrain interference.
  • Disadvantages:
    • The depth of planning needed to employ air assets due to the short duration of missions and maintenance requirements.
    • Air assets are extremely weather dependent and are easily found with DF when using EA.

AIRBORNE PLATFORMS

 

5-8. Airborne deployment falls into three functions. These assets are heavy maintenance items and are generally used during specified periods to provide EA capability on targets not in range of ground assets.

Select Restricted Operation Zone (ROZ)

 

5-9. The ROZ determines the flight path from which the airborne platform will perform its mission. This function has five steps:

  • Step 1. Determine target LOS. This step entails the analysis of LOS by the pilot, the senior operator, and the MI battalion S3. They will analyze the LOS and choose the best possible ROZ to hit the target considering elevation, range, terrain (for example, mountains, bodies of water).
  • Step 2. Determine communications LOS. This step, which is performed after the selection of the primary ROZ, ensures communications with the ACE.
  • Step 3. Determine area coverage. This step outlines the possible areas of effects for EA. During this step possible ROZs are identified and each is countered against terrain masking. Those ROZs with a high degree of terrain masking are eliminated.
  • Step 4. Determine cover and concealment. During this step the pilots will determine the altitude of their aircraft in correspondence to the nearest cover (for example, mountains, ridgelines) for quick evasion of threat's air defense.
  • Step 5. Determine ingress and egress routes. This step provides entry into the ROZ and exit points out of the ROZ for coordination with the BCD. This step is continuously updated as intelligence from the MI battalion S2 brings to light new air threats.

Coordinate ROZ Selection

 

5-10. This function covers the coordination for air space with the BCD. Pilots will request a ROZ with the MI battalion S3. This request will specify the air space and request it 72 hours in advance. The S3 will then coordinate the request with the Joint Forces Air Component Commander (JFLAC)/A2C2 for the ROZ. This JFLAC/A2C2 at the Corps will then pass the request onto the BCD. The BCD will coordinate with air space managers who decide whether this request is acceptable or if an alternate ROZ is granted due to air space limitations.

Review Air Threat Report

 

5-11. The pilots and crew perform this step. The aviation brigade will receive intelligence on the current threat to air assets and confirm the intelligence with the ACE. The pilots and crew will review this report before the mission. This report may cause the use of alternate ROZs because of a high threat. New intelligence and requirements update steps 2 and 3 continuously.

GROUND MANPACK PLATFORMS

 

5-12. Manpack collection teams can be deployed alone or in conjunction with other elements. Independently deployed assets will have the additional responsibility of team security and added supply considerations.

Ground Manpack System

 

5-13. Manpack collection systems provide the commander with unique capabilities when conducting initial entry, stability operations, and support operations. Found in both light and special operations forces (SOF) units, manpack systems have characteristics not found in vehicle systems. Manpack systems are characterized by the following:

  • Deployable in areas that are normally not accessible or usable. This access can be constrained by threat forces and/or routes to site. The manpack allows the commander to place teams in areas where vehicle-mounted equipment would present too large of a footprint and terrain is too restrictive for air assets. Due to this, manpack systems are often close to or past the forward line of own troops (FLOT).
  • Manpack systems also have a lower battlefield signature due to placement and equipment. Thus they can be used in more low-profile operations and are especially helpful in urban situations.

5-14. Limitations of manpack systems:

  • Very limited mobility of collection teams.
  • Teams may have to rely on outside assets (airlift in most cases) to deploy on the battlefield.
  • Manpackable systems are usually not netted, so DF will be limited to lines of bearing (LOBs) from each system.
  • Collection teams will be limited on mission duration (normally 3 to 5 days) and METT-TC dependent.
  • Current reporting may be limited to voice communications or short data bursts depending on equipment.
  • Limited communication link, high security requirements, difficult resupply, and deployment asset.

Special Considerations

 

5-15. Special considerations must be made for small low-level voice intercept (LLVI) teams which will be deployed close to the FLOT if not beyond it. These teams are dependent upon stealth for battlefield survival. The teams will usually be inserted by air, either air assaulted in or jumped in. Slow movement due to the weight of these small systems will make security escorts hard to plan and coordinate. For these sites, situational awareness is imperative. Evasion plans are briefed and planned with rally points and extract points fully detailed. If contact is made, team members will move as a group or as individuals back to the predesignated points.

GROUND PLATFORMS

 

5-16. Current ground systems have to completely shut down in order to change position. The commander must decide on how much of the baseline he is willing to lose for the duration of the movement. A commander can move all or part of the assets. Jumping a part of the baseline at a time allows the commander to maintain coverage of the targets, but this is a slow process.

5-17. In the case of the "Lazy W" configuration, a commander can start movement by jumping the two rear operating systems. Once these systems are in place and operational, the commander would then jump the other three systems. The other option is to move all systems at the same time. The commander can negate the loss of target coverage by coordinating with other assets.

Ground Systems Augmented With Air Assets

 

5-18. The commander must carefully plan and coordinate for the use of organic aerial assets. The aerial assets add tremendous flexibility to the baseline. Aerial assets—

  • Can extend the width and depth of the ES ground baseline.
  • Can provide coverage on targets while part or all of the ground systems are in movement.
  • Provide the commander with on-the-move capability. This becomes the critical issue when the battlefield tempo exceeds the movement capability of the ground systems.

5-19. Deploying ground platforms consists of three interrelated functions:

  • Coordinate ES and EA position selection.
  • Select ES and EA operational sites.
  • Occupy and prepare selected ES sites.

5-20. Coordinate ES and EA Position Selection. This function is comprised of three actions:

  • Select general deployment areas (GDAs). This step consist of five sequential tasks to determine possible sites and their overall advantages and disadvantages.
    • Review maneuver unit's scheme of fire and maneuver. Under some circumstances, the GS MI commander may attach ES and EA assets under the direct control of the DS company. The DS company will provide a situation report (SITREP) on the AO to the GS commander for team movement. Upon arrival, the DS company commander will take control of the asset and, with assistance from the GS commander, provide logistical and related support. There are several techniques for site security (for example, attached security force such as a fire team, collocation of ES and EA assets, or providing your own security with internal assets).
    • Conduct map reconnaissance. In this task the team leader and the POC leader assess possible site locations and routes to and from the sites. The POC leader will indicate each team TAI to ensure focus on each particular AO.
    • Select potential operational sites. From the map reconnaissance the team leader, with input from the POC leader and input from the IPB process, will select the best sites from the potential site list. Elevation, multiple egress routes, LOS of surrounding areas, and minimal terrain masking to surrounding areas are essential for EA/ES.
    • Confirm current security in AO. In this task the team leader coordinates with the POC to ensure that the site selected is secure. The POC will determine if there are indications of enemy activity in the AO, or if there are electronic signatures of enemy transmitters at the potential sites as indicated by DF results collected by friendly ES assets. The POC will ensure the site is not expected to have threat movement through the area or to have strategic importance to the threat.
    • Conduct site reconnaissance. In this task the team leader performs a site reconnaissance on the ground. Several sites will be reconnoitered for use as primary, secondary, or alternate sites. With the rapid flow of the battlefield, there may only be the opportunity to do this only initially or during a defensive phase of the operation. In an early entry force this step will not be performed, and IPB and map reconnaissance will give the best possible site. Under these circumstances OPSEC is paramount.
  • Coordinate with maneuver unit commander. This step is composed of five tasks which are sequential in nature. These tasks outline the process of coordinating instructions (the fourth paragraph in the OPORD).
    • Coordinate times and routes for deployment. This task is conducted by the POC leader, who coordinates with the MI battalion S3 (who then coordinates with the G3) through the GS MI company commander for movement and routes. If a POC leader is part of the DS company, he should coordinate through the DS company commander with the S2 and S3 of the unit that owns the terrain (usually a maneuver brigade) and inform the MI battalion S3. This information is passed to the team leader in a FRAGO from the POC leader.
    • Coordinate operational sites. This task is also conducted by the POC leader to ensure sites are available for use by ES and EA assets, and there is no confliction. Confliction can take place with other assets and nearby assets such as signal assets causing disturbance in EM environment or being hampered in turn by EA operations. Terrain deconfliction must be addressed during the orders process and at the highest level possible. It is not uncommon for conflicts to arise with signal, mortars, scouts, and EW— assets all vying for the same piece of ground. The POC leader must ensure these steps have been performed before teams move to these sites.
    • Coordinate security. This task is performed by both the MI company commander and MI battalion S3 who coordinate security for EW assets. The team leader and the POC noncommissioned officer in charge (NCOIC) make the coordination between the ES or EA asset and the maneuver asset that will provide security en route to the predetermined ES or EA site. For example, an ES or EA asset would deploy with scouts who are conducting a reconnaissance mission. Upon reaching the ES or EA site, the scouts will continue with their reconnaissance mission. A security force will not always accompany assets during movement, but it is desirable if possible.
    • Coordinate communications procedures. This task is performed by the team leader during the POC leader's OPORD. The team leader will receive procedures and frequencies during the OPORD, which he will disseminate to the team before movement.
    • Coordinate CSS requirements. The team leader at this point will coordinate any service support requirements for the systems, vehicles, and radios.
  • Obtain approval of general deployment area. This step is composed of three tasks to obtain approval for ES and EA systems.
    • Integrate ES mission with host maneuver unit. This task is initiated by the GS MI company commander to ensure the movement and mission of ES and EA assets remain synchronized with the maneuver element.
    • Gain clearance for ES and EA operational areas and sites. The POC will gain clearance from the company commander for operational sites for ES and EA. Some considerations will be the possible duplication of efforts from adjacent units and required baselines for collection. The required baselines will make the ES site selection difficult since the sites must fit into an overall scheme while also having good LOS at each site. EA considerations are units in the line of electronic fire that may experience a communication loss during EA missions. Examples of four possible ES baseline configurations are listed below.
    - Standalone, which provides an LOB from the ES asset to the target (Figure 5-1).
    - Convex, which provides good LOBs against targets that are located to the sides of the baseline of systems (Figure 5-2).
    - Concave, which is best, is used when the targets are straight in front of the baseline (Figure 5-3).
    - "Lazy-W," which is the most often used configuration because it offers good DF when the target's location in relation to the baseline is unknown (Figure 5-4).
  • Gain clearance for ES and EA systems movements. This task is the final coordination done with maneuver element before the asset pushes out to its site. This final clearance will give team leaders a green or red status for movement along predetermined routes.


Figure 5-1. Stand Alone Operations

 

5-21. Select ES and EA Operational Sites. This function identifies primary, alternate, and supplementary sites as well as provides for preparing site sketches. Communication, target LOS, and range of targets are essential to operations and are part of site selection. Range will always be dependent upon terrain, vegetation, emitter power, distance between receiver and collector, and numerous other factors. The SIGINT team will use the signal-to-noise ratio to ensure EA systems are within range of their respective targets. Also considerations for baselines are imperative in choosing these sites. All possible sites must provide support for the baseline to effect accurate locations and overall coverage of the battlefield.


Figure 5-2. Convex Baseline

 
  • Select primary ES and EA positions. This step is composed of five tasks to determine specific site locations:
    • Determine communications LOS. This task is performed upon reaching the site but before setting up the ES and EA system. Communication LOS is critical. Without communications the system will move to a point where communications are reestablished (for example, after one hour without communications, the system will move to reestablish communications).
    • Determine target LOS. The team leader performs this task. He performs LOS analysis based on recommendations of the ACE through its use of the ASAS for LOS determination. This analysis will consider terrain to include mineral deposits, vegetation, elevation, large manmade features, and bodies of water. (For more information, refer to FM 34-130.)
    • Determine area coverage. The team leader maps, either informally or formally on paper, the possible area upon which the system can provide ES and EA. This mapping should be a 360-degree picture from the system with shade in the areas that are masked by terrain and thus are not generally collectible or attackable by the system. Map utilities' field of view (FOV) function on ASAS can provide general information on terrain coverage and is used to assist in identifying and eliminating primary and alternate sites.
    • Determine cover and concealment. This task is performed upon reaching the site. The team leader will position the system on the military crest of the terrain with the antenna rising above the ridgeline. If possible, use higher terrain behind the system to avoid silhouetting the antenna against a lighter background such as the sky. Attempt to use natural cover for the system, while keeping the system at the best possible site. The ES system will use camouflage, but will also make optimal use of natural vegetation. EA systems will not use camouflage due to the repositioning of the system after mission EA assets depend on natural concealment and positioning. The use of vegetation on the system is desirable as long as it does not interfere with quick site egress or system capabilities. Small LLVI teams will find terrain, which provides good LOS but is of little or no tactical value because of their proximity to the FLOT. LLVI teams depend upon natural concealment and vegetation for site concealment.
    • Determine ingress and egress routes. If possible, the team leader will designate both a primary ingress route into the site and egress route moving away from the FLOT. These routes should use a high degree of concealment and cover ensuring no observation of movement can occur from the direction of the FLOT.


Figure 5-3. Concave Baseline

 
  • Select alternate ES positions. This step is composed of five tasks, which are identical to the task of selecting the primary ES and EA positions. The target will remain identical to the targets of the primary ES or EA site. Use these tasks to evaluate and choose the next best site. This site will be used if the first site is compromised or deemed unsuitable for the mission. An example would be friendly intelligence indicating that the enemy is nominating the primary site for artillery or an enemy axis of advance. If contact is ever made, the system must relocate due to its limited small arms fire capacity. If security is added, weigh the benefits of added firepower versus the larger footprint created by security force.
  • Select supplementary position. This position has the same requirements as above. This site will be the last formally selected site in the AO and used as a last resort. All above-mentioned factors will be considered in this step.
  • Prepare site sketches. This step is comprised of three tasks. The team leader will sketch these tasks on a sector sketch. The team leader will also brief team members on specifics of the sector sketch (for example, fighting positions, egress routes, and rally points).


Figure 5-4. "Lazy W" Baseline

 
  • Fighting position sketch. This task provides a sector sketch, which includes sectors of fire, dead space, and alternate fighting positions. These fighting positions are hasty at first and later, if time permits, are developed into fighting positions. Due to time considerations and the high amount of movement occurring with ES and EA systems, this decision will be mission dependent. LLVI teams will make hasty fighting positions but if contact occurs, they will break contact and move back to rally points. LLVI teams do not have the capability to sustain engagements. Stealth and concealment are the two best security tools for LLVI teams.
  • Ingress and egress sketches. These sketches provide routes to and from the site, giving specific routes for specific contact (for example, if contact occurs to the east the team moves out on the egress route to the west). The team leader will designate vehicles and ground rally points.
  • Administrative sketch. This sketch lays out the location of the system and chases vehicles along with fire, fuel, and crew rest points. (NOTE: This requirement is impractical for LLVI teams.)

5-22. Occupy and Prepare Selected ES Sites. This step is comprised of five tasks:

  • Move to site via entry point. This task will begin the movement from the GS MI company AO or the controlling element to the ES or EA site. Using tactical road march procedures the team will move out along secure routes, if possible, to the site. If the chase vehicle is available, it will move out in front of the system 100 meters to act as security for the system and to determine road conditions for the system. The engaged ES or EA system will evade and use the chase vehicle to provide cover for system movement if the chase vehicle is available. The team will not approach the site from a vantage point observable from the FLOT.
  • Establish security. The chase vehicle personnel perform this task upon reaching the site. The chase vehicle will confirm or establish the security of the site before the system moves onto the site. When the system arrives, communications are established and security will remain in force until the end of the mission. LLVI teams will typically send one man forward to the site to ensure security and then move the entire team to the site for system and antenna set-up.
  • Confirm LOS to target area. After establishing security, the team leader will place the target on the terrain and ensure that he still has LOS to target. The EA team leader will orient the system on the targeted area before set-up, either using terrain reference or getting an azimuth on target from the SIGINT team.
  • Conduct system set-up. After communications are initiated and site location is confirmed along with target location, the team leader will begin system set-up procedures. The unit SOP will regulate system set-up, and security will remain in effect during system set-up.
  • Minimize antenna masking by obstructions. Performing this task will not significantly delay the team in relocation. Techniques for this task include-
    • Using high terrain behind antenna to prevent sky lining.
    • Using trees and vegetation to conceal the antenna if they do not have a high water content.
    • Using the military crest of the hill to keep the antenna concealed as much as possible.

COLLECT ELECTRONIC SUPPORT DATA

 

5-23. Collection of ES (communications intelligence [COMINT]) data falls into two categories: voice and digital or analog data. This data will be used to identify and target receivers for EA.

COLLECT VOICE DATA

 

5-24. This function has six subfunctions that when combined and analyzed provide intelligence on targets and nodes for the effective use of EA against these nodes.

Intercept Signal

 

5-25. ES systems will search across the spectrum for enemy communications (either voice encrypted or clear).

Target Acquisition

 

5-26. Collection for target acquisition is the process where the ES system has been given specific tasking to locate a particular target. It can be as simple as finding a particular frequency to provide orientation data for an EA system. Or it can be as complex as searching the full spectrum for a particular entity that has met the criteria for EA. The ES system then tips that frequency and location to an EA system for attack. The length of time that it takes the ES system to fulfill the tasking is directly tied to the amount of technical data that is supplied with the tasking. The ES system that has been tasked to provide tip-off data is also usually tasked to monitor the effectiveness of the attack. The tasking for this type of mission originates in the ACE and is refined by the GS or DS company POC prior to being sent to the system.

Gist Signal

 

5-27. The operator will provide the gist of the communication; callsign, ID nets (for example, artillery, infantry).

Locate Target

 

5-28. This subfunction will be performed either by the system which is netted or by the POC team using numerous LOBs.

Analyze the Signal and Build a Database

 

5-29. This subfunction will be performed primarily in POC and above by 98Cs to build net diagrams for the precise delivery of EA to delay, disrupt, divert, or deny spectrum to enemy.

Report Collection Results

 

5-30. Operators will report collection data as soon as possible to expand the SIGINT base.

COLLECT DIGITAL OR ANALOG DATA

 

5-31. This function has seven steps that somewhat mirror the subfunctions of collecting communications data.

Intercept Digital Analog Signal

 

5-32. Operator will scan and identify signal (for example, digital artillery nets).

Record Digital/Analog Signal

 

5-33. Operator will record the signal and make notes about the type of signal.

Identify Emitter Parametrics

 

5-34. Operators identify signal strength and width.

Identify Emitter Function

 

5-35. This step is completed by the POC team or higher through enemy historical data and threat models.

Locate Digital or Analog Target or Build Digital or Analog Database

 

5-36. This step is also performed by analyzing data at the SIGINT team level.

Report Digital or Analog Collection Results

 

5-37. This step is performed by the operator along with sending the recording back to the SIGINT team.

COLLECTION FOR DATABASE DEVELOPMENT

 

5-38. The collection manager develops clear, precise, and valid tasking to support targeting. In order to maximize collection, the EWO will coordinate with the collection manager to ensure the EW target annex is integrated into the collection plan for ES. Information obtained from this collection will help update local and national databases in order to perform situation development.

5-39. Collection will be geared to support the PIR and IR and the current operation. The collection manager can follow one of several methodologies when developing the EW target list (EWTL). These methodologies vary from EW support to targeting to collection for threat database development.

5-40. The collection manager can focus tasking by threat operating systems. The collection manager plans collection based on the operating system that he feels will be most beneficial to support PIR (for example, artillery, maneuver units, reconnaissance units).

5-41. Tasking is based on known frequency, callsign, net characteristics, or signal characteristics. Characteristics can determine the importance of a net. Example: If an artillery command observation post (COP) were known to operate on a specific frequency, that frequency is included in the tasking. Tasking is based on geographical location. Signals may be of particular interest if DF places it in an area that is of specific interest.

SEARCH TECHNIQUES

 

5-42. There are three main techniques of acquiring target emitters. They are spectrum searches, band or sector searches, and point searches. These techniques are best used combined, not independently. The techniques employed will depend on the mission, the number of assets, and their capabilities.

SPECTRUM SEARCH

 

5-43. A spectrum search entails a detailed mapping of the entire spectrum that is exploited by a particular system. This search provides an overview of the amount and type of activity and where in the spectrum it is located. No detailed processing is done on signals. The amount of time to identify the signal and produce an LOB or fix is kept to a minimum. This search technique is best used to first establish what activity to exploit. Spectrum search allows a single asset to locate and exploit emitters to fulfill mission requirements. In a multiple asset system, one position should always conduct a spectrum search to acquire new targets.

BAND OR SECTOR SEARCH

 

5-44. A band or sector search follows the same guidelines as a spectrum search but is limited to a particular segment of the exploitable spectrum. By limiting the size of the search band, the asset can improve the odds of acquiring a signal. This technique is used only in multiple asset or position systems. This search will allow for the development of new targets.

POINT SEARCH

 

5-45. The point search technique is used when a list of specific targets is provided for monitoring or exploitation. This technique allows for in-depth, long-term exploitation of signals in a defined environment. Point search should be used only after a thorough map of the environment is completed and in conjunction with a spectrum, band, or sector search. This technique is used to tip-off preplanned targets to EA assets.

CROSS CUE

 

5-46. When an ES asset acquires an EA target (for example, preplanned or target of opportunity), the ES asset is responsible for tipping the target information to the EA asset.

5-47. The EA ground systems have the capability to use either an omnidirectional antenna or a log periodic antenna (LPA). The difference is that the LPA increases the effective radiated power and the power is focused along a general azimuth. In order to use the LPA, the EA system operator must know the approximate target location prior to the start of the EA mission. This is one way the ES system supports EA missions.

5-48. The EA aerial systems have only omnidirectional antennas. With both types of EA systems, the ES assets provide support by providing target acquisition, target tip off, target monitoring, and jamming effectiveness.

TA TEAM

 

5-49. The TA team will verify and assist the ES assets in target detection. The TA team will take the notification of a target from the ES asset and verify the target with the AGM or EWTL. If it is a valid target, the TA team will notify the ES asset in order to pass the target to the EA assets.

5-50. Along with tasking the EA assets, the ES assets are tasked to monitor the target in order to quickly identify information that would lead to valid targeting. Because information is time sensitive, quick reporting is vital.

5-51. The minimum information that needs to be passed to the EA assets are frequency, location of target, and signal characteristics (if available). This enables the EA assets to acquire the target and position their antennas in the correct azimuth.

PROCESS SIGNALS INTELLIGENCE DATA

 

5-52. The processing of SIGINT data will create and redefine the baseline of intelligence necessary for the commander to envision the threat, both current and future. The data produced by this process will provide support to targeting, SIR, and numerous other products to the commander. The processing of SIGINT data takes place at all levels of ES, from the ES asset operator to the SIGINT team and collection manager. The focus of the manual is on EA but it provides a brief overview of the process of intelligence as it applies to EA.

5-53. ES assets will transmit collection data via tactical reports (TACREPs) to the TA team. The data will include signal type, target identification, and gist of target activity.

5-54. The TA team will process the ES data, fusing the data to develop a battlefield picture and provide support in either a GS or DS mode. The TA team will provide limited processing using support from the SIGINT team via ASAS, doing limited work on simple voice matrixes, and using the OB and the EOB. These tools, along with intelligence disseminated by the ACE, provide a source for intelligence support to units supported in a DS mode.

5-55. The SIGINT team will further process ES data, having feeds from both the TA teams and, under certain circumstances, the ES assets. The data processed will depend upon numerous factors. Upon support from higher to decrypt communications data and intelligence feeds, the SIGINT team will also use the OB, EOB, and doctrinal templates to determine threat intent and actions.

5-56. The SIGINT team and the TA team will provide target data to FS channels. Using the ISM, these teams provide priority to targeting requirements to ensure intelligence is provided in a timely manner to engage HPTs. These targets may be engaged by either lethal or nonlethal fires.

SITUATION DEVELOPMENT

 

5-57. It is crucial that information pass between elements as quickly and as accurately as possible. Information development data will be passed from the ACE, down to the ES and EA assets, in the form of technical data and tasking. Technical information that is developed at the ES asset is also passed directly to the EA asset (as well as to the ACE) to help with database development.

5-58. Once the ES system has acquired the target, the operator must disseminate the information to the EA system. This is done most frequently with voice communications. The data needs to include the frequency, location, and signal characteristics. The ES system operator also notifies higher headquarters that the target was acquired and that the necessary data was transmitted to the EA system. If the ES system fails to acquire the target, the ES system operator must notify higher so that the tasking can be shifted or changed.

ELECTRONIC ATTACK EFFECTIVENESS

 

5-59. During an EA mission, the ES asset will monitor the target to provide feedback to the EA asset and to provide the analytical element with an effectiveness report. The purpose of feedback is to keep the EA asset apprised of the status of the target. The immediate notice of changes to the frequency, location, or signal characteristic is vital to the success of the EA mission.

5-60. When a mission is completed, the ES or EA asset will send the analytical element a detailed effectiveness report in the form of a jamming effectiveness report (JER) or multiple assets effectiveness report (MAER), which will be sent digitally or by voice. This report will include the effects on the target from the perspective of that ES or EA asset. It includes but is not limited to frequency, location, signal characteristics, effects observed, and duration. (See Appendix D.)



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