FM 34-37: Echelons Above Corps (EAC) Intelligence And Electronic Warfare (IEW) Operations
MILITARY INTELLIGENCE BATTLION (OPERATIONS)
This chapter describes the mission and structure of the MI battalion (operations). In addition, it describes the structure and operations of the EACIC and other companies subordinate to the MI battalion (operations). If the MI battalion (operations) is not established within a particular theater, the EACIC and other intelligence disciplines in the units described below may continue to be separate organizations until the MI battalion becomes part of the brigade structure. Figure 4-1 shows the organization of the MI battalion (operations).
The mission of the MI battalion (operations) is to provide IEW operation support for the MI brigade (EAC) in support of theater Army or joint or combined forces. Specific functions include--
- Providing C² of assigned and attached units.
- Integrating all-source intelligence analysis, production, and dissemination.
- Providing intelligence, analysis, and support to OPSEC.
- Providing intelligence analytical support to battlefield deception.
- Providing near-real time exploitation, reporting, and rapid dissemination support of theater and/or national level collected imagery.
- Providing CM, data base management, tasking guidance, and tasking for sensor cueing in support of EAC.
- Providing Army TECHINT support to the EACIC and other services and commands within the theater.
- Providing mechanical and communications maintenance and administrative support for the battalion, attached units, and the HHD of the MI brigade (EAC), as required.
- Providing intelligence and analysis support to Wartime Reserve Mode (WARM) and Reprogramming operations.
- Maintaining signature data base reference file that can be used to identify those automated/smart sensors, processors and smart munitions and weapons that may be affected by a WARM or Altered signature.
The MI battalion (operations) is organized into a headquarters and headquarters service company (HHSC), the EACIC, a TECHINT company, and a strategic IA detachment. These units contribute to the efficient operations of the IEW structure at EAC and provide specific intelligence collection capabilities to support the information needs of the theater in which they are located. The battalion can also accept the attachment of tactical reconnaissance support detachments, if they are mobilized from the RC. See Chapter 9 for more details.
The HHSC includes all personnel working in the various staff sections of the battalion and the headquarters company. The battalion headquarters, shown in Figure 4-2, consists of a command section with the commander, XO, CSM; and the battalion staff sections (S1, S2/S3, S4).
The command section provides C2 for the battalion and supervises the operational and support activities of subordinate units. The battalion staff sections are responsible for similar functions performed by their brigade counterparts.
The S1 section provides personnel administrative support to all battalion elements.
The battalion has a combined S2/S3 section. The S2 is responsible for the security manager functions for the battalion. The S3 prepares plans and operations for the battalions support functions and is responsible for all battalion training. The S3 is also responsible for taskings to the TECHINT and IA companies. The security section provides protection for and controls access to the EACIC.
The S4 section is responsible for all supply, maintenance, transportation, and logistics services for the battalion. The S4 also coordinates external maintenance support for the battalion's organic equipment.
The headquarters company provides internal administrative and logistics support for all sections of the company. In addition, the company must ensure that the battalions communications and communications security (COMSEC) requirements are met. Some of the company sections may be under the staff supervision of a primary staff element.
The G2 performs CM and all-source intelligence production for the EAC Army commander in support of the IEW mission, including--
- Situation development.
- Target development.
- Security and deception.
- Counter WARM and support reprogramming operations.
The EACIC consolidates the MI brigade's assets for all-source production and CM. It is organic to the MI battalion (operations), but is OPCON to the theater Army G2. The G2 is the SIO in the command and is directly responsible to his commander for all intelligence activities of the command. The EACIC is normally collocated with the supported command G2 and responds to the intelligence needs of the Army component commander. The EACIC coordinates requests with national level intelligence agencies, sister services, Allied forces, and subordinate units to satisfy the commander's PIR or IR. This also includes requests for intelligence information (RIIs) from subordinate units.
The EACIC plans, directs, and coordinates IEW operations and performs all-source analysis, production, and CM. The EACIC performs the following general functions--
- CM, to include sensor tasking guidance and cueing.
- All-source intelligence production.
- Intelligence and information dissemination.
EACICs of different theaters are geographically oriented. Their responsibilities for providing IEW support are diverse for both peacetime and wartime.
The EACIC may be tasked with different intelligence requirements ranging from strategic to regional areas of a joint command with assigned AOs or AIs. In some theaters the EACIC will support combined commands. Each command shares wartime requirements of identifying enemy activity within its command's COMMZ and of supplying intelligence to commanders charged with the conduct of rear operations.
Throughout the conduct of the above support operations, the EACIC must remain focused on the operational intelligence requirements of the conflict, which are identifying--
- Enemy centers of gravity so the commander can direct the campaign plan (or phases) to expose and attack it.
- An attacker's culminating point, to enable the friendly commander to seize the initiative for offensive operations.
The intelligence staff must be an integral part of the commander's campaign planning process and be constantly attuned to changes in that process. Figure 4-3 shows the relationship between the EACIC and supported commands.
The EACIC, shown at Figure 4-4, consists of a headquarters section, CM&D section, production section, ISE, and communications section.
The headquarters section provides C² and coordination for all sections of the EACIC. The chief of the EACIC also serves as the chief of the production section. The combined efforts of all production sections represent a multidiscipline CM and production activity conducting continuous operations.
Collection Management and Dissemination Section
The CM&D section is responsible for requirements and mission management. Requirements management defines what to collect. Mission management defines how to satisfy the requirement. The CM&D primary function is to use all collection resources available to assist the G2 in satisfying the theater Army commander's PIR and IR. CM&D section internal procedures are guided by the CM process, as shown in Figure 4-5. This CM process further delineates the asset management responsibilities of commanders.
Asset management is the assignment of collection or ECM missions to specific assets. Unit commanders respond to the mission taskings of the EACIC or the G3 regarding ECM missions.
The process of formulating detailed collection requirements involves receipt of RIIs. Many requests will be PIR and IR. The collection manager must integrate these with the operational considerations and characteristics of the theater AO and the enemy force. The primary purpose of the process is to answer the commander's PIR, using the limited collection resources available.
The collection manager must have a thorough knowledge of collection systems and understand their operational employment limitations in order to determine which sensor or intelligence discipline should be used to satisfy a requirement. This is a priority for successful mission management. The collection manager is assisted in this process by the single discipline teams (SDTs) of the production section.
The CM&D section tasks the MI brigade for collection missions. It requests information and receives taskings from national intelligence systems. As the coordinator of the brigade's collection efforts, this section formats collection requirements which can be satisfied by organic assets and forwards them to the appropriate SDT for action. The collection manager, working with the SDTs, must be able to translate requirements into observable or information indicators from which specific IR are developed. The CM&D section--
- Directs the collection effort.
- Coordinates with the TAACOM to support rear operations.
- Provides CM&D assistance to ECB intelligence units to ensure intelligence shortfalls do not exist.
- Interfaces with production section analysts to respond to consumer requirements.
- Coordinates joint requirements.
- Conducts liaison with Allies.
- Disseminates intelligence products in response to RIIs and taskings.
- Manages IMINT, MASINT, SIGINT, HUMINT, and TECHINT collection requirements.
SIGINT requirements are processed by the TCAEs at the EAC, corps, and division echelons. At the ACR and separate brigade echelons, the brigade or regimental S2, supported by an organic TCAE, performs CM& D functions. Each TCAE performs the SIGINT technical support, SIGINT tasking, and mission management functions. See Chapter 5 for more information on TCAE operations.
The production section produces and reports all-source intelligence to supported commands and IEW units. The production section, as shown in Figure 4-6, consists of an all-source production team, order of battle (OB) team, CI team, and five SDTs. Each SDT represents a single intelligence collection discipline.
All-Source Production Team and Order of Battle Team. The all-source production team, together with the OB team, determines if the commander's PIR can be satisfied with its existing information and data base holdings. These two teams determine what enemy information is available to help identify specific indicators of enemy intent. Information not available defines the collection requirements that the collection manager must then task IEW units within theater for or request from national level assets. This process develops and refines PIR and establishes other IR, as required, to identify or collect information on the indicators necessary to answer the commander's PIR.
During the analysis and production portion of the intelligence cycle, the all-source production team and OB team coordinate with and receive information from the other production section teams. This constant exchange of information ensures that all-source products are developed from intelligence products.
Counterintelligence Team. The CI team performs MDCI analysis in accordance with FM 34-60. The team identifies the enemy intelligence collection capabilities and FIS operations directed against friendly forces, missions, and installations. An FIS uses many methods to collect information against friendly forces, including HUMINT, SIGINT, and IMINT. As a result, the CI analytical capability includes a diverse mix of specialists who fuse MDCI information to identify and isolate collection operations. The CI team--
- Develops and maintains MDCI data bases.
- Monitors CI investigations, operations, and collection efforts.
- Produces initial rear operations IPB products for the production section.
- Produces MDCI analysis products, including MDCI threat assessments; MDCI estimates and summaries; threat situation overlays; MDCI graphic summaries; and black, gray, and white lists.
The CI team and other elements of the production section exchange critical information required to analyze the enemy. The team provides the CM&D section its IR based on gaps in the MDCI data base and the commander's PIR and IR.
The CI teams products are used to support specific CI functions as well as to support the targeting process, deception operations, and the command OPSEC program. The CI team provides the threat assessment which identifies enemy intelligence collection capabilities. This process supports the OPSEC required during operational planning. FM 34-60 and FM 34-60A explain the specific TTPs for MDCI functions.
During wartime, the CI team also monitors in-theater counterespionage (CE) activities. These activities involve sophisticated and specialized techniques of CE, countersabotage, and countersubversion. FM 34-60A and AR 381-47 describe CE activities in detail.
Single Discipline Teams. The SDTs coordinate theater and national IEW requirements with both the theater MI brigade and other MI brigades with elements responsible for foreign positive intelligence collection (for example, IMINT, SIGINT, and HUMINT). In addition, the SDTs coordinate the information and intelligence requirements of the ISEs located with other commands within the theater.
The IMINT team--
- Coordinates tasks for the MI battalion (EAC) (IA).
- Assists the interaction between the imagery assets of the IA battalion and the EACIC.
- Coordinates IA requirements and activities for the MI brigade's support to the theater.
- Maintains an imagery data base and performs third-phase (detailed) analysis of imagery, with assistance from the brigade's organic MI battalion (EAC) (IA). For additional information on IMINT, see TC 34-55.
The MASINT team manages the brigade's MASINT effort. MASINT is a highly sophisticated application of state-of-the-art technology and processing techniques to detect and identify specific enemy capabilities and intentions. The MASINT team--
- Receives and processes collected information and forwards it to the all-source production team for all-source analysis.
- Provides technical advice and assistance through the use of MASINT-exploited target signatures or MASINT collection devices.
- Coordinates with elements of the CONUS support base, industrial and scientific communities, and other services to ensure that new technology is integrated into operations.
The SIGINT team--
- Provides the primary interface between the MI brigade (EAC), the CM&D section, and the EAC TCAE.
- Analyzes collection requirements received from the CM&D section, based on resources available and parameters of coverage.
- Advises the CM&D section of suitability for satisfaction of collection tasks.
- Monitors the status of tasks levied to the MI battalion (SIGINT) and makes recommendations to the EAC TCAE regarding employing resources.
- In conjunction with the TCAE, coordinates sensor cueing to support other IEW requirements.
The HUMINT team--
- Develops and coordinates theater interrogation operations and controlled collection requirements.
- Performs cueing and tip-off for theater and national assets.
- Translates tasking received from the CM&D section into specific collection tasks.
- Provides combat situation updates to theater interrogation assets.
The TECHINT team--
- Coordinates CM functions with the CMEC and serves as a link between the CMEC and the G2 .
- Coordinates TECHINT collection requirements and ensures they are translated into terms that the combat unit or other specific collector can understand and act on.
Intelligence Support Element
The ISE is organic to the EACIC and normally consists of three teams. Each team is referred to as an ISE when it is providing its support mission to other commands.
ISEs provide EACIC liaison with US Army, joint, combined, and Allied military organizations and their associated intelligence organizations or services. Examples of supported commands include ADA commands, Army groups, JTFs, SOF, Allied commands, or host nation governments. ISEs collocate with each supported command and assist in identifying IEW requirements, establishing priorities, and interfacing directly with the EACIC to help satisfy the command's requirements.
The communications section establishes the secure communications support for the EACIC with its organic equipment. It is capable of receiving and transmitting to all the brigade's subordinate units. It can also reach other theater units throughout the established theater communications system. Secure and effective communications have special applications which the theater commands and the NCA must address. Secure and survivable communications determine the workability of the C² systems in any theater of operations.
For the EACIC to accomplish its mission, all elements must perform their assigned tasks accurately and timely. Each section and team must work together to make the intelligence cycle operate at its best. The EACIC chief--
- Plans and supervises all phases of the intelligence cycle.
- Ensures that the EACIC provides adequate and continuous IEW support for all headquarters, commands, and agencies concerned.
- Must have thorough knowledge of threats and national assets, requirements, and the theater commander's operational intent, while directing the total intelligence effort within the EACIC.
Internal operational procedures and the intelligence cycle dictate close, continuous relationships among all production section teams. Figure 4-7 shows these relationships. The CM&D section fills gaps in information by formulating tasks and levying requirements to assets deployed within the theater and by tasking national assets.
The production section consolidates single-discipline reporting from collectors. The CM effort is a continuous process that passes information to the respective SDT and constantly adjusts requirements using new PIR and IR. These PIR and IR are provided immediately to the CM&D section for consolidation and tasking to assets organic to the brigade. The CM&D section levies many of these requirements on the respective SDT for immediate analysis and recommended taskings for specific single-source collection by specific subordinate elements of the brigade.
As single-source information is collected by the battalions or companies, it is quickly forwarded through the production section to the appropriate IMINT, MASINT, SIGINT, HUMINT, or TECHINT team for review and input to the CM&D section. During the analysis process, additional requirements might surface which could redirect the CM effort.
The CI team chief maintains liaison with the CM&D section to support the production of the CI threat estimates, studies, and reports. An accurate assessment of enemy intelligence capabilities is the foundation of friendly vulnerability assessment and the development of effective countermeasures. The CI team maintains a continually updated data base to identify and assess the hostile intelligence collection threat.
ISEs serve as extensions of the EACIC and are collocated with the supported headquarters command or US or Allied intelligence service. To fulfill its mission, each ISE must keep abreast of all activities of the production section. Therefore, continuous liaison with the CM&D section must be maintained.
The ISE assists the supported organization in obtaining desired information by forwarding requirements to the EACIC CM&D section for review of the production section and MDCI data bases. Additionally, the ISE forwards collection requirements of the supported command to the CM& D section for appropriate action. The ISE team chief, assisted by the CM&D section and the production section, sanitizes reports used by the supported unit.
The ISEs provide a mechanism for joint, Allied, and combined commands to request information, such as--
- Employment of enemy SOF.
- Use of airborne or air mobile forces.
- Employment of NBC weapons.
The ISEs facilitate exchanging intelligence and coordinating EW support, including jamming. ISEs also work with unit intelligence officers and assist with intelligence input to operational planning, situation and target development, and the IPB of the supported commands. Occasionally, it may be advantageous to have an ISE deploy with supported units in advance of hostilities.
Although managed by the EACIC chief, ISEs generally are located away from the EACIC and, in practice, operate independently. ISEs support the commander with whom they are collocated. Additionally, their duties require them to respond to the needs of their counterpart agencies and commands at least as often as they respond to the needs of the EACIC.
To accomplish its mission, the EACIC must maintain effective interaction and interoperability with numerous external organizations. These organizations fall into four general categories:
- National--includes those organizations, agencies, or assets controlled directly at DOD levels. Some of them will have representatives in the theater of operations.
- Theater IEW--includes all units organic to the MI brigade (EAC) and, where appropriate, intelligence units assigned to other services and host nations.
- Supported headquarters and commands--include Army, joint, combined, or Allied organizations.
- ECB--includes support to tactical commands and coordinates the full use of TENCAP and NETCAP for ECB and national intelligence organizations.
These interface requirements are accomplished primarily through secure communications and the use of ISE teams. Figure 4-8 shows the external organizations that interact with the EACIC.
Each MI battalion (operations) has a TECHINT company as a part of its organization. However, most of the MI companies (TECHINT) are part of the RC force. There is only one active component TECHINT unit in the force structure. During a conflict, a theater's respective TECHINT company would mobilize and deploy to meet the battlefield TECHINT requirements of the theater.
The organization, mission, and functions of the TECHINT company are the same for the reserve and active force. See Chapter 8 for a complete discussion of the TECHINT company.
The mission of the MI detachment (strategic IA) is to exploit tactical, theater, and national level imagery and to disseminate the resulting intelligence within the theater. This detachment provides--
- Imagery-derived information and intelligence to the EACIC and other requesting and supported detachments.
- First-, second-, and third-phase exploitation of radar, infrared, photographic, and national level imagery.
- Interface with the EACIC, J2 and J3, and Air Force liaison staffs to satisfy Army requirements by national imagery assets and by detachment collection, processing, exploitation, and dissemination efforts.
The MI detachment (strategic IA), shown at Figure 4-9, has a headquarters, exploitation section, basic cover library, and maintenance section.
The detachment headquarters collocates with the MI battalion (operations) in the vicinity of the EACIC. It provides operational command, administrative support, and supply management for its organic sections. The MI detachment (strategic IA) depends on the Theater Army Communications Command (TACC) for access to the communications system.
Exploitation section personnel perform second- and third-phase exploitation of radar, infrared, E-O, photographic, and national level imagery on a 24-hour basis. Intelligence reports are sent by either courier or electrical message to authorized theater consumers. When requested, photographic prints of the exploited imagery are sent to division, corps, and those EAC elements requiring such products for OPSEC, planning, or contingency purposes. This section also provides imagery to the basic cover library to update the imagery data base and to use it in the basic cover program.
BASIC COVER LIBRARY
The basic cover library is the main repository for tactical and national imagery produced in the theater of operations. It has an ES-82 photographic darkroom which produces photographic prints of exploited imagery. The basic cover library deploys with an imagery data base of the AO. This data base is used to compare newly acquired imagery during contingency or combat operations. Personnel review incoming RIIs to determine if imagery in the data base satisfies the requirement. This section also maintains maps, overlays, reference materials, publications, and files of all exploitation reports.
The maintenance section provides personnel and equipment to perform unit level maintenance for wheeled vehicles, generators, compressors, and related equipment.
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