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Intelligence

FM 34-25-3: All-Source Analysis System And The Analysis And Control Element

Chapter 3

EQUIPMENT

The ASAS consists of government-furnished equipment (GFE) and nondevelopment items. These components support the execution of IEW tasks, collection management, analysis, and dissemination. The ASAS hardware and software also provide compatible interfaces between the ASAS and other automated information systems.

ASAS BLOCK I

The ASAS Block I consists of six major groups of equipment: remote workstations (RWSs), all-source workstations (ASWs), single-source workstations (SSWs), CCSs, DPSs, and supplementary equipment, electronic (SEE) sets. Together, these groups form an integrated system capable of supporting G2 (S2) and ACE operations. Figure 3-1 shows all the major components of the ASAS Block I, except the SEE.

REMOTE WORKSTATION:

The ASAS Block I is an integrated assembly equipped with two ASAS-RWSs. Each workstation, as shown in Figure 3-2, is a portable, ABCS CHS computer workstation. Non-ACE intelligence organizations use the ASAS-RWS to maintain collateral security level databases and threat situational awareness. The workstation also provides the primary interface between ASAS and the other systems of the ABCS. It can send, receive, and modify products to support dissemination and use by other staff elements. The ASAS-RWS supports wargaming, planning, and situation development. It provides--

  • The IEW interface between the sensitive compartmented information (SCI) ASAS workstations in the ACE and the collateral security level ABCS.
  • Access to automatic updates from the collateral security level ASCDB of the ASAS-ASW in the ACE.
  • An automated interface between the ACE and staff elements in the command post, to include maintaining IEW, enemy, and related portions of the force level information database.

System Software. The system software provides the UNIX operating system, security and control mechanisms, system services, human-machine interface, and system utilities required to support the use of the applications and communications software.

Communications Software. The communications software provides the message level interface with other ABCS workstations and systems. It provides a set of functions to create, modify, transmit, receive, and archive messages. It uses standard formats, such as the United States Message Text Format (USMTF) for the exchange of databases or graphics. The software supports LAN and wide area network (WAN) connectivity.

Applications Software. The applications software provides an automated planning tool and a database of current threat information. These support the development of intelligence products and information used in the decision making and targeting processes. Its strength is its ability to create, manipulate, and plot graphics, to include IPB templates and COA overlays developed during wargaming. The applications software--

  • Provides the G2 (S2) automation support to planning and current operations.
  • Maintains the collateral version of the ASCDB maintained in the ACE.
  • Maintains IEW partitions of the force level information database and performs force level coordination between other elements of the ABCS.
  • Supports the presentation and dissemination of secondary imagery.

ALL-SOURCE WORKSTATION:

The ASAS Block I is equipped with six AN/TYQ-37(V) 5, ASAS-ASWs. The ASAS-ASW shown in Figure 3-3 is a ruggedized, portable, dual-screen computer workstation. Its design supports multidiscipline intelligence fusion. The strength of the ASAS-ASW is its ability to correlate and combine multiple reports about the same target, unit, or activity. The all-source analyst sets system parameters that automatically correlate information based on time, location, and level of identification.

The ASAS-ASW stores current threat data in a single relational database, the ASCDB. Many types of messages can automatically update the ASCDB which the ASAS-ASW can then graphically display. It can automatically transmit these updates on a recurring basis to other ASAS workstations including those in other units. Analysts can also set various types of event alarms so critical information comes to their attention immediately.

System Software. The system software provides the Virtual Address Extension (VAX) operating system, system services, human-machine interface, and operating supervision needed to link the applications and communications software to the host processors. System software functional identities (FIs) include--

  • Automatic data processing (ADP): ADP enables periodic backups and restores the backups if an online system is lost.
  • Functional manager (FMR): FMR provides message routing, normalization of terms, communications monitoring, reference databases loading, and parsing table maintenance.
  • Operational diagnostics (OPR): OPR provides an online diagnostic check of the system during operations. OPR is designed to verify operational readiness of the hardware and isolate failures in the ASAS.
  • Security audit trail (SAT): SAT provides a mechanism to back up and store transaction information to an optical disk for security audit purposes.
  • System supervisor (SPV): SPV configures, initializes, and monitors the system; establishes communications patterns; and maintains analyst accounts.

Communications Software. The communications software provides message interfaces between applications software, analyst functions, external data sources, and users. It is capable of receiving and distributing messages within the ASAS, and distributing and supporting security release of messages leaving the ASAS.

Applications Software. The applications software supports the analysis and processing of intelligence data. It includes machine functions and operator machine-assisted functions for processing and collecting intelligence data. Applications software FIs include--

  • All-source analysis (ALL): ALL supports message parsing and correlation, all-source processing and analysis, and all-source database maintenance.
  • Intelligence collection management (ICM): ICM supports unique collection management message parsing, asset tracking, creation or deletion of requirements, requirements consolidations, requirements database maintenance, and generation of tasking messages.
  • Message release authority (MRA): MRA provides a final check of message format, addressees, and security compliance before release of messages.
  • Situation analysis (SIT): SIT supports situation development, alarms processing, and graphic display of IPB products.
  • Target analysis (TGT): TGT supports target development, alarms processing, and the rapid turnaround of potential targets to the FSE.

The system supervisor can authorize each analyst access to all available FIs or selected FIs based on ability and mission. Up to eight FIs can be concurrently activated on each ASAS-ASW based on the authorization of the analyst who is logged on to the equipment. The system supervisor can assign the same FIs, except for the SPV, to more than one analyst for concurrent processing. The SPV must be active on one station to maintain an operational state. In addition to these software FIs, there are additional common functions available to each analyst that assist processing by providing graphics capabilities, inter-ACE coordination, time and distance calculations, and coordinate conversions.

SINGLE-SOURCE WORKSTATION:

The ASAS Block I is equipped with six AN/TYQ-52(V). The ASAS-SSW shown in Figure 3-4 is a ruggedized, portable computer workstation that supports single-discipline analysis and technical control. The ASAS-SSWs UNIX operating system and windows environment allow the configuration of each station based on mission requirements or analyst proficiency.

System Software. The system software provides the UNIX operating system, security and control mechanisms, system services, and system utilities required to support the applications and communications software.

Communications Software. The communications software provides message interfaces between applications software, analyst functions, external data sources, and users. It is capable of receiving and distributing messages within the ASAS, and distributing and supporting security release of messages leaving the ASAS.

Applications Software. The applications software allows the operator and the SPV to process incoming messages, distribute data to the appropriate analysts, generate intelligence products, and send messages. It consists of three categories:

  • Intelligence analysis: Generic database interface, template builder, terrain evaluation tools, and situation maps.
  • Message handling: Message review, message generator, and communications interface.
  • Analysis utilities: Analysis support tools and utilities.

COMMUNICATIONS CONTROL SET:

The ASAS Block I is equipped with two AN/TYQ-40(V) 2, CCS. The CCS is the communications center for the ASAS. It supports collateral and SCI level communications processing, and relay; it interfaces with ACUS, CNR, and special purpose intelligence communications systems. The CCS provides secure voice and data communications through MSE, SINCGARS, and the JTT. The CCS equipment provides capabilities for automatic message routing, operator message review, and manual message routing. The CCS shown in Figure 3-5 consists of the major systems discussed below.

Communications Processing Subsystem (CPS). The CPS performs message protocol translation, message processing, and detailed auditing of system activity. It has a variety of tools to help operators distribute message traffic automatically. The CPS retains messages on disk packs for temporary storage. The system is capable of processing a number of communications protocols. This capability establishes the basic ASAS compatibility and interoperability with other systems. All data handling internal to the ASAS uses Full Duplex Message Protocol (FDMP)/Digital Data Communications Message Protocol (DDCMP). Outgoing message traffic is translated from FDMP/DDCMP; incoming traffic is translated to it. The CPS provides protocol translation for Automatic Digital Network (AUTODIN), digital communications terminal (DCT), net radio protocol (NRP), and External Digital Data Communications Message Protocol (XDDCMP).

Computer Operator Terminal (COT). The COT allows the CCS operator to initialize and control the CPS.

TSEC/KY-68 Terminal and Data Adapter. The CCS is equipped with six TSEC/KY-68 Digital Subscriber Voice Terminals (DSVTs) and data adapters for communication into the MSE network. It provides non-secure voice, secure voice, and secure data communications within the MSE network. The data adapter is a carry-in microprocessor based communications controller capable of protocol tasks.

AN/ARC-164A. The CCS has one AN/ARC-164A ultra high frequency (UHF) radio. It provides secure voice or data communications when used with the TSEC/KY-57 for voice, AN/PSC-2 and TSEC/KY-57 for data, and the TSEC/KG-84A for NRP. The combination of the system's RT-1288A with NRP, a datalink processor, and encryption device provide data communications with NRP capable sensors and relays such as the AN/TSQ-138 TRAILBLAZER, AN/TRQ-32(V)2 TEAMMATE, and AN/TSQ-175 TIGER.

AN/PSC-2. The CCS is equipped with one AN/PSC-2, DCT. The AN/PSC-2 DCT is used to prepare, send, receive, and display reformatted IEW Character Oriented Message Catalog (COMCAT) messages and free-text messages. The CNR systems in the ASAS Block I CCS support secure data communications when used with the AN/PSC-2. It supports the exchange of SCI tasking and reporting messages between the ACE and AN/PSC-2 equipped IEW assets. The ACE also uses the system to exchange collateral messages with CI teams, interrogation teams, and long-range surveillance teams.

AN/VRC-92A. The CCS has four AN/VRC-92A, SINCGARS, very high frequency (VHF) frequency radios that are frequency modulation (FM) with integrated COMSEC module (ICOM). Operated in the secure non-hopping mode, these systems provide secure voice and data communications.

DATA PROCESSOR SET (DPS):

The DPS, AN/TYQ-36(V)3 shown in Figure 3-6 is a mobile, self-monitoring, unmanned data processing station for the Block I ASAS-ASW. Each ASAS Block I has two DPSs. The ASAS-ASW applications software and databases reside within the DPSs. They provide the communications connectivity between the CCS and ASAS-ASW. The shelter provides environmental control, intrusion protection, fire protection, and secure storage for the ASAS main processors.

SUPPLEMENTARY EQUIPMENT, ELECTRONIC:

The SEE, AN/TYQ-42(V), consists of ancillary equipment for power generation and distribution, communications, and transportation. It consists of three distinct groups:

  • Power Group. The power group generates and distributes power. It includes 10 kW or 30 kW generator sets, M40 or M200 power distribution systems, power cable assemblies, and distribution boxes.
  • Signal Group. The signal group supports communications connectivity. It includes thirteen TSEC/KY-68, one TA-838, and communications cable assemblies.
  • Transport Group. The transport group consists of M35A2, M925, or high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicles (HMMWV) with cargo trailers.

ASAS-EXTENDED

The ASAS-Extended uses commercial hardware and ASAS Block II prototype software. It provides units not issued the ASAS Block I standard hardware with an automated intelligence capability and full ASAS interoperability. The ASAS-Extended communications subsystem can exchange information with ASAS systems, other battlefield automation systems, and EAC systems. Figure 3-7 shows the major components of the ASAS-Extended.

EXTENDED REMOTE WORKSTATION:

The ASAS-Extended RWS is a commercial workstation with a Virtual Memory System (VMS) operating system in a windows environment. The ASAS-Extended normally has two RWSs. Each workstation has a 2.0 gigabyte (GB) extended hard drive. Both workstations share a laser printer.

EXTENDED ALL-SOURCE WORKSTATION:

The ASAS-Extended ASW uses the Alpha-RISC processor and Virtual Memory System (VMS) operating system in a commercial computer. A minimum of three workstations linked by a LAN support the ACE all-source intelligence section. The Alpha-RISC processor and 288 megabytes (MB) of random access memory (RAM) significantly improve processing time over the initially fielded ASAS Block I VAX processors. Its storage units of 2.2 GB of capacity also eliminate the need for the two ASAS Block I DPSs. Other hardware supporting this workstation includes one magnetic tape drive, one compact disk-read-only memory (CD-ROM) reader, one laser printer, and one communications modem per terminal.

EXTENDED SINGLE SOURCE WORKSTATION:

The ASAS-Extended SSW is a commercial workstation using a UNIX operating system in a windows environment. A minimum of two workstations linked by a LAN support the ACE technical control and processing section. Each workstation has 64 MB of RAM, one 1.2 GB external disk drives, one CD-ROM reader, one tape reader, and one laser printer. The workstations use baseline ASAS-SSW software with one workstation also loaded with Joint Deployable Intelligence Support System (JDISS) software.

COMPARTMENTED ASAS MESSAGE PROCESSING SYSTEM (CAMPS):

The CAMPS is an intregal component of the ASAS-Extended and is used in lieu of the ASAS Block I CCS. In air assualt, airborne, and light infantry divisions, the CAMPS and only one ASAS Block I CCS form the ASAS communications center. It is a modular, transportable communications processing system consisting of a Communications Gateway System-100 central processing unit (CPU) controlling Secure Telephone Unit (STU)-III and TSEC/KY-68 DSVT phones; generic gateways; tactical switch processors; and TSEC/KIV-7 COMSEC equipment. It supports the receipt, processing, and dissemination of SCI and collateral information. The CAMPS also provides an interface capability for the TROJAN SPIRIT II and tactical satellite. Figure 3-8 and the following summarize the CAMPS features:

  • Lighter, smaller, and more modular than the ASAS Block I CCS.
  • Supports multiple protocols and interfaces (AUTODIN Modes I, II, and VI; DDN x .25/ (MPN) x .25; (IEEE) 802.3 LAN Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) (Fiber-optic or Thin Net; and E-mail)).
  • Mirrors CCS functions.
  • Lightweight and smaller than a CCS.
  • Modular.
  • Adds flexibility to ASAS deployments (supports tiered deployment; supports forward deployed G2 workstation).
  • Multiple protocols and interfaces (Dial Up Circuit; connects to TROJAN network).
  • Joint development effort.
  • Possesses VHF and UHF communications equipment.

ASAS BLOCK II

The ASAS Block II will use ABCS CHS II workstations and comply with joint common operating environment requirements. The ASAS Block II builds upon the ASAS Block I and prototyping initiatives. As shown in Figure 3-9, ASAS Block II will consist of 8 to 24 reconfigurable SCI workstations, a CCS or CAMPS, and two remote workstations. These components (along with enhancements in communications interfaces, data handling, and common applications) will improve the joint interoperability of the system.

Most hardware will consist of integrated GFE and CHS II workstations mounted in standard shelters or in transit cases. The ASAS Block II software will use a UNIX-based, POSIX compliant secure operating system. Software will include an extensive package of system service software consistent with common ABCS support software architecture and the joint common operating environment. The use of CHS II will simplify equipment maintenance and allow greater interoperability among ABCS.

The ASAS Block II will significantly improve the ACE's ability to exchange data outside the SCI environment by building in a multilevel security capability for automatic sanitization and collateral release. Other features of the ASAS Block II are--

  • Military Intelligence Integrated Database System (MIIDS) and Integrated Database (IDB) automation that expands the number of available databases.
  • Communications upgrades that provide four additional channels, satellite communications, Improved High Frequency Radio (IHFR), Defense Secure Network 3 (DSNET3), MSE packet switch, and SINCGARS frequency hopping, and an integrated JTT interface.
  • Common applications enhancements that provide additional message parsing and improved alert and alarm services; better display support functions for map operations, digital terrain, and weather products; and faster data output.
  • Secondary imagery capability that supports receipt, display, storage, and forwarding of softcopy imagery products.
  • Integration of the Joint Collection Management Tools (JCMT) software to improve collection management tasks support.
  • Enhanced correlation ability for SIGINT.
  • JDISS and Defense Intelligence Threat Data System (DITDS) software applications that improve interoperability with the Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System (JWICS).
  • Addition of CI and HUMINT specific processing capability.

ASAS BLOCK III

The ASAS Block III is the objective system for the ASAS program. The ASAS Block III, scheduled for fielding at the turn of the century, will meet the requirements of the Army of the 21st century. The system will use an open architecture system that incorporates the results of baseline system performance and prototyping. The ASAS Block III will use CHS to ensure interoperability and seamless flow of intelligence between ABCS control systems and echelons.



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