FM 34-2: Collection Management And Synchronization Planning
THE COLLECTION MANAGEMENT PROCESS
The collection management process is cyclic in nature. As you use the process to satisfy some intelligence requirements, you simultaneously use it to generate new requirements or reprioritize existing ones.
How To Do It:
As shown in Figure 3-1, each step of the collection management process consists of a series of judgment decisions. Taken together, they form the "how to" of collection management.
A Doctrinal Procedure:
- A collection management section at the corps level might take several days to execute all the procedures described in this chapter to produce--
- During an accelerated staff planning process, an experienced battalion S2 may take 5 minutes to execute exactly the same set of procedures described in this chapter.
- He then hands the event template and a simple reconnaissance and surveillance (R&S) tasking matrix to his scout platoon leader. He also asks for a copy of the platoon leader's plan to incorporate into the battalion R&S overlay.
Use the same procedural thought process shown in Figure 3-1 regardless of echelon, type operation, or time available. However, circumstances will dictate the nature and amount of detail you will be able to develop in the resulting products. For example:
º An intelligence synchronization matrix.
º A number of asset evaluation worksheets.
º A detailed collection plan reelecting several hundred SORs.
Remember to always conduct every step. The time required to execute these steps depends upon the tools you choose to use and develop. If you are familiar with the capabilities of your assets, for example, you may speed up the process by not actually constructing asset evaluation worksheets. You will, however, consider the capabilities of your assets against the collection target before selecting them as part of your collection strategy.
What Is It?
The identification, prioritization, and refinement of uncertainties concerning the threat and the battlefield environment that a command must resolve to accomplish its mission.
- PIR #1: When will the enemy tank division counterattack through NAI 8d along AA 4? (triggers division's counter-counterattack-LTIOV 231400).
- PIR #2: Is the enemy defending NAI 3b with less than a battalion? (shifts brigade's main effort to 3d Battalion-LTIOV 231300).
- PIR #3: When will the enemy tank regiment counterattack through NAI 9b along AA 3? (triggers brigade's reserve to OBJ LEE-LTIOV 23 1700).
After receiving taskings from division, participating in staff wargaming, and coordinating with the commander, a brigade S2 publishes the following list:
Desired End Effect:
A prioritized list of exactly WHAT needs to be collected, precisely WHERE it needs to be collected, and WHEN it needs to be collected and reported in order for a unit to conduct operations as planned.
Success Results In:
Intelligence requirements that are synchronized with the command's COA.
As collectors report, analysts receive the information they need to develop intelligence that drives the commander's decisions.
Consequences of Failure:
- Does not relate to the command's intelligence requirements.
- Arrives too late for commanders to use.
Analysts receive information that--
Participate In Staff Wargaming:
Wargaming: Units generate intelligence requirements through staff wargaming. Intelligence officers role play the enemy commander using enemy COAs developed during the IPB process.
As the remainder of the staff "fights" opposing COAs, the commander or his designated representative identifies decisions to be made during the actual execution of the mission. For each of these decisions, the staff identifies the precise intelligence criteria required to trigger the decision.
For example: During a corps wargaming session the G2, who is role-playing the enemy Army commander, commits a forward detachment of regimental size to seize a bridgehead over a major river at either bridge site #1 or #2.
The G3 responds by declaring: "Darn you, if that happens we'll have to hit them with two attack helicopter companies. We will also have to blow the bridge they're going for; but we can leave the other intact."
After further discussion the G2 writes the following notes, which the G3 and commander verify later:
MRR or TR hits NAI 7W-- 2 x ATK Helo Co to TAI 7W Blow Bridge #1 (prior to main attack)
MRR or TR hits NAI 7E-- 2 x ATK Helo Co to TAI 7E Blow Bridge #2 (prior to main attack)
The collection manager notes the requirement for collection on the AAs to the bridges, as well as the bridges themselves. He outlines a collection strategy that will ensure early warning of a move toward the bridges and support employment of the attack helicopters in the related engagement areas.
Collection Management Participation: A collection management representative (normally the requirements manager) should participate in the wargaming session.
The CM representative determines whether the normally available collection assets can acquire the appropriate intelligence in a timely manner. If not, wargamers must plan contingencies around the predicted lack of intelligence.
The CM representative ensures that each proposed NAI can be covered by some sensor. If the command must rely on non-organic sensors to cover the NAI, he ensures that the remainder of the staff is aware of any risks and delays involved.
The commander will often designate certain decisions as more critical than others. This will enable the collection manager to appropriately prioritize requirements later in the CM process.
If wargamers identify more decisions than available collectors can support, the CM representative can prompt the commander to prioritize the decisions.
Wargamers often discuss the specific intelligence that will and will not support each decision. The details of this discussion may not appear in the intelligence requirements and SIRs sent to the CM section.
By sitting in on this discussion the collection manager will be better able to evaluate the relevance of incoming reports later in the CM process. The collection manager will also be able to develop collection strategies with higher reliability.
By sitting in on the wargaming session the collection manager will better understand the commander's intent and concept of operation. This enables the collection manager to respond faster to changes in operational priorities during battle.
Participating in staff wargaming allows the collection manager to fully integrate the CM process into the decision making process. As a result, he is better able to synchronize the command's collection operations with the remainder of its operations.
For more information on intelligence support to wargaming, see FM 34-130, Appendix A. For a discussion on how to determine the precise intelligence required for decisions, see Appendix D of this manual.
- Higher headquarters, in the form of specific orders.
- Subordinate and adjacent units, in the form of specific requests for intelligence.
To ensure the most effective use of collection assets, first analyze each requirement to determine how best to satisfy it. Sometimes this does not require collection activity. Often, a newly received requirement can be satisfied by intelligence in the data base or duplicates one that has already been processed.
Use the following steps to ensure that each requirement is satisfied in the most efficient manner:
Record Requirements: In addition to the set of intelligence requirements produced during wargaming, you will receive intelligence requirements from--
In order to track these requirements, along with those of your own command, record each requirement as received. Use this record to track each requirement from its receipt to its eventual satisfaction. See Figure 3-2 for one example of a register used to record and track intelligence requirements.
- WHAT (activity or indicator).
- WHERE (NAI).
- WHEN (time that the indicator is expected to occur and LTIOV).
- WHY (justification).
- WHO (who needs the results).
Validate Requirements: After beginning an audit trail by recording each requirement, validate requirements by considering--
Feasibility: Non-intelligence staff officers sometimes have unrealistic expectations of the ISOS. This manifests itself in intelligence requests that no collector could answer in a timely manner.
Sometimes feasibility is a fine line. Given enough time and resources, for example, expert human intelligence (HUMINT) assets might be able to answer the request, "Which of the three COAs does el president intend to implement?" Generally, however, the most feasible response to such requests is an estimate of which COA "el presidente" is most likely to select.
When a request is not feasible, notify the requester with an explanation of why the request cannot be satisfied. Coordinate with the requester to establish possible alternatives that might satisfy his needs.
Completeness: All requirements should specify--
Necessity for Collection:
Check immediate data bases to see if someone has already collected the information or produced the intelligence. If a product already exists that answers the requirement, refer the requester to the agency that produced the product; if the requester does not have access to that agency's data base, obtain and provide the product to the requestor.
Refer requests for production to the appropriate agency. In such cases the intelligence already exists, but not in the format the requestor desires. One example of this is a unit that wants a photo-mosaic put together from pictures that already exist.
Consolidate Requirements: Since you receive requirements from several different commands, you will often receive requirements which are similar to those previously received. In particular, the specific request for intelligence from subordinate units often duplicate the intelligence requirements of their parent command.
Simplify the collection effort by merging similar requirements. Normally, replace the more poorly written requirement with the wording of the better justified or more specific requirement. However, exercise caution to ensure that in merging requirements you do not lose the intent of either of the original requirements.
Also ensure that when merging requirements, you do not lose accountability of the replaced requirement. The audit trail must allow you to match the satisfied requirement against all requests for that intelligence; ensuring dissemination to every requesting headquarters when the requirement is satisfied.
Prioritize Requirements: After consolidation you will have a composite list of intelligence requirements. Some of these requirements are more important to mission success than others. Prioritize the list. This enables you to focus assets on the most important requirements, while economizing assets for less significant areas.
When prioritizing, do not automatically put specific orders from senior headquarters on top of the list, your own command's requirements in the middle, and specific requests for intelligence from subordinates on the bottom. A subordinate command's specific request may well be more important to the success of your command's mission than all the other requirements. Likewise, a specific order from a senior command may be ranked near the bottom of the list.
Effective prioritization requires staying abreast of the operation. When prioritizing consider--
Justification. Requirements are justified by their links to decisions. Consider the following two requirements:
1. Specific order from higher: "Identify the shoulder insignia worn by the elite 12th Armored Division."
2. Specific request from a subordinate: "Is the enemy's reserve tank battalion assembled for counterattack in NAI 5 or NAI 6? (Triggers artillery strikes and decision to send attack helicopters to either TAI 5 or TAI 6.)"
In this case you should prioritize requirement #2 higher than #1, even though the first is a task from higher and the second is a request from a subordinate. You must accept and plan collection to satisfy the senior command's specific order (a specified task) but, naturally, its priority is determined by the importance of the decision it supports.
Specificity. Requirements should be narrowed and refined to the most specific WHAT, WHEN, and WHERE questions possible. The WHY is the justification. Consider the following two requirements:
1. Specific order from higher: "Will the enemy attack? If so, when, where, how, and in what strength?"
2. Specific request from a subordinate: "Will the enemy attack through AA 4 prior to 231900" March with more than one regiment? (Triggers repositioning of 2d Brigade to alternate sector.)"
Requirement #1 is so broad that collectors have authority to collect on just about anything. These kinds of general, unfocused questions usually generate general, unfocused answers.
Requirement #2 is a thoroughly considered, focused question. The requester knows exactly what he wants, and stands a good chance of receiving the answer to his requirement.
Once again, you should rank #2 higher than #1.
Time-phasing. Normally, each intelligence requirement has a time relative to a point in the battle when answering it will be important, and another time when it will no longer be valid. Consequently, the relative priority of each requirement may change over time.
The LTIOV is one obvious guide to shifting priorities. Other guides are the products of IPB and staff wargaming which show the times activity is expected in each NAI.
Time phasing of intelligence requirements, like synchronization, is a continuous process. The operation may progress more or less quickly than anticipated during staff wargaming. Consequently, the expected timelines based on the original staff wargaming may change as the operation unfolds. Monitor the conduct of the operation and stay alert for changes in the LTIOV.
Relative significance to your commander's intent. Some activities on the battlefield are more critical to your commander's intent than others.
The commander may give some ideas as to what he considers most important during wargaming. If not, the commander's intent is reflected in the priorities he assigns to each part of the operation. Use this as a basis for establishing a prioritized list from which to make recommendations to the commander for his approval.
After you prioritize the list and make your recommendations, the commander designates some of the most important requirements as PIR. By doing so, the commander declares that the answer to the PIR is mission essential. In other words, failure to answer the PIR endangers the command's mission accomplishment. The PIR are themselves also arranged in priority order.
For maximum effectiveness you and the commander should refine the PIR to specific questions that are linked to operational decisions as discussed above. See Appendix D for ideas on how to refine PIR.
Develop Specific Information Requirement Sets:
What is it?
- Will more than 220 combat vehicles of the 3d Tank Division pass through NAI 8 or NAI 9 between 051400 and 060400 March?
- Will more than 17 reconnaissance vehicles subordinate to the 3d Tank Division or its regiments pass through NAI 8 or NAI 9 between 041800 and 052000 March?
- Will more than 38 artillery weapons subordinate to the 3d Tank Division enter NAI 8 or NAI 9 between 051200 and 060200 March?
- Are more than 2 R-xyz radios active in NAI 8 or NAI 9 before 060200 March?
Identifying the sets of specific information that will provide an answer to each intelligence requirement.
SIRs break requirements into smaller, more specific questions which, when answered, can satisfy the larger intelligence requirement. SIRs describe what information is required, where on the battlefield it can be obtained, and when it is to be answered. SIRs are as detailed as possible. To support mission management and the development of SORs the requirements manager, normally with the assistance of the ASPS, develops sets of SIRs for each requirement.
For example: During wargaming a corps commander tells the G2, "In order to commit our reserve I need to know whether that tank division will turn east or west at Griffinheim."
The requirements manager refines this into the intelligence requirement, "Will the 3d Tank Division enter NAI 8 or NAI 9 on the evening of 5 March? (triggers corps reserve).
This intelligence requirement already contains a reasonably detailed description of what the commander wants to know, where to find the intelligence, and when the event is expected to occur. However, the requirements manager needs to supply the mission manager with more detail in order to support his planning and the subsequent development of specific orders and requests. Therefore, the requirements manager and the ASPS develop the following set of SIRs, all designed to support the same basic intelligence requirement:
How to do it:
- Presence of artillery weapons.
- Presence of tire direction control equipment or vehicles.
- Presence of artillery associated communications equipment.
- Presence of artillery ammunition carriers.
Ideally, each intelligence requirement will contain all the information the requirements manager and ASPS section need to develop supporting SIRs. In such cases, the intelligence requirement states the "where" and "when" to collect; the requirements manager and ASPS need only refine the "what to collect" into specific items of information.
If you receive requirements which do not contain the information you need to establish the "where" and "when to collect, coordinate with the originator to obtain that information. The information you need should be contained in the IPB products that helped generate the requirement.
The event template shows the location of' NAIs on the battlefield and TPLs associated with each NAI. The event matrix shows the threat activities, or indicators, to look for in each NAI, and the timelines during which each NAI should be active.
As the requirements manager develops SIR, he should coordinate with the mission manager to get an understanding of the types of SIRs and exact specificity required to support his planning. A technique is to develop SIR sets while the mission manager is developing the collection strategy for each requirement.
This process begins with identifying the activities that will confirm the event specified in the intelligence requirement. These activities, called indicators, are usually stated in general terms such as "forward deployment of artillery."
The first step is to make each indicator more specific by identifying the "where to collect, " tying it to a specific point on the battlefield. For example, use a specific NAI to replace the general idea of "forward" in the indicator "forward deployment of artillery" and rewrite it as "artillery deployed in NAI 12." If the intelligence requirement is well written, it will contain the NAI that allows you and the ASPS to do this.
Use a similar technique to specify the "when to collect." If the intelligence requirement is well written, it will contain the timelines needed to establish the "when to collect. " If it does not, coordinate with the ASPS. Their situation templates depicting the threat COA under consideration and the graphics depicting the friendly scheme of maneuver should provide the information needed to establish collection timelines for the NAI in question.
Develop more detail in the "what to collect" by identifying the specific information which supports the indicator. For example, specific information which supports the indicator "artillery deployed in NAI 12" might include--
Develop each indicator further by coordinating with the ASPS to identify the specific types of equipment or other "collectible" associated with each developing SIR.
For example, replace the generic "artillery weapons" with specifics such as "M-109 or M-110 self-propelled artillery systems" if that is what should be present within the NAI. Similarly, replace "artillery associated communications" with "the QUASIT data signal" if that is the type used by the enemy unit in question. This helps asset managers to optimize their collection capabilities against the target in question.
Establish the LTIOV by backwards planning the timelines required to deliver the finished intelligence to the requester. Ensure that the LTIOV will deliver the intelligence at or before the DP it supports.
Because each intelligence requirement will generate a number of indicators, which will in turn generate a number of SIRs, finalize each SIR by labeling it with an identifier that allows the requirements manager to trace it back to the original intelligence requirement. A final SIR might be written as "SIR 2.12.7: Are there QUASIT data signals active in NAI 12 between 041200 and 060200 March? LTIOV: 060400 March."
Remember that indicators and SIRs are analytical tools for the ASPS. Ensure that when the collector satisfies the SIR, the analyst will have information that truly does indicate enemy actions that will solve the original requirement.
Step 2. Develop Collection Plan
What Is It?
The integrated and synchronized plan that selects the best collectors to cover each requirement. It is a graphic representation of the collection strategy. This is the first step in the CM process that involves mission management.
An example of one collection planning problem:
The corps commander's first priority is detection and tracking of the enemy's tank regiment, the principal counterattack threat. The Corps is conducting the theater's main effort and has radar service request priority during tonight's Joint STARS mission. The mission manager decides to maximize Joint STARS wide area surveillance capability to detect and track major armor movement. He also plans to activate preplanned national system imagery problem sets of key choke points (NAIs #6, #7, #8) along likely tank regiment approaches. Additionally, he prioritizes collection requirements for the corps MI brigade HUMINT company and the forward brigades with responsibility for the same NAIs, with special emphasis on enemy prisoners of war (EPWs) or refugees with knowledge of enemy reconnaissance activity.
Desired End Effect:
A collection strategy and employment scheme that will produce the intelligence required to effectively answer the command's intelligence requirements.
Success Results in:
Synchronization of intelligence collection with the command's COA through effective use of collection assets at the right time and place on the battlefield.
Consequences of Failure:
The wrong collector wastes time trying to answer a question beyond its capabilities.
A false picture of the target develops from use of an inappropriate collector.
A true picture of the target arrives too late, because you relied upon a collector with insufficient reporting timeliness.
Collection is focused on an unimportant area of the battlefield.
The commander is forced to assume unnecessary risk.
How to do it:
- Range (both actual distance and electromagnetic spectrum).
- Day and night effectiveness.
- Technical characteristics.
- Reporting timeliness.
- Geolocational accuracy.
- The target--Can the system "see through" fog, smoke, hostle electronic warfare (EW).
- The platform--Can the aircraft launch in high winds or limited visibility? Can the prime mover cross an area of very "RESTRICTED" terrain?
Mission management takes prioritized requirements and begins matching them with suitable collection and exploitation assets using the following criteria:
Availability: Know the collectors and processors available to you at your own echelon, and above and below. Know their capabilities and how to access them. Aside from maintenance and operator readiness issues, you have influence over the availability of organic assets. For example, the corps collection manager will alert the MI brigade to prepare for a surge in Guardrail Common Sensor missions. In turn, the Brigade will regularly report aircraft readiness, factoring in such variables as phase maintenance and crew rest requirements.
Determine higher echelon and other service asset availability by reviewing various scheduling mechanisms (for example, the air tasking order or Peacetime Application of Reconnaissance Programs (PARPRO) schedule). Airborne collectors often retain a reserve capability to respond during crises. This quick reaction capability provides an opportunity to request unscheduled collection in support of a critical requirement.
HUMINT assets are not tied to traditional "schedules"; their availability is linked to geographic access, support relationships, and workload.
Capability: This criteria is fairly straightforward with electronic collection and exploitation systems. Capability includes such things as--
Physical and threat environments impact greatly upon collection system capability, both in terms of--
Determining HUMINT collector capability is often a subjective process. Access to the target and reporting timeliness may be key qualifiers.
A tool that can help you work through the capability evaluation is the asset evaluation worksheet (see Figure 3-3) developed as part of the Joint-Service Tactical Exploitation of National Systems (J-TENS) Manual. See Appendix C for a capability quick reference guide.
Vulnerability: Evaluate the collector's vulnerability to threat forces. Consider more than threat forces in the target area. For example, the flight path of a QUICKFIX helicopter makes its role as an intelligence collection system and high-value target (HVT) obvious. Determine the threat's ability to locate, identify, and destroy the collectors anywhere their collection mission might take them.
Performance History: An experienced collection manager knows the "work horses" upon which he relies to meet the commander's intelligence requirements. Readiness rates, responsiveness, and accuracy over time may raise one collector's reliability y quotient. Certain sensors require confirmation, especially if targeting is an issue.
For example, target selection standards may require you to rely on systems capable of providing targeting accuracy, such as Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar System (ASARS), Joint STARS, or UAV.
If experience shows that ASARS is often unavailable because of local weather patterns, the experienced collection manager considers this in evaluating the system's performance history; perhaps leading to the selection of an alternate system.
Develop Collection Strategy:
- Enhanced Tactical Users Terminal (ETUT).
- Electronic Processing and Dissemination System (EPDS).
- Imagery Processing and Dissemination System (IPDS)/Tactical Radar Correlator (TRAC).
- Mobile Integrated Tactical Terminal (MITT).
- Forward area secondary imagery dissemination (SID) and TRAP-Improved (FAST-I).
- Joint STARS GSM.
After thorough study of availability, capability, and performance history, the collection manager performs the following:
Select Resources: Plan to task organic assets, request support from higher headquarters, and recommend tasking to subordinate echelons. Organic assets are usually more responsive and, as discussed above, you may directly influence their availability. However, avoid relying solely on your own resources if other systems are, based upon your evaluation, more capable.
Each echelon has unique, organic intelligence capabilities and the resultant hierarchy of task, request, or recommend relates directly to the IS0S "push and pull" concept of "seamlessness." EAC asset reporting "pushes" intelligence down to corps. Corps collectors support the intelligence requirements of division, brigade, and battalion. As we continue to develop multiple subscriber processors that complement the unique collectors, lower echelon units are increasingly capable of "pulling" the information they need from higher headquarters. Maximizing the "take" from those processors and the collection systems that feed them results from effective exploitation management.
Some processors that facilitate exploitation include--
- An Apache mission "tipped-off" to specific threat ADA activity.
- Indirect artillery fires "cued" to more precise target areas.
- Ground maneuver elements "tipped-off" to changes in an expected enemy COA.
- Adding requirements to an armored cavalry regiment (ACR) performing a zone reconnaissance mission.
- Inserting a new requirement during an ASARS mission or replacing an existing requirement with one of higher priority.
These systems receive, process, and exploit SIGINT and imagery intelligence (IMINT) data from theater and national level collectors. They also transmit processed data to the mobile terminals using varied communications means. See Appendix C for more information.
Some processors also allow the collection manager direct access to collection systems for new taskings. For example, given tasking authority during an ASARS or Joint STARS mission, TRAC and the Joint STARS GSM terminal can communicate new requirements to their respective collection platforms via their respective interactive data links. See Step 3, Task or Request Collection, for details on dynamic tasking.
In some cases, new collection tasking is not the most efficient approach to intelligence requirement resolution. Exploitation management allows you to "piggyback" on existing collection by tasking your processors to "pull" in the appropriate image or signals. For example:
A JTF requires multiple images of Shalimar Industrial Complex to determine activity levels and defensive posture. The supporting JIC knows that Shalimar is a daily Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) target of interest (TAI) and tasks the IMINT processor to ensure priority receipt and exploitation of all frames covering the complex.
The JIC does not generate a new collection requirement; it uses the exploitation system to acquire intelligence already available as a result of ongoing missions, saving considerable time and energy. Simultaneously, the JIC submits a time-sensitive collection requirement for screening and debriefing individuals knowledgeable of the facility.
Similarly, a brigade S2 who knows that the division is conducting UAV flights within his AI may tap into the downlink on his own GSM at those times it operates over his NAIs.
Collection managers with access to these processors and terminals must establish pertinence filters to ensure the images or data received are of value to their commanders and analysts. Indiscriminate "pulling" from these systems can overload your analysts with too much irrelevant intelligence to process effectively.
Key to collection strategy development are cueing, redundancy, mix, and integration.
Cueing involves the use of one or more sensor systems to provide data that directs collection by other systems. For example, sweeping the battlefield electronically with wide-area surveillance systems reveals activity that triggers direct collection by a more accurate, pinpoint sensor system. Cueing maximizes the efficient use of finite collection assets in support of multiple, often competing, intelligence collection priorities.
Plan to create opportunities for cued collection as part of your strategy. For example, you plan to use a low-level HUMINT source 24 hours prior to UAV launch to confirm or deny activity along a key corridor.
If the HUMINT source reports the absence of activity; you may redirect the UAV to another mission or use it to confirm the absence of activity, depending on the relative priority of requirements.
If the HUMINT source reports significant activity earlier than anticipated, you may accelerate the UAV launch sequence to collect supporting detail or, instead, retask it to another collection mission.
Cueing can also occur dynamically (outside the collection strategy) as one system or echelon tips the other off to an unexpected collection opportunity.
IEW collection systems also cue BOSs. For example:
These examples further illustrate the need for synchronization among the BOS and for the collection manager's active participation in the wargaming process. (See Step 1, Develop Requirements.)
Redundancy planning as part of collection strategy development involves the use of several same-discipline assets to cover the same target. Use redundant tasking against high priority targets when the probability of success by any one system is low. For example, if you focus several SIGINT collectors on a designated emitter at different times, the probability of intercept improves, even if the emitter operates intermittently. The chance of accurate geolocation is also improved through the use of redundant collection strategies.
Mix means planning for complementary coverage by a combination of assets from multiple disciplines. Sensor mix increases the probability of collection, reduces the risk of successful enemy deception, can facilitate cueing, and provides more complete reporting. For example, scouts report resupply activity within a known assembly area; SIGINT intercept of the associated logistics net provides unit identity, subordination, and indications of future activity.
Integration is the resource management aspect of collection strategy development. Barring a decision to use redundant coverage for a critical target, attempt to integrate new requirements into planned or ongoing missions. Integration also helps avoid the common problem of under-tasking very capable collectors. Examples of resource integration include--
After selecting the resources, execute the next step in the strategy:
Synchronize Collection to Requirements: The RM function develops SIR sets from the consolidated, validated, and prioritized list of PIR and IR. The mission management function uses SIRs to complete the collection strategy by associating each requirement and its corresponding decision points and timelines. Match each SIR against the intelligence requirement that it supports to ensure that you fully understand the requirement. Starting at the point in time that the commander requires intelligence to effect a decision, backward plan to account for dissemination, analysis, processing, collection, and tasking time.
An effective tool used to link and synchronize the collection strategy with the expected flow of the operation it supports is the ISM (see Figure 3-4). In addition to the LTIOV, determined by the prioritized requirements and associated decision criteria, the matrix records NAIs from the event template and reflects timelines of expected enemy activity from the event template and the event matrix. The intelligence synchronization matrix provides the basic structure for the more detailed collection plan, which reflects the SOR assigned to selected collectors for each intelligence requirement.
Develop SOR Sets:
- SIR 1: Will more than 17 reconnaissance vehicles subordinate to the 3d Tank Division or its regiments pass through NAI 8 or NAI 9 between 041800 and 052000 March?
- SOR 1A: Report the presence of reconnaissance vehicles in NAI 8 and NAI 9 between 041800 and 052000 March. Specify direction of movement and numbers and types of vehicles. LTIOV: 060400 March.
- SOR 1B: Report the presence of communications nodes associated with reconnaissance elements of the 3d Tank Division or its subordinate regiments in NAI 8 or NAI 9 between 041800 and 052000 March. LTIOV: 060400 March.
The development of detailed SIR during the RM function helps develop SOR sets during the MM function. You can easily translate a well written SIR into an effective SOR by making a directive vice inquisitive statement. Tailor the reporting criteria to the collection capabilities of the asset tasked. For example:
Be specific; however, avoid overly restrictive reporting guidelines. Allow your collectors the latitude to provide information you and the analysts had not anticipated. Emphasis or amplification tasking supplies the specifics required without artificially restricting collector capability (see Figure 3-4).
Tailor the SOR to the selected collection system or organization. For example, some imaging systems require a basic encyclopedia (BE) number rather than a geographic or universal transverse mercator (UTM) coordinate for target location. Most Air Force airborne collection platforms recognize geographic coordinates only. HUMINT collectors need to have specific timeliness, reporting, and dissemination guidance. If your SOR are specific enough, they can roll over into the actual tasking or request mechanism or format.
Prioritize SORs for Collection Assets:
Collection plans are complex, with multiple requirements and collection assets. Each asset may have several SOR to which it must respond.
For example, Corps requests TRACKWOLF support to target high frequency (HF) communications associated with three deployed Army headquarters. You require DF locational data for each headquarters. You need to prioritize which headquarters is most important (perhaps a center of gravity?) according to the Corps operational concept.
Prioritization affects reporting as well as collection procedures. To avoid the "first in, first out" approach to reporting, especially if communications paths are limited, specify which answers need to be transmitted first regardless of when they were received.
Step 3. Task or Request Collection
What is it?
Implementation of the collection plan through execution of system-specific tasking or request mechanisms.
The collection manager uses the multiple assets tasking message (MATM) format for IMINT taskings to pass immediate tasking to the analysis and control element's (ACE's) remote Joint STARS GSM.
Desired End Effect:
The collector receives properly formatted tasking with all necessary data fields and executes the mission.
Success Results in:
Tasking that makes immediate sense to the collector.
Consequences of Failure:
Loss of synchronization due to unnecessary delay in processing the task for collection. At worst, you miss the tasking timeline for an EAC airborne sensor or your requirement is rejected outright.
Collector focuses on the wrong priorities through misunderstanding.
How to do it:
Determine Tasking or Request Mechanism:
There are various tasking documents used to levy intelligence requirements on collection agencies. Some tasking mechanisms are theater or system unique. The J-TENS and various Defense Intelligence Agency Manuals (DIAMs) specify procedures and formats for requesting support from EAC and national systems or agencies.
JCS Publication 6-04 establishes request and response formats, such as requests for information (RI) and response to a request for information (RRI). The IEW Character-Oriented Message Catalog (COMCAT) contains the MATAM and Exploitation Requirement (ER) among other standard formats.
The intelligence annex to the operations order (OPORD) is a standardized tasking vehicle at echelons corps and below (ECB). Paragraph 3 of the intelligence annex, Intelligence Acquisition Tasks, implements the collection plan. It contains a complete list of current orders and RI. Use an appendix to the annex to relay lengthy intelligence tasking orders and requests. At brigade or battalion levels this appendix often takes the form of R&S overlays and plans.
Another effective technique is to coordinate with the G3 or S3 to list specific orders for the collection of intelligence in paragraph 3, Execution, of the command's OPORD. Supporting details are then included in the intelligence annex and additional appendixes, as required.
The intelligence annex to joint operations plans (OPLANs) contains paragraphs for collection tasks directed to each intelligence discipline. These paragraphs also provide guidance for reporting and dissemination of intelligence. Additionally, there are separate appendixes for SIGINT, counterintelligence (CI), and HUMINT operations.
Determination of the most efficient task or request mechanism depends upon system or agency requirements (some collectors will only recognize and react to one format) and the urgency of the task. For example, you may issue immediate tasking in response to a cue via voice. Quick reaction capability missions often launch with only telephonic tasking from the collection manager; fragmentary orders (FRAGOs) over the radio often redirect the scout platoon to new or changed missions.
Execute and Implement:
The tasking process provides the selected unit with a specific, prioritized requirement. Planning and conduct of the collection operation fall within the AM functional area of responsibility (AOR). Following the appropriate tasking chains established by unit standing operating procedures (SOPs) or "how-to" manuals (J-TENS) limits the confusion caused by duplicate or misrouted tasking.
At the joint level, in addition to system or agency specific tasking (an SOR developed for a specific collector), the theater J2 issues a statement of intelligence interest (SII) for all theater units. The SII provides the "collection intent" for a specified period of time, ensuring collective comprehension of collection priorities in support of theater operations. SII update is the first function of joint-level collection RM.
In addition to SII, division and corps collection managers use the collection emphasis message (see Figure 3-5). It is the IEW synchronization matrix in narrative format. You can broadcast your collection strategy to higher, lower, and adjacent units; collectors; and exploiters in addition to providing SORs.
The primary benefit of communicating "collection intent" is the "big picture" perspective it provides organizations which may be otherwise isolated from your planning process. An informed collector can often amplify reporting to provide an answer that goes beyond the immediate question. While the report stops short of analysis, it refines raw information and may facilitate cueing.
Related to cueing is dynamic retasking. The ISOS technological revolution continues to develop and field collection systems that truly report in NRT. Joint STARS, UAV, Guardrail Common Sensor (GRCS), and ASARS with their respective terminals (GSM, intelligence. processing facility [IPF], TRAC) bring the battle home fast enough to effect new collection operations almost simultaneously.
Interactive data links make these systems and their capabilities immediately available to the collection manager. Dynamic retasking may include new flight orbits or tracks in addition to new requirements and coverage areas; this requires coordination with the airspace manager as well as the asset manager. The following scenario illustrates dynamic retasking:
The PARPRO schedule calls for a Corps GRCS mission and theater U2 flight. GRCS aircraft flying in a northern orbit report intercept of regimental units preparing to conduct a river-crossing in a major training area. River-crossing operations are a high priority on the SII. The IPF notifies the corps collection manager.
The collection manager contacts TRAC to check status of the U2 mission. It is currently flying the southern loop of its track and reporting minimal activity. The collection manager coordinates with the theater's collection manager to arrange retasting of the U2. The theater collection manager directs TRAC to implement an adjusted navigation plan to optimize both SIGINT and ASARS coverage of the river-crossing site.
TRAC passes the new navigation plan and adjusted ASARS target deck to the U2 via its datalink. Within minutes of receipt, the aircraft is on the new, northern track collecting against the target area. Increased SIGINT collection and ASARS images of pontoon bridging operations combine to give the corps (and other intelligence users in theater) exceptional coverage of a priority collection requirement.
While modern technology offers greater opportunities for dynamic retasking, it also offers problems in delineating the exact limits of the CM functions. Using a Joint STARS GSM example, the CM directly tasks through the GSM remote workstation in the ACE. The GSM directly interfaces with the airborne platform via the surveillance and control data link. His corps has Radar Service Request priority, giving him the ability to direct the radar coverage of the Joint STARS, blurring the distinction between MM and AM. In most cases, however, you task or direct collection requirements to an agency or military command with AM authority rather than to a specific collector. Within the corps and division ACE, the MI brigade or battalion retains AM authority.
Collect and Exploit:
This final sub-function of Step 3, Task or Request Collection, belongs to the asset manager for planning purposes and to the collection and exploitation systems themselves for execution. The final result is the production of information and intelligence that leads to the sat is faction of the initial intelligence requirements.
In addition to providing reports on the results of their collection operations, asset managers report on the status and availability of their collection systems. This ensures that the collection manager is able to make efficient use of the command's intelligence collection capabilities as he continually updates and refines the collection plan.
The echelon manuals (FMs 34-10, 34-25, and 34-80) address MI operations in detail. System handbooks and TTP manuals cover the "how to" aspect of collection and exploitation.
What Is It?
The delivery of intelligence information to users who need it.
While writing an SOR to support the division's targeting plan, the mission manager specifies direct dissemination of results to the FSE and targeting cell.
The collection manager receives two messages from the division's MI battalion.
The first is an information copy of a direct response to an SOR. The collection manager notes that the information has already been sent directly to the original requestor. While closing out the requirement in his journal, the collection manager checks to determine if the report will satisfy any other open requests. Discovering that the report will partially satisfy an unrelated request by the 1st Brigade, the collection manager coordinates a retransmission of the report to the 1st Brigade.
Although not in direct response to an SOR, the second report satisfies a recently received request for intelligence from the aviation battalion. Since the report's classification level exceeds the classification level of the aviation battalion's communication system, the collect ion manager sanitizes the report and, after coordinating release with the special security officer (SSO), arranges for its transmission to the aviation battalion.
Desired End Effect:
Intelligence flows directly from collectors and processors to requesters.
All intelligence users receive, in a timely manner, the same information they would "pull" if they had the time and resources to inspect all incoming information.
Success Results in:
Any unit that might act or consider acting upon a piece of information will have the opportunity to do so.
The collection manager is sure that all units to whom the information was passed actually received it.
Consequences of Failure:
Information will "stovepipe" into individual intelligence data bases. Units that would otherwise act upon the information will not be aware of its existence.
Information not relevant to a command's intelligence needs will slow the processing and dissemination of more critical information.
How to Do it:
Arrange for Direct Dissemination:
Getting intelligence to the requester as soon as possible is key to successful CM operations. Whenever possible, write into the SOR the requirement for direct dissemination of intelligence to the original requester. Include the required coordinating information such as call signs, frequencies, and routing addresses.
Direct dissemination is especially important for intelligence that supports targeting efforts. Whenever possible, arrange for direct dissemination of targeting intelligence to the FSE and targeting cells.
Even with direct dissemination, you must arrange a system that allows you to track the status of each request. Information copies of reports already provided directly to the original requester is one technique.
Sometimes direct dissemination is impossible due to communications system limitations or the classification level of the intelligence. Using the steps which follow below, arrange for dissemination that is as direct as possible. Since information already disseminated directly to requestors can often satisfy other requests, also apply the following procedures to "information copies."
- If an intelligence user failed to anticipate the event the intelligence indicates.
- If the user would have established a DP based on that intelligence, had he anticipated it.
- If the intelligence will cause the user to modify a COA, or select a branch or sequel to a COA.
Determining the time sensitivity of each report allows you to make decisions about the best means of dissemination. Evaluating perishability requires you to stay abreast of the current and developing situation. Continuous coordination is essential with the ASPS, the targeting cell, and the operations staff.
Check the report against outstanding requirements to determine who requested the information. Ideally, this information is included in the report by way of a cross-reference to the SOR that generated the collection.
Check to determine if the report satisfies, completely or partially, the requirements of other users. Often a report contains information that helps to satisfy other requests. Since the collector is usually unaware of the needs of other users, he is not likely to disseminate information to anyone not specified in the original SOR. Establishing a cross-reference system for each SOR early in the requirements development process helps identify requirements that support each other in this manner.
Another technique is to conduct "hindsight wargaming. " This technique is useful when determining the recipients of "unanticipated" intelligence. In this technique, the collection manager determines--
Ask yourself the following questions:
Does this information indicate an unexpected threat to a friendly unit?
Does this information indicate an unexpected opportunity for a friendly unit?
To do this well, acquire and understand the commander's intent and attack guidance for all units you support. Acquire the HPT lists and attack plans (schedules of fire, air tasking order) for attack systems. Rely on the senior analysts and those involved in staff wargaming and decision making to assist in these decisions.
Determine How Much to Disseminate:
After determining WHO to send each report to, determine HOW MUCH of the report each user requires.
First, make sure that compartmented information is not disseminated to users who are only authorized collateral information. Legal restrictions may also prohibit the dissemination of information to allied or coalition forces. This is especially true during operations other than war where political considerations may dominate collection operations.
Today's automation and communications technology will tempt you to try to send everything to everybody; resist the temptation. Competition for a limited number of communications trunks will force you to prioritize the dissemination schedule anyway. Additionally, pertinence filters at other headquarters will eliminate those elements of information that you should not have sent in the first place.
To determine how much information to send to each user, employ the same analytical techniques described above in "Identify Users." Evaluate each element of reported information against the decisions, requirements, and supporting SIRs and SORs for the identified consumer. Disseminate each "block" of intelligence accordingly.
Identify Media for Dissemination:
Voice, Graphics, and Text Dissemination: When disseminating relatively small amounts of information, use a combination of voice, graphics, and text deliveries. Each of these means has advantages and disadvantages:
Voice is most useful in situations where speed in the transmission of a small amount of information is critical. It obtains instant feedback and acknowledgement, allowing for resolution of misunderstandings or ambiguity. On the other hand, when passing large amounts of information, voice systems are slow and prone to error.
Graphics and Text dissemination is ideal for lengthy messages, but can sometimes make information too subtle, ambiguous, and confusing.
When there is an option, use the graphic solution for information on disposition, composition, and strength; use text for the other order of battle (OB) factors.
The optimal mix is to send the graphics or text immediately with a notice that a follow-up voice conference will follow. This allows for verification of receipt and gives an opportunity for recipients to resolve any questions or ambiguities.
Data Base Handling:
Automated data bases are ideal for handling large amounts of data. While the collection manager rarely manages the data base, he will have complete access to it via a local area network (LAN).
This enables you to transfer incoming digital information straight into the data base, thus ensuring instant dissemination within the command's intelligence section.
The LAN also enables you to immediately satisfy some intelligence requests. Recall that during the Develop Requirements step, the requirements manager checks immediately available data bases before sending SIRs to the mission manager. The LAN enables the requirements manager to conduct instant checks of the local data base. For example:
Early in the CM process a division requirements manager receives for "... the latest location of the 3d Infanry Regiment." The requirements manager uses the LAN to acquire this information from the ACE's data base and send it to the requesting unit. The whole process takes seconds, and the collection manager does not have to disrupt ongoing analysis in the ASPS with a request for factual data already contained in the data base.
Handle simple requests of the data base, and refer more complex requests to the data base manager. For example, if a brigade wanted to merge or replace large portions of its data base with the division's data base, refer the brigade to the data base manager.
Techniques: For voice communications, use a radio net call or a conference call to transmit broadcast or limited broadcast items. Point-to-point communication is best for single distribution items.
Deal with graphics and text dissemination as per voice communications. The distribution list determines whether you use broadcast, limited broadcast, or point-to-point techniques.
First try to disseminate graphics and text using file transfers between two automated systems using normal communications trunks between moderns. Failing this, try a facsimile transmission.
Considerations: Use the precedence coding system (for example, FLASH, PRIORITY) but be careful not to deflate the value of the highest precedence codes.
Ensure that the entire section is proficient in terms of operating automated systems and familiarity with message formats.
Answer questions about accuracy, source, and completeness that arise during dissemination. However, defer requests for the significance of intelligence to the ASPS.
When disseminating information, "push" items of essential information to concerned users and make them aware of what else is available. This enables users to "pull" additional information from the CM system.
Develop Audit Trail: You must know who has received what information. This optimizes dissemination by ensuring that everyone who requires information actually receives it. It is not uncommon for a concerned user not to receive information, even though the requirements manager arranged for direct dissemination and the collector has sent the information. This problem arises due to reasons such as missed broadcasts and incorrect call signs.
Audit trails further optimize dissemination by ensuring that concerned users receive each report only once. It is not uncommon for a user to receive the same report multiple times. Often this leads to false "confirmation" of a report which is only "confirming" itself.
A common technique is to provide spaces on the collection plan for "messages received that satisfy this SOR:" and "messages sent to:". This enables the requirements manager to record directly onto the collection plan. A disadvantage to this technique is that it is difficult to track messages chronologically (for example, "give me all the messages that came in yesterday morning").
Another technique is to develop a matrix separate from the collection plan, with "time received" and "sent to" on one axis, and "SORs" on the other axis. Another technique is to annotate the dissemination list directly into the Remarks section of each message.
A collection and dissemination journal is a simple technique to track who has seen what messages. A disadvantage of this technique is that, without automation, it is difficult to efficiently link journal entries to the requirements numbering system.
This is an area where automation is especially useful. Relational data bases and automated journals allow complete and thorough cross-indexing, solving many of the problems collection managers usually experience in relating requirements to reports and tracking dissemination.
What Is It?
Determines how well the system is satisfying the command's intelligence requirements.
- Report #1 satisfies an SOR. He relieves the MI Brigade (the asset manager) from any further responsibility for that SOR.
- Report #2 only partially satisfies an SOR. He notifies the MI Brigade S3 that the SOR is still outstanding, and explains why.
- The Aerial Exploitation Battalion is 30 minutes away from missing an SOR suspense required to support a critical PIR. He discusses the issue with the MI Brigade S3, who assures him that the SOR will be satisfied on time.
A requirements manager in a corps ACE receives two reports from the Aerial Exploitation Battalion. He determines that--
Desired End Effect:
All SORs are fully satisfied in a timely manner, keeping the intelligence system fully synchronized.
The collection manager knows the status of each requirement.
Success Results in:
Analysts receive enough information to solve intelligence requirements in a timely manner. This enables them to deliver intelligence that supports the commander's decisions in time to keep the operation synchronized.
Consequences of Failure:
Asset managers will think they satisfied an SOR when they have not.
Analysts will be waiting for information that will not come, denying or delaying intelligence the commander needs.
Analysts will have to support the commander's decisions with their best guess rather than with confirmed intelligence.
How to Do it:
Monitor and Maintain Synchronization:
Track the flow of the operation against the intelligence synchronization matrix. Prompt asset managers and collectors, as necessary, to keep their reporting synchronized with the operation and the commander's needs.
The operation will seldom progress on the timelines assumed during planning and staff wargaming. Watch for changes in tempo that require changes in reporting times (LTIOV). Coordinate any changes with all parties concerned, especially the asset managers.
It is also very likely that the staff's assumptions about threat COAs will not prove entirely correct. The usual result is a change in intelligence requirements as well as adjustments to the time lines. The staff usually initiates abbreviated versions of the IPB and decision making processes to accommodate the changes in their assumptions. Be prepared to update collection planning as a result.
Not all intelligence will flow through you; many collectors will report directly to users such as FSEs. Monitoring synchronization and evaluating reporting require you to establish some system to evaluate all reports, including those that go directly from the collector to the user. Set up a system that allows you to monitor synchronization and evaluate how well the intelligence system is meeting requirements without unduly delaying intelligence dissemination.
Correlate Reports to Requirements:
- Large volumes of information will flood the CM section. The requirements manager may have trouble finding the time to correlate each report.
- Most reports will only partially satisfy a number of SORs, while other reports may have nothing to do with the tasked SOR.
- Collectors may report information without referring to the original SOR that drove their collection.
- Some assets may assign their own internal numbering system which the requirements manager might confuse with the SOR and requirements numbering system.
- Match the locations on the report to the event template. The report locations will naturally appear in or near the NAIs for the concerned SOR.
- Develop key-word, key-name lists, and key-indicator lists that quickly index key elements of a report to the appropriate SOR. For example, "all reports about the 27th Regiment refer to SOR 7-y-4 or 5-a-2."
Identify the original SOR and requirement that the reported information satisfies. This allows you to determine which SORs have been satisfied and which require more collection.
This is difficult to perform since--
During the development of requirements, develop a numbering system that enables you to conduct quick audit trails linking requirements to SORs. For example, "SOR 8-h-2" might be the second SOR developed for "SIR-h" of "IR-8." Remember that all intelligence requirements should already be linked one-for-one to operational decisions.
Insist that asset managers tag all of their reports with the numbers of the SORs they satisfy.
If an asset establishes its own numbering system, insist that reports provide a key that relates the reporting asset's internal numbers to the SOR number.
Develop templates that will enable. you to quickly match incoming reports to outstanding SOR. For example:
- Pertinence: Does the information actually address the tasked SOR? If not, can you use this information to answer other requirements?
- Completeness: Is essential information missing? (Refer to the original SOR.)
- Timeliness: Has the collector reported by the LTIOV established in the original SOR?
- Opportunities for Cueing: Can this system or another system take advantage of the new information to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the overall collection effort?
After reports have been correlated and tagged to the appropriate SOR, determine whether the SOR has been satisfied. Screen each report for--
If the report fully satisfies the SOR, make the appropriate entry in the audit trail or register of intelligence requirements and disseminate the final intelligence to the requestor. Coordinate with the requestor to ensure that the requestor also considers the requirement satisfied.
If the report only partially satisfies the SOR, annotate in the audit trail or registers what has been accomplished and what remains to be done.
If the report suggests an opportunity to cue other assets, take immediate action to do so and record any new requirements into the collection plan and audit trail.
Pay particular attention to reports that state simply "nothing significant to report." Sometimes these reports intend to report that collection occurred and that no activity satisfying the SOR was observed. This may be a significant indicator in itself. On the other hand, "nothing significant to report" may indicate collection did not occur. This has a different significance, particularly to the collection manager, and is by no means a reliable indicator of the absence of activity.
Provide Feedback to Collectors and Exploiters:
- For fully satisfied SORs, relieve the asset managers of further responsibility to collect against the SOR.
- For partially satisfied SORs, notify the asset managers that the SORs remain outstanding, explaining what remains to be done.
- Notify asset managers of new SORs designed to exploit cueing opportunities.
After determining how well the reported information satisfies SORs, inform the asset managers of the concerned collectors and exploiters.
Step 6. Update Collection Planning
What Is It?
The adjustment of the overall collection plan to keep intelligence synchronized and optimize collection and exploitation capability as the current situation changes.
An analyst notifies the requirements manager that the ASPS solved IR-12 through analysis of previously submitted SORs.
When the requirements manager reviews the collection plan, he sees that he already relieved collectors of three SORs associated with IR-12. However, five SORs remain outstanding with corps and the division's MI Battalion. The requirements manager relieves the MI Battalion from their two SORs and withdraws the other three SORs from the division's request list at corps.
While updating himself on the current situation, the requirements manager notices that the operation appears to be progressing more rapidly than anticipated. He confers with the ASPS and G2/G3 Operations and determines that he will have to update the LTIOV for several of his SORs in order to keep the intelligence system synchronized with the operation. He coordinates with the ASPS to make the needed changes to the event templates and matrices and then uses them as a basis for changing outstanding SORs.
Desired End Effect:
SORs are updated to keep intelligence synchronized with the operation. Collectors and exploiters work only on SORs for unsatisfied requirements.
Success Results In:
- Collection assets are optimized to current requirements; the number of satisfied requirements increase.
- Collection activity is kept synchronized as operations and requirements shift.
- Across the board, commanders make better informed decisions.
Consequences of Failure:
Asset managers waste resources collecting information that will not influence the course of the battle.
How to Do it:
Eliminate Satisfied Requirements:
- The ASPS and G2 plans section for intelligence requirements.
- Senior, subordinate, and adjacent commands for their SORs.
During the "Evaluate Reporting" step of the CM process you eliminate SORs that have been satisfied. In this step, eliminate SORs that are overtaken by events, even if unsatisfied. This requires continuous coordination with the agency that generated the original requirement. For example, a division requirements manager would coordinate with--
When the originating agency declares an SOR satisfied, eliminate the requirement from the collection plan and update any other logs and records.
Redirect Assets to Unsatisfied Requirements:
- Second and third priority requirements designated for economy of force efforts when you developed the original collection strategies and plan.
- Requirements that require more collection effort than originally planned for.
- Assets that are not performing to the capability originally evaluated (for example, the enemy destroys a system).
- The likelihood of an agency's submitting new requirements prior to the completion of the redirected taskings.
- The likely priority of the new requirements relative to those remaining unsatisfied.
- The ability of available collection systems to respond to new taskings while working on redirected taskings.
Requirements can be satisfied by the collector to which they were tasked or as a result of collection success elsewhere on the battlefield. Hence, for limited times, an asset manager may have collection capability in excess of his taskings. The purpose of this step is to make best use of this "excess" capability.
After eliminating satisfied requirements from the collection plan, reevaluate each collection asset for excess capability. Focus the excess collection capability on the most important of the remaining unsatisfied requirements. This enables you to compensate for--
When redirecting assets, consider--
In general, minimize excess capability and maximize support to the most important requirements--new or old.
Cue Assets to Collection Opportunities:
Recall that in previous steps the requirements manager looked to create and exploit cueing opportunities. This is where the requirements manager and mission manager redirected an asset not because of excess capability, but as the result of cross-cueing or because of the opportunity that an intelligence report might generate.
The requirements manager and mission manager execute the same procedure at this stage in the process. The primary difference is that they are now responding to results of analysis, rather than combat information.
When the requirements manager receives the results of analysis, he consults the mission manager. The mission manager reevaluates his original collection strategy based upon the new intelligence. In particular, he looks for opportunities to improve collection strategies, Once identified, the mission manager retasks collection assets appropriately. For example:
A division ASPS informs the collection management and dissemination (CM&D) section that they have unexpectedly deduced the location of a second echelon regiment's CP (to within 1,000 meters) through analysis of Joint STARS moving target indicators and synthetic aperture radar imagery.
The mission manager's original strategy for locating this headquarters was to use Guardrail Common Sensor.
Since this CP is a critical HPT, the mission manager focuses on refining the locational accuracy to meet target selection standards. He evaluates the likelihood of the Guardrail Common Sensor providing more accurate locational data against the capabilities of other systems.
He decides to divert an ongoing UAV mission from a lower priority requirement to conduct reconnaissance on the 1,000 meter circle that the ASPS identified. He issues the necessary orders to the asset manager and then helps coordinate the changed flight track with the division's airspace manager.
After the UAV identifies the precise location of the CP, the mission manager withdraws the corresponding SOR from the corps requirements manager. The corps mission manager then relieves the MI Brigade (as the asset manager) of the SOR, making them available for additional taskings.
Cueing opportunities, whether prompted through combat information or analysis, allow you to satisfy requirements more efficiently than previously planned through collection strategies.
The timelines associated with each decision point, which are used as the basis for establishing the LTIOV, are only estimates. As planning or execution of the command's COA progress, these estimated timelines are refined. You must stay alert to the need for changes in the collection plan that result from these refinements. These are usually changes to the LTIOV but sometimes also involve other changes.
As the need for changes becomes apparent, coordinate with the ASPS and G2 sections to update the IPB products needed to refine the collection plan. Depending on the situation, this may be as simple as updating the timelines on the situation templates, event templates, and event mat rices. It may also require that these products be completely redone.
Add New Requirements:
As planning or execution of a COA evolves and as the threat situation develops, commanders will generate new intelligence requirements. This prompts the re-initiation of the CM process.
Prioritize the new requirements against the old rather than simply adding them to the existing list. Do not simply discount previous requirements; some may still be valid.
Reinitiate the CM process, consolidating new requirements with existing requirements which remain valid.
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