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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)



AGNI- II is a two stage, all solid motor missile having a range of about 2000 km with a payload weight of one tonne. Authorization for the development of the longer range Agni-II was given by the BJP-led coalition government in March 1998. The Agni-II uses a solid propellant second stage replacing the liquid propellant Prithvi short range missile used as upper stage of the Agni-TD [Technology Demonstrator]. It can be launched within 15 minutes as compared to almost half a day of preparation for the earlier version of the Agni.

Another major development is a highly mobile platform for it to be transported secretly by rail or road anywhere in the country. The far more accurate terminal navigation and guidance system that the Agni II incorporates, which constantly updates information about the missile flight path using ground-based beacons, improved accuracy by a factor of at least three over that of the Agni-I.

On 11 April 1999 India successfully test-fired the Agni-II ballistic missile, with a range of 2000-km. The missile was launched from the IC-4 pad at Wheeler Island, a new launch site on the Orissa coast in Balasore district. Splashdown was 2,000-2,100 km. (1,250 mi.) down range in the Bay of Bengal, on a trajectory designed to simulate a range of 2800-3000km. The test had been in preparation since January 1999, but India delayed it in the hope of extracting concessions from the US. Pakistan responded on 14 April 1999 with a test firing of its Ghauri II missile from the Jhelum region in northeast Pakistan.

After the successful Agni-II test, Indian Defense Minister George Fernandes said the Agni missile was ready to go into production, though he didn't specify the production or deployment schedule. The cost of the Agni missiles is estimated at Rs. 20-35 crores [$4.5 million to $8 million] per copy. It was anticipated that India may deploy several dozen of these missiles. Agni-2 has a theoretical ability to hit a target 3000km away with a 1000kg payload, and it is suggested that- a 200 kiloton 'boosted-fission' warhead has been designed for the Agni system. Should this be reduced to a 15-20 kiloton system, the payload could be reduced to as little as 250kg.

On 17 January 2001 India successfully test-fired an enhanced version of its intermediate-range Agni II ballistic missile, in the final operational configuration, from its eastern coast. It was the second test of the upgraded version of the original Agni, a two-stage, solid-fuel missile with a 1,250-mile range. With this launch of AGNI-II limited production of the missile commenced and its induction was planned during 2001-2002.

The Government decided 07 March 2001 to induct the Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile Agni-II after it achieved operationalisation stage with its successful second launch in January 2001. On 07 March 2001 the Rajya Sabha was informed that the production of the longer-range Agni II missiles, and the intermediate range missiles, would begin in 2001. Defence minister George Fernandes said the missile, with a range over 2,000 km, would be configured to be used with any type of warhead. He said the second test firing of the missile recently had met all parameters and that the weapon was capable of carrying a payload of 1000 kg.

As of April 2001, the Government of India stated that, based on the technologies developed under Agni technology demonstrator project, Agni-II had been successfully developed, flight-tested and has entered into limited series production. At that time, the Agni-II missile was planned to be inducted into the Armed Forces during 2001-2002. This was stated by the External Affairs Minister, Mr Jaswant Singh in reply to a question by Mr Shankersinh Vaghela in Lok Sabha. On 31 May 2001 the External Affairs Minister, Mr. Jaswant Singh, said the production of Agni was expected to begin next year [ie, in 2002]. Speaking to MPs of the defence consultative committee, Mr. Singh said the Agni II, which has been successfully tested in April 1999 and January 2000, was ready for nuclear production.

Some of the systems developed by the DRDO that have either entered the production phase or were under production for delivery to the armed forces during 2002 were the AGNI-II missile. Agni missile system is under production and induction phase. This information was given by the Defence Minister Shri George Fernandes in a written reply to Shri PK Maheshwari in Rajya Sabha 05 March 2003.

In April 2002 it was reported that the 2,500km range Agni-II intermediate range ballistic missile (IRBM) had been inducted into a specially raised missile unit of the Indian army. Just how many would be produced by Bharat Danamics and Bharat Electronics was uncertain, though commentators had spoken of an arsenal of about 25 of these missiles.

The Third Flight test of Agni-II Missile was carried out successfully on 29th of August 2004. The launch of Agni-II from its rail mobile launcher met all the mission objectives including achieving the high accuracy in guiding the payload to the designated target at 1200 km range.

Agni II, the pride of India’s strategic arsenal, was launched successfully the morning of 30 September 2011 at 9:30 hrs from the Wheeler Island off the coast of Orissa. The launch was a hattrick after successful launches of Shourya and Prithivi-II, on 24 and 26 September, 2011 respectively. The successful launch once again proved reliability of the Medium Range Surface-to-Surface Missile.

The 2,000 km range missile, already inducted and part of Strategic Forces’ arsenal for strategic deterrence, was launched as a training exercise by the Armed Forces. The two stage missile, equipped with advanced high accuracy navigation system and guided by a novel scheme of state-of-the-art Command & Control System, was propelled by a solid rocket propellant system. The missile reached an apogee (peak altitude) of 220 km and hit the target.

The surface to surface 2000 km range Ballistic Missile AGNI-II was successfully flight tested 09 August 2012 for the Strategic Forces Command (SFC) from Wheeler’s Island in Bay of Bengal off Coast of Odisha. The two stage solid propellant AGNI-II launched as a part of regular strategic Forces Command (SFC) exercise as they reached the pre-designated target point in Bay of Bengal "within accuracy of few meters" according to the Press Information Bureau, Government of India Ministry of Defence. Two ships located near the target point have tracked the terminal phase of the vehicle and witnessed the final event. The Radars and Electro-Optical Tracking stations have tracked and monitored the vehicle and all the relevant parameters. All the systems, Propulsion, Control, Actuators, On-Board Computers, Missile Interface Units and the Navigation, Guidance systems functioned fully to the perfection and ensured the vehicle reached the target "within few meters of accuracy."

On 09 November 2014 the President of India, Shri Pranab Mukherjee congratulated DRDO on the successful test-firing of ‘Agni-II’ Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile. The previous Agni-II test launch was conducted on April 7, 2013 and was a success as well.

In a message to Dr. Avinash Chander, Scientific Advisor to Raksha Mantri and Secretary, Department of Defence Research & Development, the President has said, "I extend my heartiest congratulations to all those associated with the successful test-firing of ‘Agni-II’ Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM). I hope this achievement will inspire our scientists and all Armed Forces and defence personnel to make even greater efforts to boost India’s indigenous defence capabilities in technologically challenging areas. The successful launches of Agni II from the static launcher demonstrated the indigenous re-entry technology for IRBMS/ICBMS available in country. For deployment of this long-range missile system, need for mobility was felt. The task of converting the mastered technology into an operational weapon system has resulted in development of launching platform to carry the missile. Rail mobile launcher platform is a 27m long special purpose wagon on broad gauge. It houses tilt beam, transportation support, mating, integration and erection support. It is capable of performing all the operations required at launch sites. A payload integration device has been provided to facilitate payload changing from conventional to nuclear and vice versa.

The technologies successfully demonstrated during the development of this launching platform are: rail mobility for IRBM class of missile, 6' verticality accuracy in both the planes, jet deflector to divert hot gases away from launcher tried successfully for the first time in the country, dynamic behaviour of launching platform for hot launch of IRBM class of missile, stiffness-based design of tilt beam and launching mechanism to suit the permissible deflection, hot launch concept for IRBM, first-stage support arm assembly for 15 ton compressive load.

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