Find a Security Clearance Job!


Patriot TMD Deployment

US troops began deploying in Turkey on January 05, 2013 to operate Patriot missile-launch batteries to defend against threats from the conflict in Turkey's neighbor Syria. German and Dutch soldiers were expected to start deploying to Turkey within days. The six Patriot batteries were scheduled to be operational by the end of January.

On 4 December 2012, NATO ministers of foreign affairs agreed to augment Turkey’s air defence capabilities by deploying Patriot missiles to the country. The situation along NATO's south-eastern border with respect to Syria, and the repeated violations of Turkey’s territory raise grave concern. Under the agreement, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United States would provide Patriot missile batteries, subject to their respective national procedures. It was announced 22 December 2012 that Germany would deploy its batteries to Kahramanmaras [Kahramanmaras Airport - 37°34'N Longitude 36°55'E], the Netherlands would deploy its batteries to Adana [Incirlik AB - 37°00'N 35°26'E ], and the United States would deploy its batteries to Gaziantep [Oguzeli Airport - 37°03'N 37°13'E . Once deployed, the systems would be under the operational command of NATO's Supreme Allied Commander in Europe (SACEUR).

The Dutch government approved the delivery of two Patriot missile batteries to Turkey to boost its air defenses along the border with Syria on December 8. The Dutch Cabinet said it would commit a maximum of 360 troops to operate the Patriot systems under a yearlong NATO mandate. The German government agreed to send two Patriot batteries and up to 400 troops to Turkey. On 14 December 2012 the US announced it would send two batteries of defensive Patriot missiles to Turkey. During a visit to a U.S. base in Turkey, Defense Secretary Leon Panetta said he is ordering the missiles and 400 military personnel be sent to Turkey. The Patriot missile units will be sent from Germany and the Netherlands.

In September 2014 Spain announced its intentions to deploy a Patriot missile battery to Turkey after the Netherlands ends their missile defense contribution to the area in January of 2015.

Japan 120 +16 PAC-3
Saudi Arabia96
United Arab Emirates+
The PATRIOT system is deployed worldwide in defense of U.S. forces and allied forces. The PAC-3 missile has been approved for Foreign Military Sales (FMS) to The Netherlands, Japan, Germany, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Taiwan.

The U.S. Army had two important Patriot initiatives underway in 2013 – “Pure Fleet” and “Grow the Army.” Pure Fleet involves upgrading all its tactical fire units to Configuration-3, Patriot’s most advanced version. And Grow the Army adds two battalions to the force structure, providing greater flexibility and more assets to meet air and missile defense requirements.

The original Patriot customers in the Middle East - Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and now the UAE, are investing in the PAC-3 upgrade program. New potential Patriot PAC-3 buyers as of 2012 included Qatar as well as Turkey, Poland and India. With over 200 fire units fielded worldwide, Patriot is a system of choice for 12 nations around the globe, including the U.S. and five NATO nations. Greece and Saudi Arabia are interested in upgrades or additional fire units, and Turkey, Qatar and Poland are interested in acquiring Patriot protection.

Country Date of SaleQuantityTotal Cost $M Memo
Taiwan10/12/20113861664.5 FMS Case TW-B-YYV, Amendment 4, ninety-six PAC-3 missile 4-packs, PAC-3 missile test 2 pack, ground support equipment, and spares.
United Arab Emirates11/20/20082921480.2 FMS Case AE-B-ZUG , seventy-two PAC-3 missile 4-packs, two PAC-3 missile test 2 packs, ground support equipment, and spares.
Germany11/21/20072587.1 FMS Case GY-B-WZC, six PAC-3 missile 4-packs, and one test missile.
Japan12/9/20041656.8 FMS Case JA-B-WYN, eight PAC-3 missile 2-packs.
Netherlands4/21/20043299.1 FMS Case NE-B-WBV, eight PAC-3 missile 4-packs.

By 2012, more than 60% of the work is sourced from overseas, including Saudi Arabia. A decade earlier, 60% of the Patriot system was produced in the US. As part of Raytheon’s upgrade modernisation program for Patriot, Ratheon actively sought investment from overseas. This $400 million program started in 2008 and includes a $160m development cost for new radars with 20% US funding and 80% and new missiles & launchers using 100% overseas funding, with the UAE contributing to this program.

The acquisition of Patriot missile batteries was seen as a non-starter for Poland. A RAND report costed out two acquisition options: 4 batteries and one HQ at $4.5-5 billion, or 12 batteries and 3 HQs at $13.5 billion. An "enhanced configuration" for the batteries (as originally requested in the Poles' "Annex 1") would raise cost by 50-60%. Option two could cost as much as $22.4 billion. In short, the costs would exceed Poland's military procurement budget for the next 8-10 years and preclude modernization in any other areas.

Poland announced 22 April 2015 it would buy Raytheon's Patriot missiles from the United States. "For the armed forces' technical modernization and the Polish armed forces' resilience to be effective, the so-called anti-missile shield… had to become the priority of priorities," said Polish President Bronislaw Komorowski. Poland will enter exclusive talks with the US government on the Patriot missile defense system. It planned to buy eight missile batteries by 2025, including two within three years of signing. A consortium of France's Thales and European group MBDA was also competing for the $5 billion missile defense contract — the largest in Poland's military history.

Each Fire Unit consists of up to 16 M901 Launching Stations with a total of 64 PAC-2 Missiles [or four times that number of PAC-3], along with an Antenna Mast Group, a Radar Set AN/MPQ-53 phased array, an Electric Power Plant, and an AN/MSQ-104 Engagement Control Station.

Each US Army Patriot battalion consists of four firing units [batteries] doctrinally armed with six launchers. Each launcher is either Patriot Advanced Capability (PAC)-2 capable or PAC-3 capable, the difference being in numberand type of missiles or interceptors that it can fire. PAC-3 launchers are capable of holding four PAC-3 pods, each of which holds four PAC-3 interceptors. PAC-2 launchers are capable of holding four PAC-2 pods, each of which holds one PAC-2 interceptor. In total, a battery fully armed with PAC-3 launchers and PAC-3 interceptors could ideally control a total of 96 interceptors, whereas a fully PAC-2 armed battery could control a total of 24 interceptors.

The annual operation and sustainment costs for a single US Army Patriot battalion are between $49 million and $54 million. The minimum would be $14.7 billion spread over 15 battalions is $980 million; $980 million divided over 20 years is $49 million annually. The maximum would be $16.2 billion spread over 15 battalions is $1.08 billion; $1.08 billion divided over 20 years is $54 million annually.

There were only nine PATRIOT battalions in the U.S. Army, and in the eighties, they were stationed either in the United States or in Germany. In 1990, although the PATRIOT had been developed as an antiaircraft rather than an anti-missile system, when Iraq invaded Kuwait and threatened Saudi Arabia, American PATRIOT units were deployed to the Arabian Peninsula to help protect allied nations and coalition forces from Iraqi SCUD missiles.

After the 1991 Gulf War, the PATRIOT missile system never left Southwest Asia (SWA). Units from Germany and the United States have been rotated to staff the PATRIOT systems in SWA. One year, two of the three units in Germany divide the assignment for six months temporary duty each. The next year, two of the units from the continental United States divide the mission for six months each. Thus, prior to the deployment of PATRIOTs to Korea, in any two-year period, four of our nine PATRIOT battalions each experienced a six-month period of deployment.

One of the units that had served in SWA was the 2nd Battalion (PATRIOT) 7th Air Defense Artillery Regiment (2-7 ADA). This unit had served in the Gulf War, and had rotated back to SWA from April to September 1993, and then scheduled to be stabilized at Fort Bliss Texas for two years. However, in April 1994, with little advance preparation, 2-7 ADA deployed for an unaccompanied six-month tour in Korea. After six months, it was replaced by 1-43 ADA, which was to be forward stationed in Korea, with soldiers serving in it for one year unaccompanied tours.

In February 1999 the Greek MoD ordered three Patriot PAC-3 batteries for the replacment of the overaged Nike/Hercules Air Defence system. The new PAC-3 will equip the Hellenic Air Force 350 Tactical Missile Wing. Meanwhile three PAC-2 batteries (ex US Army) were delivered in October 1999.

In November 2000, the Patriot office awarded its third Low Rate Initial Production contract with Lockheed Martin to produce an additional 40 PAC-3 missiles. The basic contract in December 1997 began with 20 missiles. Then the second LRIP came in two phases that included 32 missiles. At full rate production, the missiles are estimated to cost about $2 million each, with an expected inventory of about 800.

The Army received the first 16 PAC-3s -- a full launcher load -- in September 2001. A battalion stationed at Fort Bliss near El Paso got 16 Patriot Advanced Capability-3 missiles in late September 2001. The Army is authorized to produce the missiles at a rate of 72 a year, and Congress authorize an increase to 96 per year in fiscal 2003. The plan is to eventually produce 144 a year, leading to a total inventory of 1,159 interceptors. Unable to certify that the PAC-3 interceptor was ready for stepped-up production, in mid-2002 Pentagon put off the decision for at least a year, and planned on further testing once fixes are in place.

By early 2000 the cost of each PAC-3 missile had increased from $1.9 million to over $4 million, and the estimated total program cost had risen from $3.9 billion to $6.9 billion. After design and manufacturing modifications were initiated to control costs, the estimted cost per missile dropped to about $3 million, and as of mid-2002 program officials expected to reduce the unit cost to $2 million.

A single four-pack of PAC-3 Missiles, containing two PAC-3s and two missile simulators, was delivered to the U.S. Army at the end of May 2002. Lockheed Martin delivered the first Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) Missiles from its new production facility in Camden, Ark., on schedule and on budget. The first tactical PAC-3 Missile four-pack was delivered from Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control's Camden Operations in June 2002. The PAC-3 Missile Low-Rate Initial Production-1 (LRIP-1) contract called for the delivery of 32 PAC-3 Missiles, 11 Patriot Launcher Modification Kits and 18 Fire Solution Computers. Eight of the Launcher Modification Kits and all of the Fire Solution Computers on the LRIP-1 contract had already been delivered. The final missile delivery for LRIP-1 occured at the end of 2002. The Launcher Modification Kits and Fire Solution Computers are fabricated and assembled at the Missiles and Fire Control facility in Lufkin, Texas.

In August 2002 the US declared the PAC-3 combat-ready, and released to the field the 36 missiles built so far. Lockheed Martin builds the PAC-3 at its Missiles and Fire Control unit in Dallas. The company had four contracts to produce 164 missiles, including 72 for the fiscal year ending 30 September 2002. A fifth contract in October 2002 would be worth as much as $250 million for 72 more missiles. The Army was initially authorized to manufacture 72 missiles per year, but in 2003 Congress increased PAC-3 production to 96 missiles. The Army planned to build an inventory of 1,159 interceptors. Plans to purchase up to 1,300 missiles would be potentially worth about $2.5 billion.

In September 2002 Israel enhanced its air-defense system by deploying three additional Patriot Missile batteries: near Haifa in the north; near Gedera in central Israel; and near Eilat, at the southern tip. Reserve soldiers trained to operate the mobile missile batteries were called to duty on emergency orders.

As of late October 2002 the Army had taken delivery of 38 PAC-3 missiles, with another 15 due for delivery by December. The military was under contract to receive an additional 126 missiles over the 2003-2004 period. Congress increased the fiscal year 2003 budget request for PAC-3 of 72 missiles by an additional 48 missiles. In late November 2002, DOD approved plans to double PAC-3 monthly production rates, with the number of missiles increasing from four to eight per month after more manufacturing equipment and a second shift of personnel were added. DOD would acquire 108 PAC-3 missiles in FY 2004.

In early December 2002 Germany confirmed an offer to lend two Patriot missile batteries to Israel, Ha'aretz reported today. Officials planned to deliver the missiles within a few weeks, the German Defense Ministry said. "The historic and moral values of German obligate us to do this," German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder said. "The security of Israel and its citizens is very important to Germany."

In January 2003 Lockheed Martin received a contract for $341 million from the U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) for the production of the Patriot Advanced Capability (PAC-3) Missile. Under the contract, Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control will produce 88 PAC-3 Missiles plus other associated hardware. Production of all equipment will take place at the company's manufacturing facilities in Dallas and Lufkin, Texas, and the PAC-3 Missile All-Up Round facility in Camden, Ark.

In March 2003 Lockheed Martin received $100 million from the U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) to accelerate production of the Patriot Advanced Capability (PAC-3) Missile and to buy an additional 12 missiles in fiscal year 2003. The funding is in addition to a $341 million contract for 88 PAC-3 Missiles and associated hardware awarded to Lockheed Martin in December 2002. A total of 100 missiles will be procured in FY 2003. The acceleration effort will provide additional critical manpower and second-shift operations throughout the supplier chain, accelerate delivery of contracted materials and provide for additional test equipment. Missiles produced under the LRIP-2 and LRIP-3 contracts will now be delivered nine months ahead of the original schedule.

The overall procurement objective of 1,159 PAC-3 missiles remained unchanged. The larger purchases in FY-03 and FY-04 may be offset by lower production in FY-08 and FY-09. Instead of buying 216 missiles in each of those years, DOD would receive 184 units annually.

In September 2003 it was announced that 1-43 Air Defense Artillery Battalion (Patriot) had received new equipment to improve its current capability from the Patriot Advanced Capability-2 (PAC-2) to the Patriot Advanced Capability -3 (PAC-3) as a part of the Army's transformation and modernization program in support of the Theater Missile Defense Plan. The upgraded Patriot System will bring enhanced defensive capabilities to the peninsula as well as contribute to the overall deterrence US forces bring to the alliance. The PAC-3 provides for the enhanced defenses for Republic of Korea and U.S. forces and facilities.

PATRIOT battalions with PAC-3 fire units were employed in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) against TBMs. In OIF, PAC-3 interceptors were ripple-fired against ballistic missile threats, a user requirement that was not demonstrated during operational testing. This eliminated the need for a follow-on test to demonstrate this capability. All PATRIOT engagements were conducted in a complex operational environment. There were three instances of erroneous engagements between PATRIOT batteries and friendly aircraft. System performance against TBMs appeared to have been highly effective and consistent with expectations documented in DOT&E's beyond low-rate initial production report submitted to Congress in October 2002. PATRIOT performance during OIF was detailed in the classified FY03 BMDS annual report. In February 2004 Lockheed Martin received production contracts totaling $505 million for Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) Missiles and related support equipment. The contracts called for Lockheed Martin to produce a total of 159 PAC-3 Missiles, which includes 22 PAC-3 Missiles to replenish the Patriot missiles expended during Operation Iraqi Freedom. In addition to the 159 PAC-3 Missiles, the contracts call for production of additional PAC-3 Missile Segment ground equipment, including six Enhanced Launcher Electronics Systems (ELES) and nine Fire Solution Computers. The U.S. Army Aviation & Missile Command, Huntsville, Ala., is the contracting agency. Delivery of all equipment and missiles would be completed by April 2006.

In April 2004, the 35th Air Defense Brigade begun relocating from Fort Bliss, TX to South Korea. The move was reported to be complete as of late-November 2004. The Brigade was to be headquartered at Osab AB, while the unit's two missile batteries would be stationed at Kwanju Airbase. The unit deploywed with its complements of new Patriot PAC-3 missile batteries. The six batteries already stationed in South Korea, and equipped with PAC-1 or PAC-2 missiles were to remain in country and fall underh the 35th ADA Brigade.

In November 2004 there were no major issues during the Patriot PAC-3 Missile Segment Enhancement preliminary design review, which was followed by one more review, the critical design review, in late summer 2005. The U.S. Army planned to equip each U.S. Patriot fire unit with six PAC-2 and two PAC-3 launchers.

As the Patriot force converts entirely to PAC-3 (becomes pure fleeted), there are clear benefits. Benefits in logistics and training area are some of the most important. Pure fleeting overcomes the mixed-configuration burden of having to buy, stock and ship two separate repair parts inventories. The current mixed configuration of the fleet adversely impacts the training and expertise of Soldiers in repair military occupational specialties (MOS), a consideration when assigning the right personnel to repair each equipment configuration.

To remedy deficiencies identified in OIF and to support current operations, Congress has resourced nine capability upgrades, the final of which will began fielding to Patriot units in FY07. These remedies include upgraded air-to-ground communications, improved software affecting classification, identification, friend or foe (IFF) enhancements, Link-16 joint range extension, embedded data recorder replacement, radar shroud monitor, battery command post acceleration, upgrades to AMD training centers, and software-driven improvements in training scenarios to address spurious tracks and track correlation.

The Patriot recapitalization program improves operational capability by bringing existing Patriot assets to a "like-new" (zero-miles/zero-hours) state; thereby achieving OSD's Set the Force objectives and enabling the Army to meet future combatant commander requirements. The recapitalization program is planned and fully funded in FY07-10, and funding shortfalls for FY11-13 are being addressed by Headquarters, Department of the Army.

As of 2007 PAC-2 units were not deploying in support of rotations to replace units in Korea and other locations because they had not been trained or certified on PAC-3 and cannot "fall-in on" the PAC-3 units' equipment. To be eligible, PAC-2 units would have to train to standard on PAC-3 equipment before a rotation, requiring a minimum of four weeks of training (not including crew certifications to Tables V to VIII standards). That means PAC-2 units would have to borrow PAC-3 equipment for several months for conversion and deployment preparation training. This complex situation was further complicated by recent re-stationing and transformation efforts. The result is that some PAC-2 and Patriot-based AMD composite battalions (Patriot and Avenger mixed) are not collocated with PAC-3 units, limiting their access to PAC-3 equipment. Pure fleeting will resolve major logistical challenges and make all ADA battalions deployable and eligible for PAC-3 unit rotations.

In August 2007 Lockheed Martin recognized delivery of the 500th PAC-3 Missile to the U.S. Army during a celebration at the PAC-3 Missile production facility in Camden, AR. PAC-3 Missiles had been delivered and deployed around the world with U.S. forces and U.S. allies.

In October 2007 Lockheed Martin delivered the first PAC-3 Missiles to government and military representatives of The Netherlands in a ceremony held at its manufacturing facility in Camden, AR. The Netherlands became the "launch," or first international customer, to buy the PAC-3 Missile in 2005, when it purchased missiles through a Foreign Military Sales contract with the U.S. government. The Netherlands is the first international launch customer for the PAC-3 Missile.

In December 2007, Raytheon IDS received a $310 million U.S. Army contract to upgrade eight Patriot fire units to Patriot Advanced Configuration-3 (PAC-3) as part of the "Pure Fleet" modernization program. Pure Fleet is the result of the Army's decision in February 2006 to upgrade additional tactical Patriot fire units from Configuration-2 to Configuration-3. The upgrade is designed to enhance the system's capabilities to meet current and emerging threats. Work will be performed at Raytheon's Integrated Air Defense Center, Andover, Mass. This Pure Fleet contract followed an initial $150 million U.S. Army award to Raytheon earlier in 2007 to upgrade four Patriot fire units.

In January 2008 the NATO Medium Extended Air Defense System (MEADS) Management Agency awarded a $66 million contract to incorporate the Lockheed Martin PAC-3 Missile Segment Enhancement (MSE) Missile as the baseline interceptor for the tri-national program. The new interceptor increases the system's range and lethality over the baseline PAC-3 Missile, which was selected as the primary missile for MEADS when the design and development program began in 2004.

In January 2008 Lockheed Martin received contracts totaling $556 million from the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) for hardware and services associated with the combat-proven Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) Missile program. The contracts include production of 148 hit-to-kill PAC-3 Missiles, 17 launcher modification kits, spares and other equipment, as well as program management and engineering services. Production of all equipment will take place at Lockheed Martin manufacturing facilities in Dallas and Lufkin, TX, Chelmsford, MA, Ocala, FL, and the PAC-3 All-Up Round facility in Camden, AR. Deliveries on the contracts will be completed by July 2010. As part of these contracts, Lockheed Martin will be producing and delivering equipment to begin upgrading all U.S. Army Patriot fire units to the current Configuration-3 capability (two PAC-3 launchers per fire unit), allowing all fire units in the Patriot fleet to be capable of firing the PAC-3 Missile. This U.S. Army initiative, called "Pure Fleet," was launched in 2006 and will provide consistency across the fleet for the user anywhere Patriot is deployed or trained.

Japan has utilized the Patriot system and is a customer for the PAC-3 (Patriot Advanced Capability) upgrade in meeting its important air and missile defense priorities. The PAC-3 Missile will greatly increase the effectiveness of the Patriot system in intercepting tactical ballistic missiles, cruise missiles and other air breathing threats. PAC-3 missiles will be locally produced in Japan by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries.

The FY09 Army budget request of $512.1 million procured 108 PAC-3 missiles and 8 Electric Power Plants (EPP).

The Patriot force will complete re-organization in accordance with the Army G 3/5/7-approved January 2005 Force Design Update, which implements a force structure of thirteen Patriotbased battalions consisting of one headquarters battery and four ba ery battalions. Of these thirteen battalions, six will be composite AMD battalions (PAC-3 and Avenger), and seven will be pure Patriot battalions (four PAC-3 battalions and three PAC-2 battalions). While the Army National Guard will no longer possess Patriot force structure, the Compo I Patriot force will grow from 50 to 52 batteries/fire units in FY07. In 2006 only 40 of the 42 AC Patriot batteries were funded for upgrades to PAC-3, allowing for a mixed force of battalions with significantly different capabilities. The Chief of Staff of the Army approved a Pure Fleet Plan that would bring all 13 Patriot battalions to PAC-3 Configuration by the end of FY09.

The United States has significantly increased the deployment of missile defense systems, specifically Patriot and Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (Aegis-BMD), to the Persian Gulf. The increase from no missile defense assets in 2005 to two Patriot battalions spread across four Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries was specifically intended for Iran. According to published Department of Defense reviews and statements from United States officials, the increase in forward presence is intended to deter an Iranian regional missile attack and to assure GCC partners of the US resolve in the region. The BMD package was eight Patriot missile batteries [equaling two Patriot battalions], two in each of four countries - Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, and UAE] with a continuous augmentation of Aegis cruisers on patrol in the Persian Gulf.

The Japanese Defense Ministry planned to deploy Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) missiles in central Tokyo to shield the capital from potential attacks. The May 2014 plan was designed to beef up the capital's defenses against a possible ballistic missile attack from North Korea. The PAC-3 system would be deployed in the Ichigaya district in the Shinjuku ward as early as 2017. If Japan believed it is under attack from ballistic missiles, the self Defense Forces (SDF) would first of all order Aegis equipped destroyers to shoot them down from space using Standard Missile-3 interceptors. If they fail then the PAC-3, which only has a range of about 20 km, would form the second line of defense.

On Octover 1, 2014 the US State Department made a determination approving a possible Foreign Military Sale to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for a Patriot Air Defense System with PAC-3 enhancement and associated equipment, parts, training and logistical support for an estimated cost of $1.750 billion. The Defense Security Cooperation Agency delivered the required certification notifying Congress of this possible sale on September 30, 2014.

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia requested a possible sale of 202 Patriot Advanced Capability (PAC) -3 Missiles with containers, and 1 Guidance Enhanced Missile (GEM) Flight Test Target/Patriot as a Target. Also included are 2 PAC-3 Telemetry Kits, 6 Fire Solution Computers, 36 Launcher Station Modification Kits, 2 Missile Round Trainers, 2 PAC-3 Slings, 6 Patriot Automated Logistics Systems Kits, 6 Shorting Plugs, spare and repair parts, lot validation and range support, ground support equipment, repair and return, publications and technical documentation, personnel training and training equipment, Quality Assurance Team, U.S. Government and contractor technical and logistics support services, and other related elements of logistics and program support.

On 06 June 2015 Saudi Arabia intercepted a Scud missile fired by Yemen Houthi Militia toward the city of Khamees Mushait and the largest Saudi Arabian Air Force Base, the King Khaled Air Base. Saudi Arabia used one of its Patriot Missile Defense Firing Units bought from the United States to acquire, track and destroy the Scud Missile. The rocket was intercepted by two Patriot missiles, the Saudi-led Arab military coalition said in a statement. Saudi Arabia Brigadier General Ahmed Asseri said "Praise God, we have air defence forces capable of blocking these kinds of rockets, destroying them and thwarting attempts like this."

Join the mailing list