The U.S. Army had two important Patriot initiatives underway in 2013 – “Pure Fleet” and “Grow the Army.” Pure Fleet involves upgrading all its tactical fire units to Configuration-3, Patriot’s most advanced version. And Grow the Army adds two battalions to the force structure, providing greater flexibility and more assets to meet air and missile defense requirements.
PATRIOT is not an acronym, though it is at times incorrectly expanded to mean Phased Array Tracking to Intercept Of Target. The Patriot can be transported worldwide via C-5 cargo plane. Built in diagnostic software; the computer tells you what's wrong with the system, making maintenance and repair much easier. Patriot battalions can interface with Hawk battalions and with the Air Force AWACS.
Patriot has completed well over 2,500 target search and track tests during the entire range of its performance envelope. In addition, over 500 missile firings have demonstrated Patriot's performance against the full range of tactical ballistic and cruise missiles. From the time production began in 1980 through 2003, over 170 Patriot fire units and over 9,000 missiles have been delivered. Patriot is deployed by the United States, Germany, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the Netherlands, Japan, Israel, Taiwan and Greece. An international industry team of over 4,000 suppliers and subcontractors support the Patriot air defense system.
Modern production methods have proven effective in maintaining a production reliability of over 10 times the required specification. Reliability of Patriot systems deployed worldwide (measured in "mean- time- between- failure") remains over twice the required system specification. U.S. Army operational availability has been consistently over 95 percent.
Patriot Advanced Capability Phase 2 (PAC-2) was fielded in January 1991. A demonstrated anti-tactical ballistic missile capability was exploited in 1990 following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait when the U.S. Army rapidly directed PAC-2 tactical ballistic missile upgrades into production and deployment to Southwest Asia and Israel. Patriot performance against Iraqi SCUD missile attacks was seemed impressive at first, even though these SCUD missiles exceeded Patriot's design threat. Patriot success was initially believed to be over 70 percent in Saudi Arabia and over 40 percent in Israel [later these figures were reduced]. Public statements made by Congressman John Conyers and M.I.T. Professor Theodore Postol both suggested that Raytheon "misrepresented" the Patriot's Gulf War performance.
Improvements Based on Lessons Learned from the Gulf War "Quick Response" Program 1992: A radar shroud reduced interference and improved radar multifunction performance. A low-noise receiver was added to improve detection range. North-finding and global positioning systems were added to reduce system emplacement times. Remote launch modifications allowed launchers to be placed up to 10 kilometers from the control station, expanding Patriot's defended area.
In 2003 U.S. and coalition Patriot units were deployed throughout the CENTCOM region to protect forces and populations from the threat of ballistic missiles. The improvements, developed and fielded since 1991, reflected the enhanced capabilities of Patriot to protect against threats to both static assets and forces in the attack. The Configuration 3 Ground Equipment, GEM+, GEM and PAC-3 missiles were all combat-proven. Patriot had two fratricides in Iraq, one against a British RAF Tornado GR4A, the other against an F/A-18 Hornet . The Tornado was engaged because the system mistakenly classified it as an anti-radiation missile (ARM), which is a threat typically engaged automatically by the system. The other fratricide, on an F/A-18 Hornet, was a Patriot system and operator error resulting from a misclassified TBM. The system engaged the Hornet automatically after the software, in conjunction with the Patriot radar, incorrectly classified the aircraft as a TBM.
1. Phased array radar. It's beam is electronically aimed at a different piece of the sky every few microseconds. No moving parts. Extremely difficult to jam.
2. Engagement Control Station (ECS). Where the computer and the operators fight the air battle. Man-machine interaction options here can range from letting the computer assist in target identification and prioritization to leaving the ECS and letting the computer fight the entire air battle itself.
3. 6 to 8 missile launchers. Missiles come factory packed in containers which are loaded directly onto the launcher. The Launcher can be located up to 1 kilometer away from the ECS/Radar, receiving commands automatically via microwave data link.
4. Patriot missile. Achieves supersonic speed within 20ft of leaving the launcher. Range: 100+ km. It can outmaneuver any manned aircraft and most missiles. It is controlled in flight automatically by the computer.
Patriot-unique equipment at the Headquarters and Headquarters Battery (HHB) includes the information and coordination central (ICC), communications relay groups (CRGs), antenna mast groups (AMGs), trailer mounted electric power units (EPUs), and guided missile transporters (GMT). The Patriot firing battery equipment includes the AMG, radar set (RS), engagement control station (ECS), truck mounted electric power plant (EPP), and up to sixteen launching stations (LSs). Both the battalion and firing batteries are equipped with a semitrailer maintenance center.
(1) The ICC is manned during air battle operations and provides necessary command and control links to interface with higher echelon, lateral and subordinate battalions, and its own firing units.
(2) The ECS is the only manned station in the battery during the air battle and is the operations control center of the Patriot battery. The ECS contains the weapons control computer (WCC), man/machine interface and various data and communication terminals. Its prime mover is a 5-ton tactical cargo truck.
(3) The RS is a multifunction, phased-array radar mounted on an M860 semitrailer. The prime mover is an M983 10-ton heavy expanded mobility tactical truck (HEMTT) tractor.
(4) The LS is a remotely operated, fully self-contained unit, carrying integral on-board power. The launcher is mounted on an M860 semitrailer towed by a M983 HEMTT 10-ton tractor. Each LS may be loaded with four PAC-2 missile rounds (MRs), or 16 PAC-3 missile rounds if the LS is PAC-3 modified. The MR consists of a Patriot missile mounted within a sealed aluminum canister that functions both as a shipping and storage container and as a launch tube. Canisters are either single or 4-packs and are mounted two by two on the launcher.
(5) The CRG provides a multi-routed, secure, two-way data relay capability between the ICC and its assigned fire units and adjacent units. The CRG also provides the capability for both data and voice exit and entry point communications with elements external to the Patriot ADA battalion.
(6) The AMG consists of four ultra high frequency (UHF) antennas used for communications between the ICC, CRG, ECS and adjacent units and or higher echelons. The AMG can be remotely controlled in azimuth from within the ECS.
(7) The EPP consists of two 150-kw generator sets, a power distribution unit (PDU), cables, and accessories mounted on a modified HEMTT. The PDU is stored between the generators and contains a parallel powerbus and power contractors to supply prime power to the ECS and RS.
Testing of Patriot's response to a unique, advanced electronic countermeasure (ECM) technique exposed an air defense system weakness and recommended corrective measurees. Over 155 Patriot surveillance investigations and 6 missile firings were completed in extensive ECM environments consisting of stand-off jamming, selfscreening jamming, and chaff.
The AN/MPQ-53 is a frequency-agile multifunction G/H- Band radar group which performs surveillance, Identification Friend-or-Foe (IFF), tracking and guidance, and Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) functions entailed in the Patriot tactical air defence missile system. The antenna array is a 2.44 m diameter, 5,161-element phased-array planar configuration carried on a semi-trailer chassis. The antenna unit has separate arrays for target detection and tracking, missile guidance and IFF functions. The last of these tasks is carried out by an AN/TPX-46(V)7 interrogator, using a supplementary array adjacent the main circular search and track array on the antenna unit. Other supplementary arrays are for sidelobe cancellation and missile guidance signal reception.
The interrogator set AN/TPX-46(V)7 consists of the central processing/receiver-transmitter chassis and Mode 4 control panel chassis which accomodates interrogator computer KIR-1A/TSEC. Contractor designed antenna is integral to radar set face (LIN r18815, BOIP 770208). The IFF is designed for automatic operation under control of the engagement control station (ECS) weapon control computer. The Interrogator Set Mark XII/SIF equipment utilizes AN/TPX-46(V)7 technology for dedicated application to the Patriot system. The IFF provides a rapid secure means of identifying suitably equipped friendly aircraft, and thereby avoid their destruction by friendly fire. It is employed by Patriot fire unit, and is controlled and monitored by the engagement control station (ECS).
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