Ministry of Defense
The Defense Ministry of Ukraine is responsible for defense management, military development, mobilization and combat readiness. The General Staff of Ukraine is responsible for defense planning and operational management of the armed forces. The General Staff is subordinate to the Defense Minister of Ukraine.
The new history of the Ukrainian Armed Forces began on December 6, 1991, when the Verkhovna Rada (Parliament) of Ukraine passed the Law "On the Armed Forces of Ukraine". That act created legal basis for the organization of the armed forces of the independent state.
The adoption of the Law and, consecutively, a whole package of other important documents on military matters, which specified the military policy of Ukraine for the near perspective, was crucially important and timely, because after the disintegration of the Soviet Union and proclamation of independence in 1991 Ukraine inherited one of the largest military forces not only in the post-socialist area, but in the entire Europe.
The military arsenal of the force consisted of the force consisted of 6500 tanks, over 7000 armored combat vehicles, nearly 1500 combat aircraft, more than 1600 warheads of the intercontinental ballistic missiles etc. The military personnel totaled to 780,000 men. Maintenance of the mammoth military force, which was created to conduct strategic offensive operations, ran counter to the peaceful foreign policy of the young Ukrainian state, its non-alliance status and the defensive nature of its military doctrine. Hence, the first urgent task of the Ukrainian Ministry of Defense (MOD) was to optimize the organizational structure of the Armed Forces and other military formations, arrange the location of units according to new realities, develop programs of the construction of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.
The decision of Ukraine on non-nuclear status and unilateral neutralization of its nuclear arsenal became unprecedented. Simultaneously, the conventional weapons were reduced too. These activities were conducted openly, in accordance with international treaties and under international verification. Thus, as far back as November 1995, Ukraine fulfilled its obligations and brought its armaments and equipment down to border limits as specified in the CFE Treaty.
During 1992-1997 the Ukrainian Army was reduced by 400,000 servicemen. More than 1300 units, organizations, command and control installations were disbanded during that period. By the end of 1999 the organizational strength of the Armed Forces was to number around 400,000 men, including 310,000 military and 90,000 civilians.
The State Program emphasized the importance of Armed Forces command and control system improvement, capable of providing a reliable, efficient, rugged and secure command and control during the operational and mobilization deployment of forces as well as during preparation and operations (combat). work will continue on developing a unified state control system for peace and wartime. In particular, it is planned to fully integrate the Armed Forces command and control system with the appropriate control of executive power bodies and other state authorities.
It was also planned to establish a system of civilian control over the military, clarify the responsibilities of the highest leadership and respective state and military organizations in terms of Armed Forces command and control. Thus, the President of Ukraine, as the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, executes command and control over the Armed Forces according to the Constitution of Ukraine and active legislation. Command and control over the Armed Forces and other military formations in emergencies is executed by the President of Ukraine through the General Headquarters (Stavka), one working agency of which is the General Staff of Ukrainian Armed Forces and the other is MOD.
Direct command and control over the Armed Forces in peace and wartime is executed by the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Ukraine - the Minister of Defense of Ukraine, if he is a military person. If he is a civilian, the Commander-in-Chief is the Chief of the General Staff of Ukrainian Armed Forces.
The State Program plans for the further improvement of the command and control organization at all levels, differentiation of their functions and responsibilities and what is most important - clarification of roles and responsibilities of the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine, The General Staff, Armed Forces Services Commands and Operational Commands.
To reach this objective within the MOD the basics of the Armed Forces Command and Control Organization Reform Concept were developed. According to this document command and control activities will be divided into two parts: military-political and administrative, and operational.
The military-political and administrative command and control provides for a political concept of military development regarding material support of the Armed Forces missions (by manpower, weapons and military equipment, ammunition, funds). Besides, it provides for social programs, i.e. social care for military personnel and their families.
The operational command and control provides for strategic planning of Armed Forces engagement, maintenance of mission and mobilization readiness, operational and readiness staff and troops training.
The Ministry of Defense of Ukraine is the main military-political and administrative command and control organization. The Ministry of Defense of Ukraine will remain the central executive power organization, which ensures the implementation of State defense policy, functioning, mission and mobilization readiness, combatant value and Armed Forces training to fulfil their missions.
The Ministry of Defense is responsible for:
- Support to Armed Forces day-to-day activities
- Mission and mobilization readiness
- Combatant value
- Training to fulfil assigned missions and engagement
- Manning and appropriate training
- Weapons and military equipment supplies
- Material, funding and other resources in accordance with requirements defined by the GS
- Control over the effective use of these resources
- Developing interoperability with executive power, civilian agencies and civilians
- International military and military-technical cooperation
- Control over compliance of Armed Forces activities with the Law
- Developing conditions for civilian control over Armed Forces.
The main body for operational command and control is the General Staff of the Ukrainian Armed Forces. The General Staff of the Armed Forces is the main military organization, responsible for:
- State defense planning
- Armed Forces engagement control
- Coordination and control over the defense missions accomplishment in defense sphere by executive power agencies
- Local self-administration
- Military formations, established according to the Ukrainian laws
- Law enforcement agencies in the framework of Ukrainian laws and legislative acts of the President of Ukraine, Parliament and Cabinet of Ministers.
Considering the enhancement in the GS role as the main defense planning and operational Armed Forces and other military formations command and control organization, by the Presidential Decree of 31 July 2000 the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces attained membership at the National Defense and Security Council of Ukraine.
Implementation of the basics of the Armed Forces Command and Control Organization Reform Concept will exclude duplication in their work, increase responsibility level and effectiveness of the Armed Forces branches Commands and Operational Commands, reduce both the number of command and control structures and their manpower. Therefore, by late 2005 the MOD will reduce its structure by 37% and its manpower almost in half.
In 2006, the delineation of authorities between the Ministry of Defence and the General Staff was nearly completed, structural changes in the Head Office of the Ministry of Defence and in the General Staff were implemented and the optimization of forces operational control system continued. As a result of the delineation of authorities, the Ministry of Defence is responsible for the state policy in the defence sphere, implements politico-military and administrative control of the Armed Forces, determines the principles of their development and directions of progress. The General Staff performs the strategic planning of the employment of the Armed Forces and other military formations, and implements defence planning and executes the operational control over the Armed Forces.
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