Project 22350 Admiral Sergei Gorshkov
This is the first major warship designed in Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The Project 22350 far sea zone frigate is an escort ship intended for the distant maritime and ocean zones. This project will feature engineering solutions that were used to build Mk 11356 frigates for the Indian Navy. Project 22350 is a general service frigate (Great Guardship according to the soviet classification). This new frigate type is designed to execute long-range strike, ASW and AD missions.
The design of the ship "a high percentage of novelty" - at least 30% of new technologies and developments. In particular, part of the hull and superstructure element is formed by stealth technology. The ship was so secret that even the appearance was initially only known to designers and shipbuilders.
In Soviet times, repeated attempts were made ??to create a multi-purpose surface ships capable of solving such problems as fighting air defense, anti-submarine and surface ships potential enemy. Even in the second half of the 1960s, the North PKB project was carried out multi-purpose ship 61K (61A projects and 61bis - just variations on this theme), and later the same office carried out projects 11560 and 11990 "Anchar" (displacement of 12,000 tons, SAM "Hurricane", RK "Onyx", PLRK "Waterfall") multipurpose destroyer class ships cruiser. At the end of a series of Project 956 was planned construction project destroyers 11000 with gas turbine plant, in almost the same housing, with a SAM type "Hurricane" RCC "Onyx" KR "Caliber" PLRK, helicopter. But all of them remained not embodied in metal.
From the construction, perhaps, BOD "Admiral Chabanenko" Project 11551 [NATO Udaloy] can be called a multi-purpose - multi-purpose vehicle. It had a powerful detection and anti-submarine warfare (PLRK, helicopters), stroke missile complex "Mosquito", only air defense (SAM "Dagger ") were not sufficient for the collective defense of fleet, covering the landing troops and convoys from air raids. But the price of the issue was such that all managed to place weapons on the ship with a displacement of 9,000 tons.
There is another example of creating a multi-purpose ship, this missile cruiser Project 11442 "Frunze" is much better resolved the question of collective defense - S-300F with a range of up to 100 km. However, the displacement of the ship was already 24,000 tons, actually "missile battleship" - the main gauge of the Kyrgyz Republic "Granit" long range. And it is clear that many of these ships can not be built, along with the head "Kirov" Project 1144 was built four cruisers.
However, technological progress brought to fruition a unification of missile weapons control systems and sharply increased radar systems and the accuracy of their contact with targets. At the beginning of the XXI century in Russia there were promising missile systems such as "Caliber-NCE" with anti-ship missiles 3M54E, anti-submarine missiles and cruise missiles 92RE 3M14E for firing at shore targets, and type "Yakhont" supersonic anti-ship missiles. Moreover, there were created universal launchers to launch them and unified management of these systems ship missile systems.
In addition, there is now SAM type "Rif-M" and "calm" with a very effective SAM (9M96 and 3M317ME respectively) medium-range and rate of vertical launch missile launchers. All this has created a frigate with a displacement of 22350 project only 4,500 tons. Nowno one can be surprised at multipurpose frigates and destroyers in the world, the United States created the cruiser "Arleigh Burke" in England EM 45 type, in other NATO countries, multipurpose frigates, etc. etc.
Russia developed the Project 22350 frigate for domestic deployment, though the reduced signature integrated design is said to be similar in design philosophy to the Project 17 frigates of Indian Navy. The Project 22350 design is reported to utilize "engineering solutions" used to build the Project 1135.6 Talwar class frigates for the Indian Navy, another instance of Indian defense orders reviving projects for Russian industry. The Indian Navy's Project 17A frigate RFI was for a set of seven stealth frigates, each costing about Rs4,000 crore. The Indian plan envisaged the first ship to be built at the foreign shipyard, with the remaining units being built at Mazagon Docks Ltd in Mumbai or at the Garden Reach Shipyard in Kolkata.
Different sources initially gave different displacement values for this project: some reported 4,000-4,500 tons, while others give 8,000 tons. At least one source reports dimensions of a 132 meter length and a beam of 16 meters [consistent with the reported 4,000-4,500 ton displacement], while another suggested a beam of 20-21 meters [more consistent with a displacement of 8,000 tons].
The larger dimensions are implausible. The Russian Navy needed new frigates to replace the dwindling Krivaks if it is to maintain the existing force level of about a dozen frigates. It does not need new destroyer-class vessels to replace the Udaloy or Sovremenny, since the existing inventory of those vessels is adequate to maintain existing force levels past the year 2020.
The need for the development and construction of new frigates was due to the fact that in the mid-2000s the Navy was short of upgrading the ship's structure. The average age of the surface ships was about 20 years old, at the same time being the different types of combat units of the same class caused great problems in the supply and repair - for example, at the time of the Russian fleet consisted of eight patrol ships seven different projects.
The authoritative Russian publication Military Parade reported that these ships will feature a displacement of about 4,500 tons, a length of over 130 m, a maximum width of 16 m, a range of over 4,000 miles, and an unlimited sea-going ability. The frigate will be armed with eight Oniks antiship missiles, the A-192 130mm gun mount, the Medvedka-2 antisubmarine missile system, the Uragan medium-range AD missile system, and a hangar-parked Ka-27 or Ka-28 helicopter. Anti-submarine opponent provide up to 8 missiles PLO 91RTE2 (by reducing the ammunition drum missile complex "Caliber-NCE"), as well as small anti-torpedo complex "Bag-E / NK".
Electronic weapons represented radar detection of air and surface targets "Fregat-M2EM" lighting the far surface situation "Mineral-ME" sonar system "," Zarya-ME-03 "GAS" Vignette-EM ", opto-electronic complex lighting conditions MTC -201ME. Integrated work of all combat and radio electronic facilities of the ship provides CICS "Sigma-E22356." Optoelectronic complex lighting conditions MTC-201ME. Electronic surveillance and repression of the complex of the RAP TC-25E and decoy CT-308-05.
This list of weapons is almost identical to the weapons reported to be carried on the much smaller 1,900 ton Project 20380 Stereguschy corvette. For small patrol ships of class "corvette" with a displacement of 1,000 to 3,000 tons MNIIRE "Altair" created Promising small system that is based on the reduced configuration SAM "Rif-M 'using only anti-aircraft missiles 9M96E active homing and on-board inertial guidance system, which have high performance necessary for the purposes of interception of modern and high probability of hit air targets.
Universal shipboard firing system 3S14U1 (UKSK) makes multi-purpose warship, and its combat assignment will be to change based on the simple replacement of ammunition, a different type of missiles. New air defense missile system type "Rif-M" (sometimes referred to in the press as "poliment-Redoute"), will be unified with the maximum is developing a mobile land complex "Vityaz". A new radar is installed on the ship with fourphased array antenna.
The only Russian combat ship that could feature the BrahMos missiles is the Project 22350 frigate Admiral Sergei Gorshkov being built at the Severnaya Verf shipyard in St. Petersburg. In 1998, Russia and India established the BrahMos Aerospace joint venture to design, develop, produce and market a supersonic cruise missile. The BrahMos missile, named after India's Brahmaputra River and Russia's Moskva River, has a range of 180 miles (290 km) and can carry a conventional warhead of up to 660 pounds. It can hit ground and sea targets while flying at an altitude as low as 10 meters (30 feet) and at a speed of Mach 2.8, which is about three times faster than the US-made subsonic Tomahawk cruise missile.
Despite the fact that talking about the large ships of the Russian Navy today probably premature, it should be noted that on the basis of SAM "Rif-M", which has become more sophisticated modification of C-300F (ship version of "land" S-300P) MNIIRE "Altair" is developing an integrated system of air defense weapon systems, intended for installation on ships class "cruiser" and "destroyer". This complex is designed for defense orders ships and their compounds from simultaneous raid of current and future air threats. It provides simultaneous bombardment 6-8 targets and guidance to them of 12-16 missiles at a range of 120 km.
The frigates are equipped with combined gas turbine and gas turbine (COGAG) propulsion systems. The two cruise gas turbines and two boost gas turbines will be connected through two shafts. The COGAG propulsion is more efficient than combined diesel and gas (CODAG) and combined diesel or gas (CODOG) propulsion systems. The COGAG system delivers more economical transit at cruise speeds.
Main power plant - diesel-gas turbine (two afterburning gas turbine engine with a capacity of 27,500 Hp each and two diesel propulsion engines with a capacity of 5,200 Hp). Engines for the first two frigates were built at the Ukrainian enterprise "Zorya" - "Mashproekt" (Mykolaiv city). The company "Zorya" Mashproekt performs a series of contracts to supply major power plants (GEMs) for the latest Russian class frigates "Admiral Gorshkov" and Project 11356 frigates. Manufactured and supplied to the Shipyard "Severnaya Verf" by the Russian company "Turborus", two M56 installation capacity of 60,000 hp for the new Russian frigates of Project 22350 "Admiral Gorshkov" and "Admiral Kasatonov". The power plant for Project 22350 frigates, it is produced jointly by Ukraine and Russia, because Russian companies are at the stage of development of its production. "Zorya" Mashproekt produces, in particular, only the gas generator and gearbox this setting, while Russian enterprises manufactured turbine and automatic control system.
The possibility of fitting the next series of ships with Russian engines seems a distinct possibility. In the future new ships of the Russian Navy and the FSB Border Service are expected to be equipped with new generation of power plants of domestic production, a development of Rybinsk Propulsion Engineering.
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