Project 1164 Atlant
Guided Missile Cruiser
The Slava class was designed as a surface strike ship with some anti-air and ASW capability. Falling midway between the massive 'Kirov' battle-cruiser and 'Sovremenny' class destroyers, this smaller contemporary of the Kirov may have been intended as a less-expensive complement to the larger ships. Slavas were built at the same yard that built the 'Kara' Class cruisers, and the hull appears to be a stretched version of the earlier design.
The sixteen SS-N-12 Sandbox anti-ship missiles are mounted in four pairs on either side of the superstructure, giving the ship a distinctive appearance. Many sources credit the Slava with the ability to carry nuclear armed SA-N-6 surface-to-air missiles, and 21-inch nuclear torpedoes, in addition to the SS-N-12. Soviet sources denied that the SA-N-6 missiles on the ship was even nuclear capable. They also indicated that the crane aboard the ship was used for handling boats, and not for loading or reloading SA-N-6 missiles, a procedure accomplished only at portside.
Initially designated Black Com1 by Western intelligence and subsequently the Krasina class , the first Slava class cruiser became operational in 1983, and by 1990 three were in the fleet, with the third beginning sea trials in August 1989. Some sources suggest that the Soviet Navy intended to build as many as 21 units of this class, which would have enabled the Soviets to replace the Kynda and Kresta classes as they retired in the 1990s. But such plans were not evident in actual Cold War era building activity. The low priority attached to this class was evident from the unusually long construction period of the units completed by the end of the Cold War, and the fact that only four units were laid down. The design is said to be marred by large quantities of flammable material and poor damage-control capabilities. As of 2004 there were only 3 ships of this type available in the Russian Navy.
Moskva is the lead ship of the Project 1164 Atlant class of guided missile cruisers in the Russian Navy. The ship is currently held under the patronage of the city of Moscow. Slava was laid down in 1976 in Shipyard 445 of the 61 Kommunara Shipbuilding Plant in Nikolayev, was launched in 1979, and commissioned on 30 January 1983. Slava returned to Nikolayev in December 1990 for a refit but was not returned to service. The Moskva (ex-Slava), which had been in refit at the Nikolayev yard since December 1990, remained undelivered to the Russian Black Sea Fleet through the end of the millenium. The Moskva was expected to return to service to replace the Admiral Golokov as the flagship of the Black Sea fleet. No projected date for completion of this much-delayed work was known.
The Moskva was finally returned to service in April 2000, re-commissioned with hull number "121" after its overhaul. In mid-2008 the official newspaper of the Russian Black Sea Fleet (BSF) reported that the large anti-submarine ship (BPK) "Ochakov", which has just finished repairs, could become the flagship of the BSF instead of the cruiser "Moskva". "This project 1134B BPK (Kara class), designed more than 40 years ago, had entered the 21st Century with a millennial overhaul with the aim of extending its service life 15-20 years. This is an unprecedented event for the fleet." Intermediate repairs began at the end of the 1980s, however, with the breakup of the Soviet Union, they were never finished. Additionally a serious fire in 1993 significantly complicated the technical condition of the "Ochakov". Moskva replaced the Kynda class cruiser Admiral Golokov as the flagship of the Black Sea Fleet in early April 2003.
Moskva, along with Pytlivy, Smetlivy, and a landing ship departed Sevastopol for exercises in the Indian Ocean with a Pacific Fleet task group (Marshal Shaposhnikov and Admiral Panteleyev) and the Indian Navy. The force was supported by the Project 1559V tanker Ivan Bubnov and the Project 712 ocean-going tug Shakhter. In August 2008, in response to the Georgian crisis, the Moskva was deployed to secure the Black Sea. After Russia's recognition of Abkhazia's independence, the ship was stationed at the Abkhazian capital, Sukhumi. On 03 December 2009 the Moskva was laid up for a month at floating dock PD-30 for a scheduled interim overhaul which comprised replacement of cooling and other machinery, reclamation work at bottom and outboard fittings, propulsion shafts and screws, clearing and painting of bottom and above-water parts of the ship's hull. In April 2010 it was reported that the cruiser would join other navy units in the Indian Ocean to conduct exercises.
Marshal Ustinov [ex-Lobov]
The second unit, the Marshal Ustinov, was commissioned with the Northern Fleet in 1986 - initially with hull number "070", later number "088" and finally number "055". The Marshal Ustinov may also be laid up in refit, though sources are in disagreement on this point. Ustinov was in overhaul in the Baltic since 1994; she was previously assigned to the Northern Fleet but may not return there.
Under a December 1996 agreement China purchased two Russian Sovremenny-class destroyers. With the Russian Navy's consent, Severnaya Verf used some of the money to repair the Large ASW ship Admiral Levchenko ($98 million), Large ASW ship Severomorsk ($33 million), and cruiser Marshal Ustinov ($54 million) for the Northern Fleet. As of 2004 the latter had completed its repairs and became operational once again.
Varyag (ex-Chervona Ukraina)
The third unit was commissioned to the Pacific Fleet in 1989 under the name "Chervona Ukraina" (Red Ukraine in Ukrainian). After the independence of Ukraine the "Chervona Ukrayina" was re-named to "Varyag", when this name formerly given to the Pr 1143.6 heavy aviation cruiser (sister ship to the "Kuznetsov") was released after the cancellation of further aviation cruiser development. The Cruiser was part of the Soviet Black Sea Fleet until it was transfered to Vladivostok. As of 2002 it was reported that the Varyag was in "Reduced Manning" status, and entered the Dalzavod Shipyard the same year for repairs. Varyag had been in reduced operating status with a caretaker crew since her arrival in the Pacific in 1990.
The name "Varyag" has only brought bad luck to the Russian/Soviet Navy. Like naming a ship "Titanic". The original "Varyag" was Cruiser built in the US for the Tsarist Navy, it was attacked by Japanese ships in the Korean port of Inchon during the Russo-Japanese War and was unable to break out or fight back against the Japanese, so it was scuttled(sunk) by its own crew and abandoned. The Japanese were able to raise it and repair it and used it until 1944 when it was sunk again by US torpedo aircraft. Another "Varyag" was being built in Ukraine as the 2nd Full Size Aircraft Carrier of the Soviet Navy, but the USSR fell apart, it was not finished, Yeltsin's Russia did not want it so it was sold to China, now China is using it.
Ukrayina (ex-Admiral Flota Lobov, ex-Lobov)
The fourth unit was initially expected to be launched in 1990, though in practice this vessel remained incomplete as of late 1999, having transferred to the Ukrainian Navy. On 21 February 1998 the government of Ukraine announced plans to complete the fourth Slava-class cruiser [ordered for Russia as the Admiral Flota Lobov] as its new fleet flagship, the Ukrayina. The ship was to have been completed for the Ukraine Navy in November 2000, but lack of funds slowed work to the point that by early 2001 a new completion date was projected.
Oktyabrskskaya Revolutsia (ex-Rossiya)
Oktyabrskskaya Revolutsia was originally named Rossiya, but renamed on 30th December 1987. Work was apparantly never started and the ship was cancelled on 4th October 1990. Some sources suggested that as many as two additional units began construction before the end of the Cold War, but the status of these hulls is unclear, and there is no indication of plans to complete them [should they in fact remain in existence].
Work on Admiral Gorshkov was apparantly never started and the ship was cancelled on 4th October 1990.
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