Project 1143.5 Kreml class
Aircraft Carrier Cruiser
The 67,500-ton Kreml class aircraft carrier supports strategic missile carrying submarines, surface ships and maritime missile-carrying aircraft of the Russian fleet. The ship is capable of engaging surface, subsurface and airborne targets. Superficially similar to American carriers, the design is in fact "defensive" in support of SSBN bastions. The lack of catapults precludes launching aircraft with heavy strike loads, and the air superiority orientation of the air wing is apparent.
The flight deck area is 14,700 square meters and aircraft take-off is assisted by a bow ski- jump angled at 12 degrees in lieu of steam catapults. The flight deck is equipped with arrester wires. Two starboard lifts carry the aircraft from the hangar to the flight deck. The ship has the capacity to support 16 Yakovlev Yak-41M (Freestyle) and 12 Sukhoi Su-27K (Flanker) fixed wing aircraft and a range of helicopters including four Kamov Ka-27-LD (Helix), 18 Kamov Ka-27 PLO, and two Ka-27-S.
The ship has a Granit anti-ship missile system equipped with 12 surface to surface missile launchers. The air defence gun and missile system includes the Klinok air defence missile system with 24 vertical launchers and 192 anti-air missiles. The system defends the ship against anti-ship missiles, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles and surface ships. The ship is equipped with an Udav-1 integrated anti-submarine system with 60 anti-submarine rockets.
Start of design works on creation of the cruiser Project 1143.5 began in 1978. Work was carried out by the Leningrad Design Bureau. The first option was an advanced preliminary design of aircraft-carrying heavy cruiser 1143. Designing was conducted according to the research work entitled "Order", which is a military-economic substantiation of the aircraft carrier with a nuclear reactor under project 1160.
Design was based on the following projects:
- Project 1160 - preliminary design of an aircraft carrier with a displacement of 80,000 tons;
- Project 1153 - a great cruiser with air armament (50 aircraft), with a displacement of 60,000 to 70,000 tons. No ships were built;
- Project carrier recommended Minsudproma, displacement of 80,000 tons, aircraft and helicopters up to 70 units;
- Project 1143M - an aircraft carrier, having armed with supersonic aircraft Yak-41. It was the third-carrier ship of the project 1143 - 1143.3. It was laidn down in 1975, adopted in 1982, removed from the in 1993;
- Project 1143A - Project 1143M aircraft carrier with a larger displacement. Fourth-built aircraft carrier. It was laid down in 1978, adopted in 1982. Since 2004, the ship was held for the modernization of the Indian Navy. Adopted into the Indian Navy in 2012.
- Project 1143.5 Heavy aircraft carrying cruiser - the next fifth modification of the project in 1143 and the fifth built aircraft carrier.
In October 1978, by the Council of Ministers decision the Ministry of Defence was tasked to develop tactical and technical requirements on the ship project 1143.5. The Ministry of the shipbuilding industry was to give preliminary design and technical project by 1980. Estimated start of serial construction of the project 1143.5 ships was 1981 year end through 1990. Bookmark and construction of ships was a Slipway "O" Nikolaev shipyard.
Draft project was prepared in 1979, the same year it was approved by Chief of the Navy S.Gorshkov. A few months later, in 1980, the head of the military department D.Ustinov signed the directive of the General Staff, which said about the need to change the project 1143.5. Now the period of technical readiness of the project moved on 1982, building on the 1986-91 years. In April 1980, the Chief of the Navy approves S.Gorshkov tactical and technical requirements as amended by the draft amendments. Summer of 1980 all the parties involved - the Ministry of Shipbuilding Industry, the Ministry of Aviation Industry, Air Force and Navy recognize the development of ship project 1143.5 is fully implemented.
Originally designated in the West the 'Black-Com-2' class (Black Sea Combatant 2), then subsequently the 'Kremlin' class, and finally redesignated 'Kuznetsov' class, these ships were sometimes also referred to as the 'Brezhnev' class. Initially Western analysts anticipated that the ships would have a Combined Nuclear And Steam (CONAS) propulsion plant similar to the Kirov battle cruiser and the SSV-33 support/command ship. However the class was in fact conventionally propelled with oil-fired boilers.
Western intelligence first detected preparations for the construction of the first ship in late 1979. The first public view of this ship came with the leak of the "Morrison Photos," which were the first real public look at overhead satellite imagery. [Another leak over a decade later was a bookend to the first, showing the dismantlement of the sister ship to the carrier in the Morrison photo].
Changes in the project 1143.5 were underway to the project aircraft armament, worked out according to the decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. In the late 1980s CRI military shipbuilding corrected the tactical and technical requirements on the ship project 1143.5. At the same time the decision on the construction of the second ship project 1143.4 (1143A) instead of ship project 1143.5. Later, however, the project was again modified, to the technical design of 1143.42. In the early spring of 1981 from GAM at the Navy Shipyard Nicholas enters a contract for production.
The cruiser was different from its predecessors the possibility of landing and take-off of aircraft with his traditional scheme, updated versions of the MiG-29 , Su-27 and Su-25. To do this, they have been equipped with a springboard for takeoff, and increased flight deck. In the fall of 1981 in ship design have made changes - increased displacement of 10,000 tons. Further, the design was amended as follows:
- installation on board the ship ASM "Granite";
- increase aircraft armament to 50 units;
- a springboard takeoff aircraft without the use of catapults,
The final technical design of 1143.5 was ready by March 1982, and adopted by the Council of Ministers ? 392-10 of 07.05.1982r.
Structurally, the ship consists of 24 blocks, weighing about 1,700 tons. Housing welded design with 7 decks and 2 platforms. During the construction of the ship used two cranes "Cane" Finnish production, capacity 900 tons each. The ship's hull is covered with a special radar absorbing coating. If the ship be divided into floors, their number will be 27 floors. Total inside ship holds 3857 rooms for various purposes, from which we mention: 4-cabin classes - 387 rooms, Kubrick - 134 rooms, dining rooms - 6 rooms, showers - 50 rooms. During the construction of the ship was used for more than 4 thousand kilometers of cable lines, 12 thousand kilometers of pipes for various purposes.
The ship received a through-deck area of more than 14,000 m2 with a springboard an angle of 14.3 degrees in the bow of the ship. On the edges and corners of the trampoline deck mounted profiled fairings. On the flight deck aircraft delivered 40-ton lifts (right side) on the bow and stern of the ship. Deck width - 67 meters. Plot the runway of 205 meters long and 26 meters wide at an angle of 7 degrees. Deck surface is covered with a special anti-slip coating and heat-resistant "Omega", and the portions of the vertical take-off / landing are covered with heat-resistant plates "AK-9FM". On the left and right sides of the launchers are two runways (length of the run-up to 90 meters), which converge at the upper end of the springboard.
The third runway is 180 meters long (the left side towards the stern). To ensure the protection of personnel and ensuring the aircraft taking off from the aircraft on the deck using deflectors with cooling. For landing on the deck of the aircraft used arresters "Svetlana-2" and the alarm threshold "Hope". Landing is carried out with the help of radio range navigation and optical landing system, "Luna-3". Closed hangar length 153 meters, width 26 meters and height of 7.2 meters could accommodate 70 percent of the regular air group. It also stored tractors, fire engines with special sets of tools.
The hangar is made semi-automatic system of chain transport regular aircraft, transport aircraft on the deck is performed by tractors. The hangar is divided into 4 compartments collapsible fire resistant curtains with electromechanical control, to ensure fire safety. Constructive protection topside ship shielded, internal protective barriers - composite structure by type steel / fiberglass / steel. The basic material selected high-strength steel (yield stress of 60 kgf / mm2). Tanks aviation fuel, fuel and ammunition protected by the local box-booking. For the first time in the construction of domestic ships used underwater structural protection. PKZ depth of about 5 meters. Of 3 longitudinal baffles, the second laminate was armored type. Unsinkable ensured in case of flooding 5 adjacent compartments of not more than 60 meters in length.
Project development of the ship:
Improvement Project 1143 - five options were suggested, worked out the basic components: a catapult, emergency barrier arresters, KTU. Tonnage was 65 000 tonnes with the main armament was 12 launchers RCC "Granit".
- Project 1143.2 - the next version of the improvements of the ship. Main work through nodes: two catapult enlarged hangar, flight deck. Tonnage 60 000 tonnes. The main armament: air group composed of 42 aircraft (some of which might helicopters)
- preliminary draft of 1143.5 - have studied the option proposed by docking capabilities. Displacing to 65 000 tonnes. Armament - air group of 52 vehicles (30 aircraft and 22 helicopters), and 12 launchers of PPH "Granit"; v Project 1143.5 (Ustinova-Amelko) - change the ship design to the requirements of the Ministry of Defence. Prorabatyvaemy components: a trampoline, KTU or NPP Project 1143.4 / 1144. Tonnage 55 000 tonnes. The main armament of 12 launchers RCC "Granite" and the air group of 46 Yak-41 type aircraft;
- Project 1143.5 (TSNIIVK) - to adjust the project CRI military shipbuilding. Tonnage 55 000 tonnes. Is considering sites: Catapult added reserve, decreased housing construction, reduced supply of aviation fuel. The main armament Air group composed of 46 aircraft (airplanes shortened takeoff and vertical-type Yak-41)
- Project 1143.42 - adjust the project in favor of the second ship project 1143.4. Tonnage 55 000 tonnes. Are working on components: an increase in the deck catapult. The main armament: air group, consisting of 40 aircraft (AWACS planes are present), RCC "Basalt";
- Project 1143.42 (MO correction) - a revised draft decision on the military. Displacement - up to 65 000 tons. Working components include a springboard. The main armament of 12 launchers RCC "Granit", with an Air Group of 50 aircraft.
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