Project 1134.2 Berkut-B
Guided Missile Destroyer
The Kara-class was a further development of the the Kresta-II design, with gas-turbines replacing the steam plants of the previous classes, resulting in major modifications to the layout of the midships section. Although larger than the Kresta-II cruiser and with significant anti-air and anti-submarine capabilities, these ships are classified as destroyers rather than cruisers by the Russian Navy.There is considerable disagreement among various sources as to the construction chronology of the units of this class. The fourth unit was modified during construction as a test ship for the SA-N-6 SAM system, which replaced the aft SA-N-3 SAM system. Sources disagree as to the current status of this unit.
As of 2004, only one ship [the Kerch, which was the Russian Black Fleet flagship until 1997] remained in service. At that time the ship had just completed a four year refit, during which time there were questions as to whether it was deployable.
Kerch or Kertch, a seaport of S. Russia, in the government of Taurida, on the Strait of Kerch or Yenikale, 60 m. E.N.E. of Theodosia, in 45° 21' N. and 36° 30' E. Pop. (1897), 31,702. It stands on the site of the ancient Panticapaeum, and, like most towns built by the ancient Greek colonists in this part of the world, occupies a beautiful situation, clustering round the foot and climbing up the sides of the hill (called after Mithradates) on which stood the ancient citadel or acropolis. Archaeologically Kerch is of particular interest, the kurgans or sepulchral mounds of the town and vicinity having yielded a rich variety of the most beautiful works of art. Since 1825 a large number of tombs have been opened. In the Altun or Zolotai-oba (Golden Mound) was found a great stone vault similar in style to an Egyptian pyramid; and within, among many objects of minor note, were golden dishes adorned with griffins and beautiful arabesques.
Under the Turks, whose rule dates from the end of the 15th century, Kerch was a military port; and as such it plays a part in the Russo-Turkish wars. Captured by the Russians under Dolgorukov in 1771, it was ceded to them along with Yenikale by the peace of Kuchuk-Kainarji, and it became a centre of Russian naval activity. Its importance was greatly impaired by the rise of Odessa and Taganrog; and in 1820 the fortress was dismantled. Kerch suffered severely during the Crimean War.
As of early 2001 work slowly continued at Sevastopol on the Ochakov, which had not operated since the early 1990s. In mid-2008 the official newspaper of the Russian Black Sea Fleet (BSF) reported that the large anti-submarine ship (BPK) "Ochakov", which has just finished repairs, could become the flagship of the BSF instead of the cruiser "Moskva". "This project 1134B BPK (Kara class), designed more than 40 years ago, had entered the 21st Century with a millennial overhaul with the aim of extending its service life 15-20 years. This is an unprecedented event for the fleet." Intermediate repairs began at the end of the 1980s, however, with the breakup of the Soviet Union, they were never finished. Additionally a serious fire in 1993 significantly complicated the technical condition of the "Ochakov".
Ochakov, a fortified town and port of Russia, in the government of Kherson, 41 m. E. of Odessa, on a cape of the Black Sea, at the entrance to the estuary of the Dnieper, and opposite to Kinburn. Pop. (1897), 10,784. Strong fortifications have been built at Ochakov and on the Kinburn promontory, to protect the entrance to the Dnieper. Ochakov stands close to the site of the old Miletan (Greek) colony of Olvia and the Greek colony of Alektor. The fortress of Kara-kerman or Ozu-kaleh was built on this spot by the khan of the Crimea, Mengli Girai, in 1492. At a later date it became the centre of a Turkish province which included Khaji-dereh (Ovidiopol), Khaji-bey (Odessa), and Dubossary, as well as some 150 villages. Russia, regarding it as the main obstacle to the possession of the Black Sea littoral, besieged it in 1737, when it was captured by Marshal Miinnich, but in the following year it was abandoned, and in 1739 restored to Turkey. The second siege by Russia was begun in 1788, and lasted six months, until the fortress was stormed and taken, after a terrible loss of life. By the peace of 1791 it became Russian. In 1855 it was bombarded by the Anglo-French fleet, and after that the Russians demolished the fortifications.
Seven vessels of this class were built. Both surviving Kara-class destroyers, having undergone extensive refits in the 2004 timeframe, might be expected to remain in service through the 2020 timeframe, but the are rather elderly designs, consigned to the low-threat Black Sea environment. One source reports that only the RFS Kerch remained in service as of 2006, having been largely eclipsed by the newer Udaloy class destroyer. The Ochakov remained nominally on the active list, but had not been to sea in many years, its repair budget diverted to maintain Kerch. The positive experience of the mastery of gas-turbine units aboard the ships of Project 61, and also the potential possibilities of their producer - Southern- turbine plant ([YUTZ]), officially available [NPO] "Zarya" - from one side, and at the same time the overloading of the main producer of steam turbines for the surface ships - Kirov plant in Leningrad - with another, almost unambiguously prompted or dictated the solution about one additional correction of project 1134 "Golden Eagles", now already under another power engineering - gas-turbine. The design of the gas-turbine version BPK, which received the number of project 1134- B (chief designer and main observing they remained before - [V].[F].[Anikiev] and the captain of 2 ranks Of [o].[T].[Safronov]) was conducted practically simultaneously with the works on [pr].1134- A. Tactical-technical task for the project "Golden eagle- B" was given out to northern PKB still in 1964. The correction of the design of ship with the boiler and turbine installation under the gas-turbine indicates its cardinal or complete processing, since the discussion deals with change in the articles of load and volumes, not to mention to architecture. The gas-turbine unit more easily OF [KTU], but volumes for the arrangement requires more, mainly because of the developed flues. Excessive enthusiasm by fuel economy in that period, led to the development of the gas-turbine unit of that consisting of the march and afterburning gas turbines. Therefore project 1134- B to a considerable degree proved to be new in [korablem], since for positioning afterburning and march GTU was required [pererazmerenie] of the elements of housing, and consequently - volumes and load to the side of their increase. The practice of the use of this installation showed that the ships rarely sailed with the use only of sustainer engines. The reasons for this position were in the very small real speed of running under these engines (14-15 units) and the practically not realizable long range of the floating (more than 9 000 miles). Generally combined gas -[gaeoturbinnye] installation ([GGTU]) were held only in Navy of Great Britain in 1970-80- X years. At present from such installations they refused also in Great Britain. The obtained effect from such installations does not compensate their complexity, and consequently cost and reliability. In all leading countries of world use either diesel- gas-turbine installations ([DGTU]) in the different variations, or simple GTU those consisting of the identical fully variable engines. In ship building of the USSR [GGTU] they adapted also in the quite last ships. Designed for the ship [pr].1134- B power unit possessed one additional important innovation - reversible gas turbines. For the dacha of backward motion aboard all ships with GTU previously were used either the adjustable-pitch propellers ([VRSH]) or reversible reducers. Smaller mass [GEU] led to the need of changing the main measurements of housing. Superstructures were also changed. Because of the need of positioning of flues large in the section and air suckers it was necessary to establish chimney stack separately from the [bashnepodobnoy] mast. Enormous chimney stack itself was the tribute of the new trend - every possible reduction in the physical pour on ships and allegedly it made it possible to sharply decrease thermal distinctness of ship. The inventors of these innovations obviously considered that the basic means of the detection of surface ships are the infrared systems, but not RLS. Prove similar to management the Navies they could very adroit "scientists". To bring the level of the thermal field of ship to the background noise level (sea) is theoretically possible, but it is in practice unreal. To consequently " deceive" the infrared channel of self-homing head [PKR] is also impossible. According to the estimations of some specialists both in our country and abroad effect from reduction in thermal distinctness of ship does not compensate those expenditures which it requires of the ship. IN the USA and Great Britain the sizes of gas branch pipes aboard the ships with GTU of usual size (close to the same in ships with [KTU]) and are brought out directly to the shear pipes or even for it, which gives grounds to assume that the fight with thermal distinctness in them does not bear total nature or it is solved by other methods. The appeared reserves of volumes because of an increase in the main measurements of ship [pr].1134- B made it possible to strengthen its armament. After returning to the previously developed conveyor system of storage and supply ZUR, the fire unit OF [ZRK] "storm" was doubled - to 96 units. Were additionally placed two [ZRK] of self-defence "Wasp- M" with the advanced launcher. With the loading the launcher descends into the cellar, " strings" for its guides the sequential pair of anti-aircraft missiles and returns to the upper position, ready to shooting. The caliber of artillery installations was brought to 76,2- mm of [putem] of installation older, but more than "logical" guns and mountings [AK]-726, and for increasing the effectiveness of aerial gunnery were placed by 30- mm six-barrel automatic weapons [AK]-630. Hydroacoustic armament was also improved: is established [usovershenstvovannaya] GAS "Titan-2[T]" and, for the first time in the domestic ship building, towed GAS mH/mg -325 "of Vega". At the same time antisubmarine armament, which consisted of two [schetverennykh] launchers OF [PLUR] "snow-storm", two [pyatitrubnykh] torpedo tubes and [RBU]-6000 and [RBU]-1000 remained the same as on BPK [pr].1134- A. The basic purpose of ships 1134- B (and also [pr].1134- A) was the guarantee of PVO (Air Defense) and PLO of connections of warships; search, tracking and the destruction of submarines in the remote regions of seas and oceans. Specifically, with it was posed the problem of tracking on the combat service of expanded [PLARB] of potential enemy. For this reason they abroad always called them the cruisers (was obtained in the West the designation Of kara of class). Modifications. Just as aboard the ships [pr].1134- A on BPK of project 1134- B during the repairs was replaced the complex OF [PLUR] "snow-storm" by the new universal complex "Socket- B" with the rocket 85- RU, capable of striking surface targets. Two ships of this project underwent more serious modernization. So aboard the third ship of a series - "Kerch'" - instead of RLS "rise" was established new RLS "rough-stemmed boletus". Aboard the fourth ship "Azov" in 1977 instead of stern [ZRK] "the storm" was established for the tests new multichannel [ZRK] "fort" - the naval counterpart of the complex of National Air Defense Forces S -300[Ps]. After modernization the number of project was changed on 1134- BF (but in the West "Azov" was named Modified Of kara of class). This ship sufficiently for long was used in the Black sea for finalizing of ship multichannel [ZRK] of collective defense with the vertical launching of anti-aircraft missiles, intended for the cruisers of [pr].1164 and [pr].1144 projected at that time. Program of building. Head ship [pr].1134- B, which was called name "Nikolayev", was laid in January 1969 on by Nikolayevsk shipbuilding plant [im]. 61- GO of communard ([SSZ] of ?200), and in September 1971 ship was introduced into the composition of fleet. Were until 1979 built the 6 additional ships of this project at the same plant. Status in 2007. The ships of project 1134- B actively performed combat duty in the composition the Navy of the USSR - 4 in the Black sea, 3- on Pacific Ocean. In February - July 1979. BPK "Petropavlovsk" and "Tashkent" completed joint prolonged passage around Africa from Sevastopol to Vladivostok. One of the ships was removed in the film "single floating". After the disintegration of the USSR the BPK began to be gradually removed from the composition of fleet. The general economic crisis in Russia at the beginning of the 1990's and the division of Black Sea fleet had a role in this trend. In the Navies of Russia they are at the present time located only by BPK "Kerch'" and "[Ochakov]", moreover the latter little is combat-effective and, possibly, it will be within the next few years disabled. In this case for repairing "Ochakova", in the favor of Admiral Kasatonov] in the 1990s was copied newer BPK of Black Sea fleet "Azov" used both the source of spare parts, but nevertheless and it was not repaired in view of the large worn out nature "Of [ochakov]".
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