Destroyer Project 11356
The Talwar Class has a displacement of 4,000 tons and speed of 30 knots and is capable of accomplishing a wide scale of missions in the ocean, primarily, finding and eliminating submarines and large surface ships. The frigate is armed with a new Club attack anti-ship system with a vertical missile launcher, as well as with a RBU-6000 jet bomb launcher, Shtil-1 multi-channel medium-range surface-to-air missile system, a Kashtan anti-aircraft missile and artillery system and Puma-Universal artillery system. The Talwar class are a multi-purpose frigate equipped with state-of-the-art weapons and sensors including the deadly klub type cruise missiles. These ships are designed to carry and operate one heavy duty helicopter.
The 'Talwar' class guided missile frigates represent the cutting edge of technology in stealth, reach and punch. They have ushered in highly automated integrated weapon platforms that are essential for blue water operations by the Indian Navy. Commissioning of these new frigates not only enhances India's defensive potential at sea but also dramatically affects the power equations in Asia.
A guided missile frigate's mission spans the entire spectrum of naval warfare both as a single unit and a consort ship. Trishul is well endowed to take up this role. The propulsion plant which includes four gas turbines enables her to cruise in excess of 30 knots. All weapon systems are integrated into a versatile computer aided action information system which can monitor and control under any threat. These ships, equipped with state-of-the-art weapons and sensors, are being inducted into the Indian Ocean region for the first time.
The weapon suite includes a long range surface-to-surface missile capable of striking targets at a range in excess of 200 kms, a 100 mm artillery gun with capability of firing 100 rounds per minute, advance torpedo launchers and anti- submarine rocket launchers. The ship has a wide array of state-of-the-art electronic warfare equipment. They also operates Kamov 31 helicopter for airborne early warning.
The Indian Navy signed a contract for supply of three vessels and support equipment in November 1997. The design was customised to cater to specific Indian Naval requirements encompassing an intelligent blend of Russian, Western and indigenous equipment. The ships built by Baltiysky Shipyard at St Petersburg are the first of the stealth frigates being inducted into the Indian Navy and represent a quantum leap in terms of technology and weapon punch.
As many as three more project 1135 frigates were under negotiation between Indians and Russians. However, plans to acquire another three vessels of the class seemed for a time unlikely to be realized, as priority was being given to construction in India of the indigenous Project 17 Class frigates. Ministry concluded a contract in November 1997 with a Russian firm for supply of three modern frigates to the Indian Navy at Rs 3,040 crore. The first frigate, INS Talwar was to be delivered in May 2002, the second INS Trishul in November 2002 and the third INS Tabar in May 2003.
For delay in delivery in excess of 90 days, the seller was to pay liquidated damages at the rate of one percent of the contractual price of the vessel for each month of delay or pro rata for fraction of a month, but not exceeding five per cent of the contractual price. The Russian firm delayed the delivery of three frigates by 13 months, seven months and 11 months respectively. The contract stipulated levy of liquidated damages for the delays and the same worked out to USD 38.5 million equivalent to Rs 177.10 crore. This was yet to be recovered as of December 2004.
An overseeing team was established at Russia to watch progress of the project, quality of frigates, unsatisfactory performance of any system or equipment, and also to certify the quality of construction with reference to specifications and design. The contract also provided for training to the ships' crew and repair personnel on all repairs including major overhauls.
A supplementary agreement was concluded in October 2001 for providing training followed by sea practice to the crew. The training period varied from five days to six months and was to be completed before the beginning of the ships' acceptance. Another supplementary agreement was concluded in November 2001 for deputation of Delivery Acceptance Team (DAT) of 15 Indian specialists to carry out delivery acceptance of each frigate. The time for delivery acceptance of a frigate was 60 days.
The first-of-the-class frigate, TALWAR (sword), was launched in May 2000. Its delivery to India was scheduled for May 2002 after running, state and acceptance trials. The Talwar, the first frigate of Project N11356, completed sea trials in the Baltic Sea on 29 May 2002. The vessel was built by the Baltiyskiy shipyard and ordered by the Indian navy. On June 19, 2003 the Moscow Times reported that the Talwar was delivered to the Indian Navy during a ceremony at St Petersburg.
Ministry in November 2001 sanctioned deputation of the crew of 27 officers (revised to 28 in May 2002) and 225 sailors to Russia in different groups for training up to July 2002. The entire crew joined the DAT.
The acceptance trials revealed (June 2002) several defects in underwater hull and in weapon system including missiles. DAT team recommended commissioning of the ship only after proving all weapon systems. In July 2002, Government of Russia appointed an Inter-Departmental Committee (IDC) for analysis of all problems connected with the delivery acceptance of missiles. Despite being aware of the uncertainty of sailing of the ship, Ministry extended the stay of the crew.
Ministry decided only in December 2002 to recall 243 personnel leaving seven behind till February 2003 for the upkeep of the vessel, (three having been repatriated earlier in September/October 2002 on medical/leave grounds). The expenditure of Rs 12.05 crore on boarding and lodging of 243 personnel from August 2002 to December 2002 at Russia was avoidable.
Ministry sanctioned expatriation of the crew of 28 officers and 225 sailors to Russia from 11 April to 10 June 2003 for commissioning of INS Talwar. The ship was finally commissioned on 18 June 2003. This needed extension of deputation of the crew by 35 to 38 days. The expenditure of Rs 6.24 crore on the crew from 11 April 2003 to 18 June 2003 was avoidable as training was already over in July 2002. INS Talwar arrived home at Mumbai's Naval DY on 12 August 2003, after a long journey from St. Petersburg.
The second ship, TRISHUL (Trident), was launched in November 2000. The second vessel of the series was placed in the dock for painting of its hull on 7 May 2002. The frigate carried a Russian navy crew that also controled the ship during the factory performance trials, which began in June 2002. It was preparing for a mooring trial in September 2002.
In March 2002, Ministry sanctioned deputation of the crew and a training team to Russia upto the sailing of the ship in December 2002. As DATs would start late, only by mid November 2002, 186 personnel were repatriated in September/October 2002 incurring an expenditure of Rs 0.88 crore. Ministry, however, allowed 20 personnel to remain in Russia to participate in Builder's Sea Trials and State committee Trials even though the Indian side had no role to play in these trials.
INS Trishul guided missile frigates, joined the arsenal of Indian Navy in 2003. The ship was commissioned by the then Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Western Naval Command Vice Admiral Arun Prakash at St Petersburg, Russia on 25 June 2003. It has a complement of 32 officers and 228 sailors. In contrast to the lead ship INS Talwar, the sea trials of Trishul were considerably shortened as the ship performed well. INS Trishul arrived in Mumbai on 23 September 2003.
INS Trishul, as the traditions go in the Armed Forces, takes her name and pennant number (F 43) from the old Trishul, a 'Whitby' class frigate which was built in the United Kingdom and commissioned in the Indian Navy in 1962. The old Trishul served as one of the frontline ships of the Indian Navy for 32 years and won battle honours in the liberation of Goa in 1961 and the conflicts of 1965 and 1971. Significantly, the ship was also part of the task group that carried out the raid on Karachi in December 1971.
In Indian mythology "trishul" is a powerful weapon of Lord Shiva that was effectively used by him to ward off evil. Similarly, surviving the onslaught of Trishul is impossible. The crest of the ship depicts a strong arm rising out from under the sea, holding the powerful trident. Like the mythological weapon, Trishul is powerful in all three dimensions-air, surface and sub-surface. It is a warship that is feared for her lethality and brutal power.
The ceremony of launching TABAR (Pole-axe), the third frigate for India took place in May 2001 at the Baltiisky (Baltic) shipyards. This frigate is from the series of patrol ships which are being built on order of the Indian Republic. As of 2002 Tabar was still under construction, and was to be handed over to the customer in May 2003. The INS Tabar, the third frigate of the Talwar class, was launched at Petersberg in the presence of the Defence Secretary, Mr Yogendra Narain. The first two ships INS Talwar and INS Trishul joined the Indian Navy in 2002.
Ministry sanctioned (October 2002) the deputation of 28 officers and 225 sailors from 17 November 2002 to the proposed maiden voyage of the ship by September 2003. The training was completed in April 2003, and Ministry sanctioned (April 2003) the repatriation of 188 personnel to Mumbai, retaining 21 personnel at Russia. The 188 repatriated personnel were proposed to return to Russia on 11 June 2003.
Due to delay in Builders and State Committee trials, commissioning of the ship was postponed. Consequently, dates of expatriation of crew team also had to be changed resulting in payment of cancellation charges and difference in fares amounting to Rs 0.13 crore. The crew finally left for Russia in batches during July 2003 to September 2003. However, the DAT Team was deputed only from 10 November 2003. The expatriation of 188 crew members prior to the departure of DAT team was unnecessary and the expenditure on this account amounting to Rs 5.83 crore was avoidable.
INS Tabar guided missile frigate was commissioned into the Indian Navy at Baltiysk in the Kalinigrad region of Russia in June 2004.
INS Tabar is densely packed with state-of-the-art weapons and sensors. She can operate in a multiple threat environment. She possesses the capability to handle several threats in all the three dimensions of battle space-air, surface and sub-surface. The stealthy ship is capable of speeds in excess of 30 knots.
INS Tabar has an impressive array of Indian and Russian sensors which include an indigenous advanced sonar system Humsa and communications suite CCS Mk II manufactured by M/s Bharat Electronics. The ship's weapon suite includes vertical launch long-range surface to surface missiles, a 100-mm gun, long-range surface-to-air missiles, advanced torpedo launchers, anti-submarine rocket launchers and anti-missile defence systems.
The ship reached India after making visits to twelve ports enroute. It was commanded by Capt AG Thapliyal and is manned by a crew of 28 officers and 232 sailors. INS Tabar arrived in Mumbai on 31 July 2004.
Three Later Units
On 07 August 2007 ShipbuildingRu reported that Kaliningrad based Yantar shipyard had laid down the head project 1135.6 frigate for Navy of India. For this contract Yantar had invested considerable means in modernization of the manufacturing infrastructure, and bought a lot of modern equipment. Construction of the frigates was to be completed in 2012.
The Baltic Shipyard did not receive the contract for the second consignment of three frigates. After extended talks, it was given to Kaliningrad shipbuilders. "The Yantar plant was given the second series of ships for political reasons," said Konstantin Makiyenko, deputy director of the Center for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies. "This was done not so much to support the specific plant as the economy of the entire Kaliningrad exclave."
The timetable for manufacturing the three frigates for India (the Tag, Tarkash and Trikand) was pushed back significantly,. The Tag should have been delivered in April. However, the date has been postponed for 12 months. The Tarkash, which was expected to join the Indian Navy in October 2011, was 11 months late, and the Trikand, scheduled for April 2012, was 14 months overdue. The delays were caused by a shortage of skilled labor capable of building several ships simultaneously, and flaws in the production chain resulting in delays of equipment deliveries from Russian subcontractors.
On 29 June 2013 Baltic shipyard "Yantar" conveyed the Republic India frigate "Trikand" ("Onion"). Frigate "Trikand" was laid July 11, 2008. This is the last ship in a series of three project 11356 frigates built by the SHIPYARD "Yantar" in accordance with a contract signed in 2005. The first ship, "Teg" ("Sabre"), was handed over to the customer April 27, 2012. Transfer of the second frigate "Tarkash" ("Quiver"), was held on November 9, 2012. Project 11356 developed in OAO Severnoe DESIGN BUREAU ". The first three ships were built at the Baltic shipyard (St. Petersburg). Project 11356 frigates built at SHIPYARD "Yantar", different from the first three that they installed a supersonic missile "Brahmos" joint Russian-Indian design.
INS Trikand, the last of the three “Follow On Talwar Class” frigates built in the Russian Federation, was commissioned into the Indian Navy on 29 Jun 2013 at Kaliningrad, Russia by Vice Admiral R K Dhowan, Vice Chief of the Naval Staff, Indian Navy, in a glittering ceremony marked by traditional military fervour that included the Indian and the Russian navies.
The commissioning of INS Trikand marks the culmination of a three ship contract for “Follow On Talwar Class” ships built in Russia, and is therefore a milestone in the Indo-Russian military-technological cooperation. The other ships of the class viz, INS Teg and INS Tarkash were commissioned last year and are now undertaking operations as part of the Western Fleet. The keel of INS Trikand was laid on 11 June 2008 and the ship was launched on 25 May 2011. Extensive Acceptance trials were conducted in the Baltic Sea in April and May 2013.
INS Trikand carries a state-of-the-art combat suite which includes the supersonic BRAHMOS missile system, advanced Surface to Air missiles Shtil, upgraded A190 medium range gun, Electro-optical 30 mm Close-in Weapon System, Anti-Submarine weapons such as torpedoes and rockets and an advanced Electronic Warfare system. The weapons and sensors are integrated through a Combat Management System ‘Trebovanie-M’, which enables the ship to simultaneously neutralise multiple surface, sub-surface and air threats. The ship also incorporates innovative features to reduce radar, magnetic and acoustic signatures, which have earned this class of ships the sobriquet of ‘Stealth’ frigates. The ship is powered by four gas turbines and is capable of speeds in excess of 30 knots. The ship can carry an integrated Kamov 31 helicopter which is best suited for airborne early warning roles.
And Three More Units
From 2003 to 2013, Russia delivered to India six frigates of project 11356 which were built at the Baltiysky Zavod in St. Petersburg and at the Yantar Shipyard in Kaliningrad. The first three vessels were equipped with Klub-N cruise missiles; the others were armed with BrahMos cruise missiles of Russian-Indian production.
The Indian government expressed interest to jointly produce project 11356 frigates on its territory, Oleg Shumakov, director of the Yantar Shipyard, told RIA Novosti 20 May 2015.
'After we completed a series of three Indian orders, we hoped that India would continue partnership. What is more, the Indian Defense Ministry said the county's navy needed three-four more vessels of that class. Currently, they are examining a scenario to produce such ships at home, of course, with our participation and under our guidance,' Shumakov said.
Shumakov also noted that frigates which are planned to be built in India will equipped with more advanced weapons than actual vessels of the project. 'According to our plan, those ships will be of the same class, but with different weapons. Weaponry progresses non-stop, so, I think, the new vessel will be equipped with something more advanced. However, as for its seagoing capabilities, it will be the same. Now we are consulting with our Indian colleagues on all the aspects of the project,' Shumakov added.
Frigates of project 11356 are armed to fight against surface warships and submarines as well as to repel aerial attacks – both separately and in formation. They are equipped with versatile missiles, artillery guns and advanced radio-technical devices for anti-submarine and anti-aircraft defense. Vessels of the project have a displacement of nearly 4,000 tons, a length of 125 meters, a speed of 30 knots (56 kmh), and a crew of 180.
Russia is considering the sale to India of three Project 11356 patrol ships that were expected to join the Russian Navy but lack Ukraine-built gas turbine engines (GTEs), a Russian military-technical cooperation source said 02 October 2015.
Ukraine failed to deliver three out of six GTEs, ordered by Russia. The first three warships of the project were equipped with GTEs manufactured in Ukraine. "There is an instruction to consider the possibility of selling [the three ships], if the Indians want them, and finishing construction works here [in Russia]. But it is necessary for the Indians to purchase the engines from Ukraine first," the source told RIA Novosti.
In September 2015, India's Ambassador to Russia, P.S. Raghavan, said his country intended to maintain cooperation with the Yantar shipyard in Russia's exclave of Kaliningrad, the manufacturer of the patrol ships. Since 2003, Russia had provided six frigates to India under Project 11356, built in the Russian cities of Kaliningrad and St. Petersburg.
|Displacement||3850 tons full load|
|Range|| 4600 miles @ 20 knots |
1600 miles @ 30 knots
|Crew||180 (18 officers)|
|1||INS Talwar||SY 189||03/**/1999||06/**/2000||2002||Three built for India|
|2||INS Trishul||SY 189||09/**/2000||23 Sep 2003||Three built for India|
|3||INS Toofan||SY 189||05/**/2000||31 Jul 2004||Three built for India|
|4||INS Teg||SY 820||Aug 2007||27 Apr 2012||ordered 12 Jan 2006 for India|
|5||INS Tarkash||SY 820||09 Nov 2012||ordered 12 Jan 2006 for India|
|6||INS Trikand||SY 820||11 Jul 2008||29 Jun 2013||ordered 12 Jan 2006 for India|
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