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Military


Liaoning
Shi Lang
ex-Varyag

In the most publicized PLA Navy modernization event of 2012, after a year of extensive sea trials, China commissioned its first aircraft carrier, the Liaoning, in September 2012. On 25 September 2012, it was reported that the aircraft carrier formerly known as the Varyag had entered operational service, primarily as a training platform with no assigned aircraft, as the Liaoning. However, official statements said that the vessel would also help China defend its interests. This name was said to be in reference to the province where the ship was refitted and refurbished after being purchased from Ukraine. The PLA Navy successfully conducted its first launch and recovery of the carrier-capable J-15 fighter on November 26, 2012.

China's first aircraft carrier held its first sea trial on Wednesday, 10 August 2011. Officials said the trial was on schedule and that afterwards the ship will dock for further work. The August 2009 US Office of Naval Intelligence report "The People's Liberation Army Navy: A Modern Navy With Chinese Characteristics" had stated that "This carrier is expected to become operational in the 2010 to 2012 timeframe, and will likely be used to develop basic proficiencies in carrier operations."

The ex-Varyag was acquired by China from Ukraine without engines, and must be outfitted with new engines before going out to sea. China lacks indigenous steam turbine or gas turbine engine capabilities, and absent purchase of such engines from foreign sources, the ex-Varyag would have to be equiped with marine diesel engines. Such engines are larger than turbine engines, so the ex-Varyag outfitted with marine diesel engines would be underpowered relative to the original design, and consequently slower than the original design. With a best speed in the neighborhood perhaps 20 knots [the standard speed for American amphibious ships], ex-Varyag would be considerably slower than the 30-knot standard for American aircraft carriers and escort ships. As such, ex-Varyag would seem far more suited as an aviation training ship than as a operational tactical combat unit, though it might have some combat utility under some circumstances.

Carriers can be built rather quickly, given enough money, but experienced carrier crews cannot. Continuous training is required to operate a carrier safely. Flight deck operations are a series of precise movements, and structured catapult and landing area procedures. Everything from ordinance handling to aircraft maintenance procedures differe from those for land based aircraft. During the most hazardous phase of both fixed-wing and helicopter flight operations and the launching and recovery of these aircraft, these personnel are exposed to hazards of jet intake, jet blast and propeller/rotor wash, highspeed propellers and rotors, possible arresting cable separations, and the obvious hazards associated with aircraft crashes and fires on confined flight decks at sea. Prolonged launch (takeoff) and recovery (landing) cycles may last greater than 24 consecutive hours in duration and may be accomplished in an all-weather, high paced environment, interrupted only by short periods of rest and nourishment.

In August 2016 Chinese TV boasted about the "growing combat capabilities" of its Liaoning (CV-16) aircraft carrier, noting that the battle platform can carry up to 20 fighter jets, bolstering Beijing's balance of naval and aviation power in the Pacific rim amid growing tensions. The footage revealed the Liaoning carrying eight Shenyang Aircraft Corporation (SAC) J-15 fighters, along with a Z-18 and a Z-9 helicopter, the largest number of aircraft yet seen on the carrier, suggestive of plans by China to build up its aerial presence in the Pacific Ocean. The presence of Z-18J airborne early warning (AEW) and Z-18F anti-submarine (ASW) helicopters, never before seen alongside the J-15 on the Liaoning carrier, represents a significant development in China's joint aviation and naval capabilities, likely forming a full air-wing for the carrier.

March 2002, Varyag aircraft carrier experienced thousands of hardships arrived in Dalian, China, but this time the fate of the carrier is not determined, can become China's first aircraft carrier is still unknown. The Chinese military and the China Shipbuilding Industry Group did not give up even the slightest effort to make every effort to make it happen. Chinese Academy of Engineering Pan Jingfu and President Jiang Zemin are acquaintances, Pan Academician met with President Jiang Zemin and made suggestions, asked President Jiang Zemin to have time to look to Varyag aircraft carrier. Cao Gangchuan, who was then vice chairman of the Central Military Commission, also briefed President Jiang Zemin on the carrier of the Varyag number and contributed to Jiang Zemin's visit to the Varyag ship on September 14, 2003, and under the multi- The fate of the grid of the basic lay this. Since then, the relevant departments immediately by hot blacksmith, in late September 2003, the Navy in conjunction with the Shipbuilding Industry Group and the aviation group organized a meeting in Beijing, the development of aircraft carrier comprehensive demonstration, the meeting proposed the development of China's aircraft carrier package of ideas and long-term planning. In November 2003 by the three units jointly to the General Armament Department, the National Defense Science and Technology Commission submitted a formal report, the formal development of China's aircraft carrier comprehensive demonstration report. June 2004, the General Staff, the General Armament Department, the National Defense Science and Industry Commission jointly submitted to the State Council, the Central Military Commission to develop the Chinese aircraft carrier report. In August 2004, the Central Political Bureau approved the development of China's aircraft carrier's report. August 13, 2004, the General Armament Department to the Navy, Shipbuilding Industry Group and other relevant units to inform the central decision, so far, China's aircraft carrier project officially launched, and the fate of the Varyag aircraft carrier also to determine, China's first aircraft carrier with full combat capability, model H / JRZ001 aircraft carrier. By some reports it was expected the displacement of the Liaoning aircraft carrier increased nearly 20,000 tons and is close to 70,000 tons. Until Chinese aircraft carriers are equipped with catapults, the J-15 is limited to take off with limited fuel and weapons. Once the deployment of large-scale fixed-wing shipborne early warning aircraft will be possible, the Chinese aircraft carrier battle group radius will also be substantially expanded. The number of China's first aircraft carrier Liaoning ship aircraft equipped with preliminary may be 36 aircraft, including 4 helicopters, 6 straight -18J warning straight -18F anti submarine helicopters, 2 -9C helicopter rescue helicopters and 24 fighters -15 fighter. Now, according to the disclosure of the pictures show, "with the Liaoning ship f -15 number may be close to 20, although there is no complete standard Varyag aircraft carrier is the Soviet Union in 1985 began construction of the sliding medium-sized aircraft carrier, in 1988 into the water, to 1991 due to the disintegration of the Soviet Union caused by technical and financial difficulties and suspension, the completion rate of 67% about. Varyag aircraft carrier for the Chinese military is no stranger to the Ukrainian side in 1992, had contact with the Chinese military, lobbying the Chinese military to buy it, the Ukrainian side was quoted at 20 million US dollars. At that time, the Chinese military was carrying out the "891" aircraft carrier project, the intention of the Ukrainian side, the Chinese military conducted a careful study. The Navy convened in Beijing, China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation, China Aviation Group, Navy Equipment Demonstration Center and other relevant units of the staff meeting, the need for the introduction of Varyag ship analysis, after the meeting that China does not need such a slip Type aircraft carrier, China is needed with ejection and fixed early warning aircraft carrier, that is, "891" research project on the positioning of domestic aircraft carrier, and Varyag aircraft carrier than China is developing the aircraft carrier to lag behind, according to the meeting of the research and analysis As a result, China did not reach an agreement with the Ukrainian side to buy Varyag ship. In the "891" aircraft carrier dismount after the project, China's independent development of the aircraft carrier has been impracticable, and the Chinese military had to turn to the next, once again look to the Varyag aircraft carrier. Although the Varyag aircraft carrier is not the pursuit of the Chinese military aircraft carrier type, but through the Varyag aircraft carrier to start the development of China's aircraft carrier is also a way. In 1998, the Macau law firm through the civil form, in order to transform the Varyag ship into the sea casino under the name of the United States and other countries and Taiwan on the company to buy Varyag ship behind the intention to be alert , In order to prevent China to get Varyag ship, carried out all kinds of obstacles. "911" incident, the United States self-serving, coupled with China's access to its global anti-terrorism strategy support, so the damage to the Varyag aircraft carrier has finally been reduced. At the time of the instructions of the state leaders, the Chinese government had come forward with the Turkish government had a difficult consultation, Turkey finally agreed to Varyag aircraft carrier through the Bosphorus Strait to return, but the Turkish side with 20 very harsh conditions The It can be said that there is no national will and strong backing, Varyag aircraft carrier is impossible to return to China. Prompted China to buy Varyag aircraft carrier this civil business behavior rose to the national behavior of the reasons, was the Chinese intelligence sector was the news, Taiwan is also quietly with the Ukrainian side of the contact, intended to buy Varyag , Taiwan want to buy tile Langge ship's purpose is obvious, is to stop the mainland to get Varyag ship. If Taiwan has received Vangaghu ship, whether it will be the continuation of the construction of the ship or commissioned another country to build an unknown, but not without this possibility exists, and Taiwan's direct intention is to prevent the mainland to get this aircraft carrier. At that time, the Taiwan independence forces were arrogant and the situation in the Taiwan Strait was tense, and any military movements involving Taiwan had to prepare the mainland. When the report was presented to President Jiang Zemin's case, this trend aroused great attention from the central authorities, making the central government determined to buy the Varyagbo ship, so that the purchase of Varyag aircraft carrier's civil business behavior will rise For the national behavior, then in many difficult issues on the negotiations by the Chinese government to come forward. With the success of the Varyag ship to become China's first aircraft carrier and delivered to the Chinese navy, the ship was named "Liaoning" aircraft carrier became the first Chinese naval combat aircraft carrier, China truly become one of the countries with aircraft carrier, Although this day is too late, although the "Liaoning" number of such a sliding carrier did not meet the original pursuit and expectations of China, but "Liaoning" aircraft carrier into service, after all, is the development of China's aircraft carrier a landmark mark Sexual events. In the "Varyag" to become "Liaoning" aircraft carrier behind, there are many sad twists and turns of the process, but also has a firm and unwavering will and tireless pursuit. http://www.xwtoutiao.cn/p/871pibm8/ http://mil.news.sina.com.cn/2015-03-24/1058825518.html Depth: Varyag number aircraft carrier on the Chinese significance of national strategic money can not buy March 28, 2015 10:58 Sina military microblogging this January 1, 2014, the Chinese Navy's first aircraft carrier Liaoning ship in the completion of the South China Sea training test mission, return to Qingdao home port, with a number of warships submarine maritime formation sailing. This is also the first time the Chinese navy public display aircraft carrier battle group scale. This photo album for the official media recently opened a new chart of aircraft carrier formation. Among them, the fleet in the 092 class strategic nuclear submarine is the first time to see. Source: ship knowledge, modern ship January 1, 2014, the Chinese Navy's first aircraft carrier Liaoning ship in the completion of the South China Sea training test mission, return to Qingdao home port, with a number of warships submarine maritime formation sailing. This is also the first time the Chinese navy public display aircraft carrier battle group scale. This photo album for the official media recently opened a new chart of aircraft carrier formation. Among them, the fleet in the 092 class strategic nuclear submarine is the first time to see. Source: ship knowledge, modern ship

Liaoning, not Shi Lang

Jane's Fighting Ships stated that Varyag may have been named Shi Lang (hull No. 83), a name reported in 2008. In the summer of 2007, it was commissioned into the PLAN. There is no corresponding official statement.

Shi Lang (1621-96)conquered Taiwan for the Kangxi emperor in 1683, previous to which it was under the sway of a Chinese chief named Koxinga. Admiral Shi Lang served as commander-in-chief of the Qing fleet of 300 warships and 20000 troops. In the 1662-64 period, the Qing government, in order to realize national reunification, had conducted peace talks 10 times over a period of 22 years. However, due to neglect of the construction and use of naval force and under the circumstance of the lack of necessary military pressure and effective military attacking capability, the first nine peace talks all ended in failures.

In 1683, Shi Lang, the navy military governor of Fujian, led more than 20,000-men to wipe out the bandits in Taiwan by employing the strategy for the use of force of "first taking Penghu and then Taiwan" and "residing invitation to surrender in annihilation". The Manchus took possession of the island and made it a district of Fukien Province, which it remained until ceded to the Japanese in 1895. Shi Lang's military and social influence carried on growing in the decade after his conquest of Taiwan. Shi Lang in his Memorial to the Emperor on Taiwan Issue analyzed the geographical situation of Taiwan, emphasized its strategic importance to the security of the southeast coast and the whole country and expressed his determination to safeguard it and keep it within the territory of China.




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