DDG-51 Arleigh Burke - Flight I
The initial ARLEIGH BURKE-class guided missile destroyers are 506 feet in overall length and have a 62 foot beam. The increase in full-load displacements over the originally announced 8,315 tons is the result of adapting void tanks to carry fuel. They are driven by two shafts powered by four LM2500 engines. Their maximum speed is in excess of 30 knots and they have a cruising range of 4,400 n. miles at 20 knots. The ships complement is about 30 officers and 302 enlisted personnel.
All ships of this class have the AEGIS air defense system with the SPY-1D phased array radar. They are armed with a 90-cell Vertical Launching System capable of storing and rapidly firing a mix of Standard, Tomahawk, and Vertically Launched ASROC (VLA) missiles for either Air Defense, Strike Warfare, or Anti-Submarine Warfare missions. Other armament includes the Harpoon anti-ship cruise missile, the 5"/54 gun with improvements that integrate it with the AEGIS weapon system, and the Phalanx Close-in Weapon System for self-defense. Combat systems include the Mk 8 weapons control system.
The Aegis SPY-1D radar has all four faces mounted on the forward superstructure. The system employs five UYK-43B computers, and the Combat Information Center is below the main deck. The AN/SPY-1D Phased Array Radar incorporates significant advances in the detection capabilities of the AEGIS Weapons System, particularly in its resistance to enemy Electronic Counter-Measures (ECM). The AEGIS system is designed to counter all current and projected missile threats to the Navy's battle forces. A conventional, mechanically rotating radar "sees" a target when the radar beam strikes that target once during each 360 degree rotation of the antenna. A separate tracking radar is then required to engage each target. In contrast, the computer-controlled AN/SPY-1D phased array radar of the AEGIS system brings these functions together within one system. The four fixed arrays of "SPY" send out beams of electromagnetic energy in all directions simultaneously, continuously providing a search and tracking capability for hundreds of targets at the same time. Using the SPY-1D and her Mark 99 Fire Control System, these ships can guide vertically-launched Standard Missiles to intercept hostile aircraft and missiles at extended ranges.
DDG 69 is the first with Aegis Baseline 5 Phase 3, which incorporates the SPY-1D Track Initiation Processor (which permits the screening of transient detections prior to transition-to-track), X-Windows format Tactical Graphics Capability, and an embedded Command and Control Processor with joint Link 16 capability. DDG 58 and later have improved fire control, extended-range standard missile employment capability, NTDS Mod 5, improved displays, and later communications systems.
The MK 41 VLS is a multi-warfare missile launching system capable of firing a mix of missiles against airborne and surface threats. VLS is a product of Martin-Marietta. It is modular in design, with eight modules symmetrically grouped to form a launcher magazine. The modules contain all the necessary components for launching functions when interfaced with the ship's AEGIS Weapon System.
The Standard SM-2 MR Block II missiles are controlled by the Aegis system, with the Mk 99 Missile Fire-Control System using the three Mk 80 illuminator systems' SPG-62 radars for terminal designation only. The normal load of missiles includes 74 Standard SM-2 MR SAMs.
Land attack cruise missile capability is provided by Tomahawk Missiles, which are launched from her Mark 41 Vertical Launching System (VLS). Tomahawk launch control is by the SWG-3A system and Harpoon by the SWG-1A(V) system. The Mk 116 Mod 7 UBFCS is carried, and the small number of VLA missiles to be procured may be reserved for this class.
The shorter range Harpoon Anti-Ship Cruise Missiles have a range in excess of 65 nautical miles which are fired from stand-alone launchers.
The 5"/54 Caliber Gun, in conjunction with the Mark 34 Gun Weapon System, is an anti-ship weapon which can also be used for close-in air contacts or to support forces ashore with Naval Gun-Fire Support (NGFS). Furnished with 600 rounds of ammunition, the 5"/54 gun is controlled by the Mk 34 Mod 0 Gun Weapon System with Mk 160 Mod 4 Gun Computing System (which uses radar input data from the SPS-67(V)3 or SPY-1D). The planned Mk 121 Mod 0 Seafire TV/laser/infrared director was canceled and replaced by a less costly system, the Kollmorgen Passive Optical Sight Mk 46 Mod 1, which is mounted atop an extended deckhouse forward of the forward Mk 99 illuminator.
To provide point defense against hostile air targets, the ships are equipped with the Block 1 upgrade to the Phalanx Close-In-Weapons System (CIWS). The 5"/54 Caliber Gun has a secondary antiaircraft capability.
The ARLEIGH BURKE Class is also equipped with the Navy's latest ASUW Combat Systems. The SQQ-89(V)4 ASW suite includes the SQS-53C bow-mounted sonar, SQQ-28 helicopter datalink, SIMAS, and the Mk 116 Mod 7 UBFCS. The AN/SQQ-89 integrated ASW Suite is the most advanced anti-submarine warfare system in the world today. The AN/SQR-19 Tactical Towed Array SONAR (TACTAS) provides extremely long-range passive detection of enemy submarines, and the AN/SQS-53C Hull-Mounted SONAR is used to actively and passively detect and locate submarine contacts.
The ships also have the capability to land the SH-60B LAMPS Mark III Helicopter, which can link to the ship for support in the anti- submarine operations, as well as conducting over-the-horizon targeting missions. No helicopter hangar is fitted. The flight deck will accept SH-60B/F helicopters, and the SQQ-28 LAMPS-III datalink/control system is installed. DDG 52 and later have the RAST (Recovery Assist, Secure, and Traverse) system, plus helicopter refueling/rearming facilities, which added 58 tons to the full-load displacement, delaying delivery of DDG 52 by 6 months. DDG 52-78 carry nine spare ASW torpedoes for helicopters in a small magazine near the helicopter deck.
These systems are supplemented by the SLQ-32V(2) Electronic Warfare Suite, which includes passive detection systems and decoy countermeasures. The SLQ-32(V)2 passive-only EW suite in the Flight I units of the class have been upgraded to SLQ-32(V)5 through the addition of Sidekick jammers. Later units were completed with Sidekick, while the Flight II ships are receiving the integrated SLQ-32(V)3 intercept and jamming array.
DDG 53 conducted trials with the AN/SPS-67(V)4 L-band surface search radar system, which employs a slotted waveguide-type antenna, and all subsequent units now have it, with DDG 51 and DDG 52 having been backfitted.
A new, large, waterplane area hull form significantly improves seakeeping ability. The hull form is designed to permit high speed in high sea states. The seakeeping hull form is characterized by considerable flair and a "V" shape appearance at the waterline. The hullform is unusually broad in relation to length; fin stabilizers are not fitted. The concept of the broad hull was borne out during sea trials for DDG 51, which was able to maintain 30 knots in 35 foot seas and a 60 knot gale. DDG 51 achieved 30 kts on 75,000 shp on trials at full load. Heel only slightly with full rudder at full speed. These ships are less fuel-efficient than the SPRUANCE class, due to their broader hullform and less efficient stern shape.
The DDG-51 Class engineering plant represents an improvement in US Naval gas turbine power plant control systems. Aircraft derivative gas turbines are used for both propulsion and ship service electrical power generation. A high degree of plant automation is achieved by an interconnected system of control consoles. Four of these control consoles are located in the Central Control Station (CCS) which is the nerve center of the DDG-51 Class engineering plant.
Four General Electric LM2500 Gas Turbine Engines (GTEs) provide ship's propulsion. Each Engine Room contains two LM2500s, one propulsion reduction gear to convert the high speed, low torque output of the gas turbine engine to low speed, high torque output suitable to drive the propulsion shafting, and the related support systems and equipment. The port shaft connects 2A and 2B GTEs in Main Engine Room #2 and the starboard shaft connects 1A and 1B GTEs in Main Engine Room #1. When viewed from the stern, the port shaft rotates counterclockwise and the starboard shaft clockwise, producing outward propeller rotation. Since the GTEs cannot be reversed, the Controllable Pitch Propeller (CPP) system provides ahead and astern thrust by hydraulically positioning the pitch of the propeller blades.
Each of the three Gas Turbine Generator Sets (GTGS) is rated at 2500 KW and supplies 450 VAC, three-phase, 60 HZ power. #1 GTGS is located in Auxiliary Machinery Room #1, #2 GTGS is located in Main Engine Room #2, and #3 GTGS is located in #3 Generator Room. The GTGS are separated from each other by three watertight bulkheads for survivability. Each Gas Turbine Generator Set is comprised of an Allison 501-K34 Gas Turbine Engine, a module assembly, a reduction gear assembly, and a generator.
The ships have steel superstructures, aluminum stacks, and the first comprehensive CBR protection system in a U.S. Navy ship. Over 130 tons of Kevlar or plastic armor are used for vital spaces, including 70 tons around the combat control spaces. The originally planned steel quadripod mast was changed before construction began to a lightweight structure employing composites to reduce radar signature.
The DDG-51 Class ships are specifically constructed from a survivability-enhanced design that affords passive protection to personnel and vital systems. This design provides protection against underwater shock, nuclear air blasts, fragment incursions into vital spaces, radar detection, electronic countermeasures, gun and missile attacks and a Chemical, Biological and Radiological (CBR) attack. A comprehensive Collective Protection System guards against nuclear, chemical, or biological agents. The ship's damage control features and constructional design make the DDG-51 Class Destroyer the most "survivable" surface ship in the world.
In the ARLEIGH BURKE Class, all-steel construction is used. Extensive top-side armor is placed around vital combat systems and machinery spaces. The bulkheads are constructed of steel from the waterline to the pilot house. The bulkheads are designed with double-spaced plate construction for fragment protection. The frontal plate causes fragments to break up and the backup plate stops the fragments from causing further damage to the interior of the ship. Othe Aegis combat system equipment rooms are protected by Kevlar shielding. And, topside weight is reduced by incorporating an aluminum mast.
Acoustic, infrared, and radar signatures have been reduced, and vital shipboard systems are hardened against electro-magnetic pulse and over-pressure damage. Sound isolators or "shock absorbers" have been placed on the reduction gears, giving the ship an added advantage when pursuing submarines. State-of-the-art propulsion and damage control systems are managed by an all-new data multi-plexing system. Fire detectors and increased AFFF and Halon protection add to improved survivability.
The ships have an automated digital steering system, wherein course is entered and automatically maintained. Trials were conducted in DDG 51 during 1991 with a rudder roll-reduction system. DDG 64 and later have the Litton WSN-5 ring-laser inertial gyro navigation system. They carry two 24 ft rigid inflatable boats (RIBs) and 15 25 man encapsulated liferafts.
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