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*FM 55-17

FIELD MANUAL
NO. 55-17
Headquarters
Department of the Army
Washington, DC, 16 February 1999

FM 55-17

CARGO SPECIALISTS' HANDBOOK

Table of Contents


PREFACE
PART ONE TERMINAL ORGANIZATIONS, FACILITIES, AND VESSELS
CHAPTER 1 AN OVERVIEW OF TERMINAL OPERATIONS
Section I. Overview
1-1. INTRODUCTION
1-2. TYPES OF TERMINAL OPERATIONS
1-3. TERMINAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THE CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES
1-4. TERMINAL ORGANIZATIONS IN A THEATER OF OPERATIONS
1-5. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE MILITARY SEALIFT COMMAND
1-6. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TERMINAL UNITS AND MILITARY SEALIFT COMMAND SHIPS
1-7. RESPONSIBILITY FOR CLEANING CARGO SPACES
Section II. Strategic Sealift Ships
1-8. MISSION OF THE STRATEGIC SEALIFT SHIPS
1-9. ORGANIZATIONAL OVERVIEW
1-10. MILITARY SEALIFT COMMAND
1-11. MILITARY TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT COMMAND
1-12. DEPLOYING UNITS
1-13. SUPERCARGO PERSONNEL
1-14. CARGO MAINTENANCE CREW
CHAPTER 2 HARBOR FACILITIES AND VESSELS
Section I. Overview
2-1. INTRODUCTION
2-2. SHIPBOARD DIRECTIONS
2-3. CARGO COMPARTMENTS
2-4. US MARITIME ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFICIATION SYSTEMS
2-5. SHIPPING CATEGORIES
2-6. SEALIFT ENHANCEMENT FEATURES PROGRAM
2-7. READY RESERVE FORCE
Section II. T-AKR 295 and 296 Class Ship Configurations
2-8. GENERAL SHIP CHARACTERISTICS
PART TWO GEAR AND EQUIPMENT
CHAPTER 3 SHIP'S GEAR AND RIGGING PROCEDURES
Section I. Ship's Gear
3-1. INTRODUCTION
3-2. CHAINS, HOOKS, AND SHACKLES
3-3. RIGGINGS AND DECK FITTINGS
3-4. TYPES OF WINCHES
3-5. WINCH OPERATION
3-6. SIGNALS USED IN WINCH OPERATIONS
Section II.     Rigging Procedures
3-7. RIGGING STANDARD CARGO BOOMS
3-8. TOPPING BOOMS
3-9. LOWERING BOOMS
3-10. RIGGING SYSTEMS
3-11. RIGGING HATCH TENTS
3-12. RIGGING SAVE-ALLS
3-13. RIGGING STANDARD BOOMS FOR HEAVY LIFTS
3-14. HEAVY-LIFT BOOMS
3-15. MODERN JUMBO BOOMS
3-16. SINGLE SWINGING BOOM
3-17. YARD-AND-STAY RIG WITH DOUBLE PURCHASE
3-18. BLOCK-IN-BIGHT RIGGING ON DOUBLE-RIGGED HATCH
3-19. FOUR BOOMS DOUBLED UP ON DOUBLE-RIGGED HATCH
3-20. HAGGLUNDS CRANE
3-21. HAND SIGNALS FOR HAGGLUNDS CRANE OPERATION
CHAPTER 4 CARGO-HANDLING GEAR
4-1. INTRODUCTION
4-2. GENERAL-PURPOSE GEAR
4-3. SPECIAL-PURPOSE GEAR
4-4. CARGO-HANDLING AIDS
4-5. CARE OF CARGO-HANDLING GEAR
CHAPTER 5 MATERIALS-HANDLING EQUIPMENT
5-1. INTRODUCTION
5-2. FORKLIFT TRUCKS
5-3. TRACTORS, TRAILERS, AND HAND TRUCKS
5-4. PALLET JACKS
5-5. CRANES
5-6. HELICOPTER POSITIONING DOLLY
5-7. CONTAINER HANDLERS
CHAPTER 6 BLOCK AND TACKLE, WIRE ROPE, AND MARLINESPIKE SEAMANSHIP
Section I.     Blocks and Tackles
6-1. INTRODUCTION
6-2. COMPONENTS OF WOODEN BLOCKS
6-3. COMPONENTS OF METAL BLOCKS
6-4. TYPES OF BLOCKS
6-5. SIZES OF BLOCKS
6-6. MAINTENANCE OF METAL BLOCKS
6-7. TACKLE USES AND TYPES
6-8. REEVING TACKLES
6-9. MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
6-10. FRICTION
6-11. BREAKING STRESS AND SAFE WORKING LOAD
Section II. Wire Rope
6-12. CARE AND USE OF WIRE ROPE
6-13. MAKEUP OF WIRE ROPE
6-14. CLASSIFICATION
6-15. MEASUREMENT
6-16. SAFE WORKING LOAD AND BREAKING STRENTH
6-17. INSPECTION OF WIRE ROPES
6-18. HANDLING
Section III. Marlinespike Seamanship
6-19. CHARACTERISTICS AND FIBER LINE
6-20. CORDAGE
6-21. INSPECTION OF LINES
6-22. UNCOILING NEW LINE
6-23. WHIPPING LINE
6-24. KNOTS, BENDS, AND HITCHES
6-25. SPLICING THREE-STRAND FIBER LINE
6-26. PUTTING AN EYE IN WIRE ROPE
PART THREE OCEAN TERMINAL OPERATIONS
CHAPTER 7 PRESTOWAGE PLANNING
Section I. Terms and Factors
7-1. INTRODUCTION
7-2. VESSEL TONNAGE TERMS
7-3. STOWAGE PLANNING FACTORS
7-4. STABILITY
7-5. STOWAGE AND CAPACITY BOOKLET
7-6. VESSEL DEAD WEIGHT SCALE
7-7. WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION
7-8. TRIM TABLE
Section II. Steps in Prestow Planning
7-9. OVERALL CARGO LOAD PLANNING
7-10. DELIVERING CARGO TO SHIPSIDE
7-11. FACILITY REQUIREMENTS (T-AKR 295/296 CLASS SHIPS
7-12. LOADING TIME
7-13. CARGO LOADING ORDER (T-AKR 295/296 CLASS SHIPS
7-14. FINAL STOWAGE PLAN
Section III. Cargo Stowage Plan
7-15. ONVENTIONAL CARGO VESSELS
7-16. BREAK-BULK VESSEL STOWAGE PLANS
7-17. CONTAINER VESSEL STOWAGE PLAN
7-18. DISCHARGE PLANNING
7-19. DISCHARGE OVER WHARVES
7-20. BERTH ASSIGNMENT
7-21. EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS
7-22. CARGO CLEARANCE TRANSPORTATION REQUIRMENTS
CHAPTER 8 LOADING AND DISCHARGING CARGO VESSELS
Section I. Loading General Cargo
8-1. INTRODUCTION
8-2. ADMINISTRATIVE LOADING
8-3. CARGO-HANDLING OPERATIONS
8-4. STOWAGE OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CARGO
8-5. GENERAL RULES FOR STOWING CARGO
8-6. SECURING OF CARGO
8-7. LASHING AS A MEANS OF SECURING
8-8. SECURING DECK CARGO
8-9. DUNNAGE
8-10. OTHER MEANS OF SECURING CARGO
Section II. Discharging Break-Bulk Cargo
8-11. DECK CARGO
8-12. CARGO IN HOLDS
8-13. TERMINAL CLEARANCE
8-14. CARGO TALLYING METHODS
8-15. TALLYING BREAK-BULK CARGO
8-16. TEMPORARY HOLDING AREAS
8-17. CARGO DAMAGE AND LOSS
8-18. CARGO SECURITY
8-19. SAFETY
Section III. Loading Phase of RO/RO Operations
8-20. RO/RO SYSTEM
8-21. RO/RO VEHICLE OPERATIONS PROCEDURES
8-22. LIFT-ON OPERATIONS
8-23. AFT SECTION LIFT-ON OPERATIONS
8-24. MIDSECTION LIFT-ON OPERATIONS
8-25. FORWARD SECTION LIFT-ON OPERATIONS
8-26. ROLL-ON OPERATIONS
8-27. ROLL-ON LOADING SEQUENCE
8-28. TRAFFIC CONTROL
8-29. STOWAGE OF VEHICLES WITHIN FIRE LANES
8-30. RAMP PROBLEMS DUE TO TIDES
Section IV. Discharge Phase of RO/RO Operations
8-31. ROLL-OFF OPERATIONS
8-32. LIFT-OFF OPERATIONS
Section V. Cargo Operations for T-AKR 295 and 296 Class Ships
8-33. CARGO OPERATIONS (T-AKR 295 AND 296 CLASS SHIPS)
8-34. RO/RO OPERATIONS (T-AKR 295 CLASS)
8-35. DUAL RAMP OPERATIONS (T-AKR 295 CLASS)
8-36. SINGLE RAMP OPERATIONS (T-AKR 295 CLASS)
8-37. SINGLE RAMP OPERATIONS FROM THE STERN RAMP
8-38. SINGLE RAMP OPERATIONS FROM THE SIDE PORT RAMP
8-39. LO/LO OPERATIONS (T-AKR 295 CLASS)
8-40. RO/RO OPERATIONS (T-AKR 296 CLASS)
8-41. DUAL RAMP OPERATIONS FROM STERN RAMP
8-42. DUAL RAMP OPERATIONS FROM THE SIDE PORT RAMP
8-43. SINGLE RAMP OPERATIONS (T-AKR 296 CLASS)
8-44. LO/LO OPERATIONS (T-AKR 296 CLASS)
CHAPTER 9 SECURING, LOADING, AND STOWING HAZARDOUS CARGO
9-1. FUNDAMENTAL SECURING PROCEDURES
9-2. PRELOAD SECURING
9-3. LOADING PROCEDURES
9-4. TYPES OF STOWAGE
9-5. STOWAGE GROUPS
9-6. BOMB AND MISSILE STOWAGE PROCEDURES
9-7. SECURING STRUCTURES
CHAPTER 10 SPECIAL CARGO-HANDLING OPERATIONS
10-1. INTRODUCTION
10-2. LOGISTICS OVER-THE-SHORE OPERATIONS
10-3. LASH AND SEABEE OPERATIONS
10-4. BLOCKING AND BRACING ABOARD LIGHTERS
CHAPTER 11 SAFETY IN TERMINAL OPERATIONS
11-1. INTRODUCTION
11-2. VESSEL ACCESS
11-3. OPENING AND CLOSING HATCHES
11-4. VESSEL WORKING SURFACE
11-5. SHIP'S GEAR
11-6. OTHER GEAR AND EQUIPMENT
11-7. HANDLING CARGO
11-8. GENERAL WORKING CONDITIONS
CHAPTER 12 STUFFING THE CONTAINER
12-1. INTRODUCTION
12-2. GENERAL PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS
12-3. CARDBOARD CARTONS
12-4. PALLETIZED CARGO
12-5. BAGGED, SACKED, AND BALED CARGO
12-6. DRUMS
12-7. WOODEN BOXES AND CRATES
12-8. MACHINERY AND HEAVY-END ITEMS
12-9. VEHICLES
12-10. MIXED COMMODITIES
12-11. PERISHABLES
CHAPTER 13 CONTAINER HANDLING AND LABELING
13-1. INTRODUCTION
13-2. STRADDLE CRANES
13-3. STRADDLE TRUCKS
13-4. DOCKSIDE CONTAINER CRANES
13-4. DOCKSIDE CONTAINER CRANES
13-4. DOCKSIDE CONTAINER CRANES
13-6. LABELING AND HANDLING OF CONTAINERS
13-7. SPECIAL MARKINGS
13-8. SECURING OF CONTAINERS
13-9. LIFTING OF CONTAINERS
CHAPTER 14 CONTAINER DOCUMENTATION
14-1. INTRODUCTION
14-2. SHIPMENT CLEARANCE
14-3. BASIC DOCUMENTATION
14-4. TALLYING CONTAINERS
CHAPTER 15 CONTAINER CONSTRUCTION AND INSPECTION
15-1. INTRODUCTION
15-2. COMMERCIAL CONTAINER CONSTRUCTION
15-3. CONDUCTING A CONTAINER ACCEPTANCE INSPECTION
PART FIVE AIR TERMINAL OPERATIONS
CHAPTER 16 AIR MOVEMENTS
16-1. INTRODUCTION
16-2. AIR MOBILITY COMMAND
16-3. AIRCRAFT LOADING DATA
16-4. DEPLOYING UNIT'S RESPONSIBILITIES
16-5. LOADING UNIT'S RESPONSIBILITIES
16-6. HAZARDOUS CARGO
16-7. TROOP COMMANDER'S RESPONSIBILITIES
16-8. SAFETY
CHAPTER 17 DETERMINATION OF CENTER OF BALANCE AND CENTER OF GRAVITY
Section I.Center of Balance (Vehicles and General Cargo)
17-1. INTRODUCTION
17-2. VEHICLE MEASUREMENTS
17-3. WEIGHT AND CENTER OF BALANCE
Section II.Aircraft Center of Gravity (Weight and Balance)
17-4. CENTER OF GRAVITY
17-5. WEIGHT AND BALANCE
CHAPTER 18 463L PALLETS AND SHORING
18-1. INTRODUCTION
18-2. CONSTRUCTION OF 463L PALLETS
18-3. LOADING CARGO ON A 463L PALLET
18-4. SECURING CARGO TO THE PALLET
18-5. MULTI-PALLETIZATION
18-6. STORAGE OF 463L PALLETS AND NETS
18-7. CH-47 HICHS
18-8. SHORING
PART SIX RAIL AND INLAND WATER TERMINAL OPERATIONS
CHAPTER 19 MOTOR TRANSPORT
19-1. INTRODUCTION
19-2. WEIGHT AND LOAD DISTRIBUTION
19-3. RULES FOR LOADING
19-4. UNITIZED LOADS
19-5. EXPLOSIVES AND FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS
CHAPTER 20 RAIL TRANSPORT
20-1. INTRODUCTION
20-2. PREPLANNING STAGE
20-3. DETAILED PLANNING
20-4. LOADING VEHICLES IN RAIL CARS
20-5. LOADING UNITIZED CARGO IN RAIL CARS
20-6. HAZARDOUS CARGO
20-7. GENERAL RULES FOR LOADING
20-8. IDLER CARS
20-9. VEHICLE SECUREMENT
20-10. MULTILEVEL FLATCARS
20-11. CHAIN SECUREMENT
20-12. CHAIN SECUREMENT OF A 2 1/2-TON TRUCK
APPENDIX A CONVERSION FACTORS
APPENDIX B WARNING LABELS
GLOSSARY
REFERENCES
AUTHORIZATION

*This publication supersedes FM 55-17, 9 September 1990.

 


 

PREFACE

This manual provides guidance and technical information relevant to personnel who move supplies and materiel through water, motor, rail, and air terminals. The specific intent of this manual is to provide instructions in all phases of cargo handling with the emphasis on securing, loading, and unloading all types and configurations of cargo. Descriptions of cargo-handling gear are also provided in some detail.

The US Army's environmental strategy into the 21st century defines the Army's leadership commitment and philosophy for meeting present and future environmental challenges. It provides a framework to ensure that environmental stewardship ethic governs all Army activities. The Army's environmental vision is to be a national leader in environmental and natural resource stewardship for present and future generations, as an integral part of all Army missions. The Army's environmental vision statement communicates the Army's commitment to the environment.

The proponent of this publication is HQ TRADOC. Submit changes for improving this publication on DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) and forward it to Commander, USACASCOM, Training Directorate, ATTN: ATCL-AT, 401 1st Street Suite 227, Fort Lee, VA 23801-1511.

Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men. 

 



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