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CHAPTER 8

LOADING AND DISCHARGING CARGO VESSELS

Section I. Loading General Cargo

8-1. INTRODUCTION. The first two sections of this chapter cover the loading and discharging of general cargo vessels. Special attention is given to the different methods of securing cargo, as well as careful handling procedures to prevent damage. Sections three and four describe the loading and discharging methods for RO/RO vessels. The last section in this chapter discusses performing LO/LO and RO/RO operations on the T-AKR 295 and 296 Class Strategic Sealift Ship.

8-2. ADMINISTRATIVE LOADING. The majority of vessels are administratively loaded. Administrative loading is used in a noncombat situation. It makes maximum use of a ship's cargo carrying capability. In administrative loading, equipment and supplies are discharged and sorted before they can be used. Cargo loaded administratively can be discharged at a single port or multiple ports.

    a. In loading for a single port of discharge, cargo planners stow supplies to make maximum use of the carrying capacity of a ship.

    b. In loading vessels for multiple-port discharge, cargo planners stow supplies for more than one destination so that items can be discharged in the order of arrival at the ship's scheduled ports of discharge. Personnel must take care at the original and intermediate loading ports to prevent stowing cargo on top of other cargo that will be discharged sooner.

8-3. CARGO-HANDLING OPERATIONS. Containerization is a general term that describes the transportation of goods in specially designed containers so that loose products, small packages, high value items, and high density cargoes are unitized for easier handling. Containers can be moved aboard most cargo ships; however, movement aboard full containerships offers the greatest system efficiency.

    a. Containerization has changed every aspect of cargo movement. Cargo-handling operations are no exception. The basic function of the cargo handler is to handle cargo between the terminal and the vessel. This function has not changed, but the manner in which it is accomplished and the equipment used have undergone a dramatic change. Full containerships are specially designed to carry containers. The first ships used to carry containers were conventional vessels converted to partial or full containerships, usually self-sustaining. The latest containerships are not self-sustaining. Conventional ships can carry limited numbers of containers but only as conventional cargo, which means containers are heavy lifts for most conventional vessels. Partial containerships are equipped to handle containers and break-bulk cargo. Only ships with a capacity of at least fifty 20-foot containers are considered partial containerships.

    b. General cargo is still handled in the conventional manner and, in some trade routes, this remains the predominant method. Some cargoes will always remain as general cargo commodities. As containerization increases in a port, "cargo mix" in the general cargo operation undergoes change. Package cargo gradually disappears into containers and the larger, harder to handle (or low-revenue) cargo remains. With this specialization in specific commodities, it becomes economically necessary to improve the handling method previously employed.

    c. Newer general cargo ships have replaced the conventional 5-ton capacity cargo gear with cranes of 20-ton capacity or more. Paper pulp and newsprint are handled with a special multiple-sling arrangement which handles several rolls in single hoist. Steel products and pipe are similarly handled. For the package cargo, unitization has eliminated almost all hand stowage in the vessel. Special "squeeze lifts" handle cotton and other solid-bale commodities. Special slings permit the unitization of bagged cargoes. Two different types of cages are used for handling palletized or unitized loads.

8-4. STOWAGE OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CARGO. Many types of cargo are stowed aboard the vessel. This paragraph discusses how to stow palletized cargo, heavy lifts, nonunitized cargo, and refrigerated cargo.

    a. Palletized Loads. Palletized unit loads are formed on general-purpose four-way entry pallets. A palletized unit load may not be more than 52 inches long, 43 inches wide, and 54 inches high (including the pallet). The gross weight may not exceed 3,000 pounds.

      (1) The cargo may overhang the pallet no more than 2 inches on each end and 1 l/2 inches on each side and the palletized unit load will occupy approximately 70 cubic feet of shipping space. The cargo and pallet are securely bound together with adhesives and/or various types of banding. A common method is to use five steel straps around both cargo and pallet. Two are spaced equally and placed longitudinally, and three are spaced equally and placed transversely.

      (2) When a small number of palletized loads are stowed, the best location is the square of the batch. However, if the volume of palletized cargo is great, it must be stowed in the ends and wings. Unlike heavy lifts, pallets are not designed for dragging. Although pallets can be dragged into the wings and ends, dragging is time-consuming and dangerous and causes excessive damage to the cargo. The following methods are recommended for placing palletized cargo in underdeck stowage:

        (a) If there is sufficient headroom for forklifts to maneuver, they may be used as follows to stow palletized cargo:

        • Place the required dunnage in the hatch. Usually little dunnage will be necessary since the pallet itself serves as dunnage, but some dunnage may be needed for leveling off, padding obstructions, and so forth.
        • Hoist a forklift into the hatch. Short-mast, pneumatic-tired forklifts should be used.
        • Place the pallets in the hatch so that the access slots face in a direction requiring a minimum of forklift maneuvering. Using the forklift, engage the load and proceed to the place of final stowage.
        • If pallets cannot be tiered under the deck because of insufficient headroom clearance, it is often possible to load one pallet on top of another in the square of the hatch and move both pallets into the final stowage position with the forklift.
        • Use filler cargo or chocking to take out the sheer at the bottom of the hatch and to fill in any voids created by the shape of cargo, stanchions, or other fittings. Filler cargo must be of a type that will not be easily damaged.
        • If it is necessary to operate a forklift on top of unitized cargo, dunnage off the entire hatch with two layers of dunnage, one fore and aft and one athwartship, making floors solid.

        (b) Pallet jacks may be used to move palletized cargo into final stowage position under deck. Since pallet jacks cannot tier cargo, it will be necessary to stow one tier at a time. Dunnage must be laid between views so that the pallet jacks can be maneuvered.

        (c) Palletized cargo may be moved into final stowage position by roller conveyors. T he roller conveyors are laid from the square of the hatch to the stowage position. The draft is landed on the conveyors and rolled into position. Conveyor sections must be lifted after each draft. One section of roller conveyor can be inverted so that the rollers are next to the deck or dunnage. The conveyor is spotted so that it is pointing in the direction of stowage. The draft is landed on the inverted conveyor and rolled into stowage position. The draft must be lifted so that the conveyor can be removed. The truck dolly or pallet dolly may also be used in the same manner as the inverted roller conveyor.

        (d) Palletized cargo may be moved into final stowage position by means of wooden or metal single-type rollers.

    b. Heavy Lifts. The stowage of heavy lifts, such as tracked vehicles, takes place every day in terminal operations. A heavy lift is any single package, pallet, unitized or containerized item that weighs 10,000 pounds or more.

      (1) Before heavy lifts are loaded, cargo handlers should prepare the holds to receive the cargo. Dunnage material should be assembled for securing the lifts, blocks, shackles, draglines, bars, and other necessary equipment beforehand. This material should be loaded into the hold before the first lift is hoisted aboard.

      (2) Cargo handlers should check all gear before picking up a heavy lift.

      (3) Cargo handlers must use taglines on all heavy lifts. All personnel must stand clear of a heavy lift coming into the hatch until it is lowered to within a few inches of the deck. Personnel can then assist in steadying the lift for landing.

      (4) Operators can move tracked vehicles, such as tanks, crawlers, cranes, and bulldozers from the square of the hatch to their stowage position by draglines. The tracks are barked or released to control the movement and direction of the vehicle. Only experienced operators of heavy equipment are permitted to steer tracked vehicles. When stowing tracked vehicles in the hold, cargo handlers will-

      • Stow tracked vehicles in a fore-and-aft position, whenever possible.
      • Leave multifuel vehicles in neutral gear with the brake engaged.
      • Leave gasoline-driven vehicles in gear with the brake engaged.
      • Lock turrets on tanks, and cabs on cranes, or lash them in position.

      (5) A double solid floor of planking not less than 2 inches thick must be constructed and nailed down before tanks, bulldozers, or cranes are loaded. When tanks are stowed in the between deck, similar flooring is laid. Operators should secure tracked vehicles weighing less than 18 tons with at least 4- by 6-inch lumber. Those vehicles weighing more than 18 tons should be secured with at least 6- by 8-inch lumber. Cargo handlers should lash all tracked vehicles, whether stowed on deck or below deck, with wire rope or chain.

      (6) Use vehicle bridles and slings to hoist wheeled vehicles aboard ship. These vehicles are landed in the hold to head in the direction of stowage. After they are landed, one person releases the brake and steers the vehicle while it is pushed into stowage position. If the vehicle cannot be pushed into position by hand, a dragline is set up. If it is necessary to move one end of the vehicle sideways to stow it in the desired spot, use one of the following methods:

        (a) Place dunnage smeared with skid compound or grease under the wheels on the end of the vehicle to be moved. Dunnage is laid in the direction of the move. Operators set up a dragline and the ends of the vehicle are dragged to the desired spot.

        (b) Use heavy-duty rolling jacks to move the end over, if available.

      (7) Operators will stow vehicles fore and aft whenever possible. As in the case of tracked vehicles, stowing them fore and aft lessens the chance that they will break loose when the ship rolls in heavy seas. When it is necessary to stow them athwartship, you should obtain permission from the vessel's master or representative. When securing vehicles stowed athwartship, cargo handlers must-

      • Set the brakes on the vehicle.
      • Block the vehicle at both sides and at both ends so that it cannot move in any direction. The size and type of vehicle will dictate the size of timber to use. (See Figure 8-1.)
      • Brace individual vehicles to bulkheads, stanchions, or other vehicle blocking.
      • Use lashing in addition to blocking and bracing. Vehicles must be lashed with wire rope. Put blocks under bumpers or chassis to keep tension off the springs

      (8) Large pieces of cargo such as walk-in refrigerators or decontamination units are often shipped in large cases. The main problem in stowing large heavy cases is moving them from the square of the hatch to the place of stowage. This can be accomplished by the following methods:

      • Land the case onto rollers when possible. Make sure it is landed to head in the direction of stowage. Remove the sling on the side next to the coaming. By topping, lowering, or winging the booms, move the head of the boom in the direction of the stowage. At the same time, put a strain on the sling still attached to the case. The case will then move in the desired direction until the sling or cargo block is topped by the coaming. Personnel should normally remove rollers before placing the case in the final stowage location. If further movement is necessary, use a dragline.
      • Land well-constructed cases of cargo weighing up to 7 or 8 tons on rollers and move into position with crowbars and wedge point bars.
      • Position the cases on dunnage runways smeared with skid compound, soap, or grease when rollers are not available. Then, move the cases into position with the dragline.

      (9) Draglines are set up in the holds and between decks to drag heavy lifts from the square of the hatch to the place of stowage or from the place of stowage to the square of the hatch. Draglines are long lengths of wire rope (approximately 60 feet) with an eye in each end. To rig a dragline, personnel must-

      • Attach a snatch block to the side of the cargo compartment or to the bulkhead at each end of the desired stowage location and in line with the cargo.
      • Attach a second snatch block to a stanchion or other fitting to provide a fairlead to square of the hatch.
      • Attach one end of the dragline to the item to be stowed.
      • Pass the line through the snatch block that is made fast in the direction of stowage.
      • Pass the line through the fairlead snatch block at the square of the hatch, attaching to the other end of the cargo fall (Figure 8-2).
      • Drag the lift to its stowage position by taking up on the cargo runner with the winch. It is often necessary to drag one end of a lift to the place of stowage; then shift the snatch block to another position to drag the other end. Therefore, an additional snatch block is hung in the second position before starting the dragline precautions.

      (10) Many vessels have special runners that are used for dragline operations, and it is often necessary to use them, and to take them off the boom. When cargo runners are used, personnel must-

      • Always strip the cargo runner from the boom and lead it from the winch to the heelblock and then to the hold.
      • Always use a fairlead snatch block at the top of the hatch inside the coaming.
      • Never run the cargo runner under the coaming. The runner will fray when pulled over the metal edges.

      (11) When dragline operations are in progress, personnel must-

      • Use additional snatch blocks as fairleads to prevent chafing.
      • Lead runners to power at an adjacent hatch, warping winch, or anchor windlass when using jumbo booms for heavy lifts.
      • Never drag with the cargo hook unless there is no other means to apply power to the dragline.
      • Use a tackle (Figure 8-3) if the lift is too heavy for the winch to pull. If necessary, improvise a tackle using additional snatch blocks.
      • Fasten beam clamps to the stiffeners or frames for securing snatch blocks when no pad eyes are available (Figure 8-3).
      • Never pull on the side of a pad eye. This will cause the pad eye to bend over on its side.

      (12) To prevent injuring personnel and damaging cargo, the following rules are to be observed:

      • Keep crew out of the bight of the lines at all times.
      • Keep out of the area between the lift being dragged and the place of stowage.
      • When slings are placed around heavy cases for dragging, place dunnage between the case and the bearing part of the sling to prevent damage to the case.
      • Observe the case while it is being dragged into position to ensure that it does not become jammed against dunnage, deck fittings, or other cargo. Any attempt to drag the lift while it is jammed will place an additional strain on the gear, and it may carry away the sling or pull it through the side of the case.

    c. Nonunitized Cargo. In today's shipping society, cargo is shipped either in containers or unitized on pallets for quick loading and unloading of the vessel. However, circumstance may dictate that cargo be unloaded aboard a vessel in a nonunitized configuration. Nonunitized cargo may consist of the following items:

      (1) Bagged cargo. The procedures for protecting, loading, and stowing bagged cargo are listed below.

        (a) To prevent water damage, bagged commodities, such as cement, should be stowed away from moist cargo or cargo that sweats. Bags also must be protected from any direct contact with metal. Use mats, paper, or other protective material to protect the cargo from moisture running down the ladders, frames, stanchions, and so forth. When bagged cargo is loaded aboard a vessel on which no dunnage is used between the bags and wooden cargo battens, the bags should be stowed on their ends in the wings of the ship. This will prevent them from protruding over the battens and coming in contact with the moist metal of the hull plating.

        (b) Do not allow the bags to overlap the stringer plates of beams or similar obstructions in the hold. If the bags are allowed to overlap, vessel motion could cut them. Vertical dunnage placed against ladders and hatch battens will normally protect the bags from falling or chafing. Cargo handlers should never use handbooks to handle paper-bagged cargo.

        (c) Bagged cargo is stowed in tiers across the hold (Figure 8-4). Cargo handlers may use any of the following three general methods for stowing bagged cargo:

        • The full bag method provides good ventilation but provides an unstable stow. Unless required for some reason, this is the least desirable method of stowing bagged cargo.
        • The half-bag method is used where floor ventilation is not important and bags are soft.
        • The cross-tier method is used at corners and outer rows to prevent collapsing or shifting of the stacks of bagged cargo.

        (d) Figure 8-5 shows a typical stowage of bagged cargo. Dunnage around the ladder protects the bags. The bulkhead prevents shifting, and the cross-tier method of stowing prevents collapsing.

      (2) Baled cargo. The procedure for handling baled cargo is listed below.

        (a) Baled cargo is easily damaged by chafing. To prevent chafing, use flatboard dunnage underneath bales since dunnage with sharp edges would cut through the bale wrappings.

        (b) Dunnage all metal parts in the hold to prevent damage from moisture.

        (c) Bales stowed in the wings of the hold are frequently placed on end so that only the outside layers of cargo will be damaged if moisture condenses on the sides of the ship or should chafing damage the bales.

      (3) Cased goods. The procedures for stowing cased goods are listed below.

        (a) Strong wooden cases of uniform size may be stowed brick fashion, in the same way as cardboard cartons. No dunnage floors are placed between the tiers in the lower hold.

        (b) When stowing cased goods, cargo handlers must-

        • Stow heavier cases in the lower tiers.
        • Never stow a case so that it rests directly on top of and inside the four corners of the case beneath it unless dunnage is laid across the top of the lower case to take the weight.
        • Stow cases containing cargo that might leak separately or at the bottom of the hold.
        • Make every possible effort to keep ties level. This can often be achieved by filling up the spaces between large cases with smaller cases.
        • Place dunnage over lightly constructed cases before the next tier is started.

      (4) Crates. Crates are lightly constructed containers built as a framework with open sides and tops. They are used for ocean shipping and are stiffened by the use of diagonal pieces of lumber. The bottoms are solid with well-built foundations that support their internal weight. When crates are stowed, tiers should be kept level by laying dunnage between them. The dunnage may be spaced about 4 inches apart. Crates should be stowed in the tween decks or in the top tiers of the lower holds. If it is necessary to stow cargo over crates, only lightweight cargo should be used.

      (5) Drums. Drums are made of steel. They are stowed athwartship and upright with the bungs up.

        (a) To prepare the hold for stowing drums, cargo handlers-

        • Lay dunnage athwartship approximately 6 inches apart on the deck and place drums on the dunnage.
        • Build a shelf over the turn of the bilge (see Figure 8-6).
        • Place dunnage between the first row of drums and the bulkhead.

        (b) To stow the first tier-

        • Work from the wings to the center of the hold.
        • Rest chimes squarely on the dunnage.
        • If the first row does not fit securely across the bulkhead, save space by spreading out the drums, keeping equal space between them. Stagger the next row of drums (keeping the same spacing as in the first row). The second row should fit into the recessed areas created by the slight spacing between the drums in the first row.

        (c) To stow the second tier, cargo handlers should-

        • Lay dunnage over the first tier.
        • Place drums on dunnage, as shown in Figure 8-7.

        (d) Cargo handlers will stow succeeding tiers in the same way.

NOTE: Do not stow drums more than three tiers high.

      (6) Cylinders. Strong steel cylinders are used for the shipment of compressed gases. These containers are under pressure of up to 2,000 pounds or more per square inch. Cargo handlers must handle these containers carefully and stow them securely to prevent damage to the cylinder. If damaged, the cylinders could cause damage to other cargo, as well as to the ship.

        (a) Equipment used for loading or unloading compressed gases must be adequate to prevent cylinders from falling during handling operations. Use a tray with sideboards of sufficient height to prevent cylinders from falling off, a tray with small mesh net, a pallet with cylinders secured in place, a bridle, or a bridle sling with a round twin at each end of the load.

        (b) Stowed instructions for each specific type of compressed gas are contained in paragraph 146.24-100 of the CFR.

        (c) When CFR paragraph 146.24-100 permits on-deck stowage, the vessel master must approve the method. Cargo handlers should ensure stowage is consistent with the following conditions:

        • The vessel must have open spaces on deck suitable for this stowage.
        • Sufficient structural protection must be provided by the vessel's freeboards or bulwarks.
        • Cylinders must be stowed on their sides unless boxes, cribs, or racks are provided for vertical stowage.
        • When stowed on deck, the cylinders must be protected from the direct rays of the sun by awnings or other protective structures. Tarpaulins covering and in contact with cylinders are not considered adequate protection. Use of wood dunnage is permitted for protection.

        (d) Cylinders stowed under deck must be placed in cool compartments or holds that can be ventilated or are of gastight construction. These compartments should be protected from open flame and any source of artificial heat. They must contain no living spaces for crew and passengers, and be readily accessible from hatches or cargo holds.

        (e) Cylinders of compressed gas stowed either on deck or under deck will be kept from direct contact with the vessel's sides or bulwarks by dunnage, shoring, or other effective means.

        (f) Cylinders of compressed gas stowed on their sides must be dunnaged under the first tier so that they will not rest directly on a steel or iron deck. Cargo handlers should stow each additional tier in the cantlines of the lower tier. Never stow cylinders bilge-to-bilge or directly on top of one another. The tiers may be stepped back and the ends of the cylinders alternated in order to clear the flange. Suitable lashing must be provided to prevent movement in any direction.

        (g) When cylinders are stowed in a vertical position, they must be stowed in a block and cribbed or boxed in with suitable sound lumber. Cargo handlers will dunnage the box or crib at least 4 inches off the steel or iron deck. The cylinders in the box or crib should be braced to prevent any movement. The box or crib should be securely chocked and lashed to prevent movement in any direction.

        (h) Lashing must be secured to pad eyes or other structural parts of the vessel. Pipe rails should not be used to secure lashings.

        (i) The cylinder valves are protected by screw caps recessed into the cylinder. When personnel handle cylinders, they must ensure these screw caps are on and the valves are protected as much as possible. Rough handling may cause a valve to break and result in a serious accident. The uncontrolled escape of compressed gas will cause the cylinder to take flight, sometimes with enough force to blow it through the side of a ship.

        (j) Open flame lights and-smoking are prohibited near flammable compressed gases. Responsible personnel will ensure that "No Smoking" signs are posted in the vicinity of such gases. Flammable gases may not be stowed below deck or on a vessel with Class A or Class B explosives, unless separated from the explosives by the engine or boiler rooms.

        (k) A leaking cylinder must not be accepted for transportation.

      (7) Lumber. Lumber is shipped in loose board lots and packaged lots. Cargo handlers should plan carefully to reduce lost space in handling packaged lumber. Large voids can be filled in with loose boards as necessary.

        (a) Lumber may be stowed on deck or below deck. Deck loads of lumber must be securely lashed. The use of 3/4-inch chain made fast to pad eyes on deck and secured with turnbuckles, pear links, and slip hooks on top of the cargo is a suitable method of lashing. Chain lashing should be spaced no more than 10 feet apart.

        (b) When finished lumber is being loaded, cargo handlers should use manila rope slings for hoisting. Hooks should never be used on finished lumber. If it is necessary to use wedge point bars to stow lumber, dunnage should be placed between the bars and lumber. When hoisting lumber, two slings should be used. If only one sling is used, the boards on the inside of the load may slip out, damaging cargo and injuring personnel. Lumber may be unitized for easier handling by making up drafts of uniform size and banding the cargo so that each draft is handled as a single quantity.

      (8) Steel plate. The handling of steel plate is a difficult and dangerous operation. Cargo handlers should observe the following safety precautions when handling steel plate:

      • Stow steel plate on the bottom of the lower holds or the between decks.
      • Stow steel plate level on dunnage so that the weight of cargo loaded on top of it will be evenly distributed over the entire plate.
      • Stow steel plate in a fore-and-aft direction if possible.
      • Sling steel plate on the quarters at a point about one-quarter of the length of the plates from each end.
      • Use a round turn on each sling and use taglines to control the draft if long lengths of plate have a tendency to bend when slung.
      • Use crowbars or wedge point bars for moving the plates into final stowed position.

CAUTION: Never use plate-handling clamps for hoisting steel plate into or out of a hold. Use plate-handling clamps to lift steel plates only high enough to land the plates on dunnage where they can be properly slung with wire rope slings.

      (9) Piles. Piles are long concrete or wood logs. They are usually stowed on deck, but may sometimes be stowed below deck. Piles stowed below deck are usually stowed in the larger hatches.

        (a) The following precautions must be taken when handling piles:

        • Always use two slings when hoisting piles. Each sling should have a safe working capacity capable of supporting the load by itself.
        • Always use taglines when handling piles.

CAUTION: Creosote will burn skin and eyes. After handling creosote-treated wooden piles, personnel should not touch their faces or eyes until they have thoroughly washed their hands, gloves, and anything else that has touched the creosote.

        (b) Piles over 60 feet long are stowed on deck. It may sometimes be necessary to change the position of the slings in order to place the piles in the stowed position. Use a dragline for pulling the piles into position. If necessary, use the gear at the next hatch to stow extremely long pilings.

    d. Refrigerated Cargo. Topics discussed in this paragraph include:

    • Stowage.
    • Types of refrigerated cargo.
    • Containers.
    • Receiving refrigerated cargo.
    • Frozen products.
    • Chill products.

      (1) Stowage. Stowing refrigerated cargo does not differ greatly from that of general cargo, except that refrigerated cargo requires more care with temperature and ventilation and normally is not palletized. Foods having a strong odor should not be mixed with those having a tendency to absorb odors. All cargo compartments must be at the prescribed temperature before loading to prevent refrigerated cargo from thawing or spoiling. Perishable cargo is divided into three general classes: frozen, chilled, and air-cooled cargo.

NOTE: Representatives of the port veterinarian must be present at all times during loading to inspect the condition of the cargo and the correctness of the stowage and to monitor temperatures.

      (2) Types of refrigerated cargo. Food products comprise the majority of refrigerated cargo, although other commodities such as medicines, drugs, and certain temperature-sensitive chemicals are often transported in this manner. Items shipped under refrigeration cannot withstand long periods of exposure to normal outside air temperature or other conditions that might result in deterioration and ultimate loss of a commodity. This applies whether the cargo is loaded in containers or is transported by conventional break-bulk stowage in the ship's refrigerated cargo spaces.

      (3) Containers. Containerization is a very effective method of transporting refrigerated cargo. Continuous refrigeration between point of origin and destination and the elimination of multiple handling required in conventional break-bulk shipments have drastically reduced in-transit damage and loss of these products. The advantages of one handling at point of loading and point of discharge are especially apparent when compared to the conventional cargo system with its multiple handlings-

      • from warehouse to rail,
      • to truck,
      • through the terminal and aboard ship,
      • discharge at port as destination, and
      • reloading again to truck or rail for final delivery.

Each handling is labor intensive, increases the potential for damage and loss, and interrupts the refrigeration process.

      (4) Receiving refrigerated cargo. The receiving process in the terminal is critical and must be performed under systematic control. Many shipping contractors employ experienced cargo surveyors, who are present during the receiving process-

      • to ensure that the cargo is received in the proper condition for shipment,
      • to ensure that the cargo is properly stored on containers or aboard ship, and
      • to ensure that the cargo does not remain in open storage in the terminal without refrigeration for an extended period of time.

      (5) Frozen products. The handling procedures for frozen products are listed below.

        (a) When a shipper-loaded container of frozen cargo is received at the gatehouse, the temperature shown on the record chart is first checked by the receiving clerk and matched against the temperature specified on the shipper's documents and recorded on the Equipment Interchange Report and the CLP. If they are not the same, the shipping contractor should be contacted to obtain the correct setting. If no verification is available, the temperature specified on the delivery documents should be used.

        (b) Once the container is plugged in and running, the temperature must be checked periodically to make certain it is being maintained. Often, recently loaded containers will arrive with the temperature considerably higher than is required. In this instance, there is a good possibility that the contents may not have been thoroughly frozen at the time they were loaded into the container. Although the reefer units in these containers are designed to hold cargo at a specific temperature, they are not powerful enough to freeze effectively any cargo that was not initially frozen. A frequent defrost cycle record is another indication that the cargo may not have been properly frozen. Reefer units, like home refrigerators, have automatic defrosters which activate when the coils become heavily frosted. If this happens at short intervals, it is an indication that the unit may be overworking. It is important, therefore, to make periodic checks to verify that the temperature is gradually dropping to the required degree. If it does not drop, or drops very slowly, the shipping contractor should be notified. When notified, the shipping contractor may direct that the doors of the container be opened and an inspection be made to determine whether the container was properly stowed and whether sufficient ventilation space was left over the top of the cargo and in the door area. A record of such opening should be made on the CLP, along with the findings and any corrective steps taken. A new seal must then be affixed and the number recorded on the CLP.

        (c) Frozen cargo that is received by the terminal for containerizing or for loading aboard a break-bulk ship must be closely checked. The schedule for the receiving of frozen cargo must be closely coordinated with the loading operation. Ideally, the cargo should be received in lots that can be handled effectively without extended exposure to normal air temperatures. If cargo is received in larger quantities than can be immediately handled, it is customary for the delivering truck to wait, with its reefer unit in operation, so that the cargo will be kept at the proper temperature. When receiving the cargo it is also good practice for the receiving clerk to record the temperature of the reefer unit on the delivery truck, as well as take the temperature of the product. The instantaneous response of a probe or spike thermometer can be used to indicate temperature differences over time and within locations of contents in the container. If an initial high reading is obtained, the clerk inserts the spike into another area to confirm or correct the reading. Frozen meat should not be accepted if the temperature is above -10oC. If such a condition exists, the shipping contractor should be immediately contacted for a decision regarding the deposition of the cargo. Sometimes the cargo must be taken to a local reefer warehouse, where it will be "flash-frozen" to the required level.

        (d) Not all frozen cargo is carried at the same temperature. Most meats and quick-frozen food products require a temperature at or below -18oC. A temperature of -22oC is recommended for frozen fish. Ice cream can be carried at -18oC to -25oC, depending upon the type. In addition, outside ventilation is not required for frozen cargo; air vents should be closed and the CLP should be marked "Vents Closed."

      (6) Chill products. The handling procedures for chill products are listed below.

        (a) The stowage of fruits and vegetables under refrigeration is much more complex than that of frozen products. Studies have been made over many years to establish the best condition for the preservation of fruits and vegetables, and these conditions must be specified by the shipper for the produce being transported. Each category of fruit and vegetable, for example, has characteristics which may dictate a difference in the carrying temperature, ventilation requirements, and stowage.

        (b) If the documents for shipper-loaded containers delivered to the terminal do not specify temperature and ventilation requirements for the contents, the shipping contractor must be asked to apply this information. The setting on the reefer unit should then be checked against the information supplied to ensure a match. The date and time of arrival in the terminal should be marked on the record chart. The container is then plugged in. The temperature should be monitored carefully, and periodic readings noted on the chart during the time the container is in the custody of the terminal. It is very important that the temperature in storage be held fairly constant, since the condition and nature of the produce being shipped, as well as the manner in which it is stowed in the container, are beyond the control of the terminal or the shipping contractor. A claim for any in-transit deterioration or loss of the produce, therefore, can seldom be assigned to the terminal as long as the proper temperature measurement has been maintained. Variations of 2 to 3 degrees above or below the desired temperature are, in most cases, not acceptable. For many fruits, such as apples and pears, a maximum variation of 1 degree from the desired temperature is recommended. The setting of the vents is also important and the shipper's instructions in this respect must be followed.

        (c) Produce received for loading into containers at the container freight station or for conventional break-bulk stowage in the vessel's reefer compartments must be closely checked at the time of receipt. Produce should be properly pre-cooled prior to receipt at the terminal. Pre-cooling is performed commercially at special facilities beyond control of the terminals. Most produce is delivered to terminals from reefer warehouses where it has been maintained at the proper temperatures for the specific type of commodity. If, however, produce is delivered directly from the field, it may not be at the proper temperature for storage and shipment. Upon receipt, the temperature shown on the reefer unit of the delivering carrier should be recorded and the produce checked for condition and excessive bruising. Any signs of deterioration or mold should be noted. The shipping contractor should be notified of such conditions and their decision obtained on whether the produce is to be received and shipped, or rejected.

        (d) Most reefer containers have an adjustable ventilation window adjacent to the reefer unit. This window can be set for 0 to 100 percent ventilation, according to shipper's instructions. Thus, outside air can be introduced through the cooling system in a specified amount and the gases generated by the produce expelled from the container. To provide the necessary space for air circulation, it is usually the practice to use wood stripping or lathes between every other tier in stow. "Smokestack stowage," which involves stowing tiers of packages in a square pattern so that there is an empty "chimney" space in the center of the square, is sometimes used to increase vertical ventilation. This method, however, can result in loss of space in the container. Container construction may also affect storage space. Many containers, for example, have a line painted near the ceiling to indicate the maximum height to which cargo can be stowed. Other containers have an air duct running along the center of the ceiling, which must not be blocked by cargo. Container sides are usually ribbed to provide an air space between the skin and the cargo. The floor is constructed with small "I" beams, which are perforated to supply a clear airflow along the floor beneath the cargo.

        (e) At times it may be necessary to stow different commodities together. This may or may not be safe. Fresh fruits can generally be stowed together if they have the same temperature requirements. With some products, however, there is a cross-transfer of odors, and some products emit volatile gases, such as ethylene, that may be harmful to other products. Some general rules of storage follow:

        • Do not store apples or pears with celery, cabbage, carrots, potatoes, or onions.
        • Do not store celery with onions or carrots.
        • Do not store citrus fruits with any strongly scented vegetables.
        • Odors from apples and citrus fruits are readily absorbed by meats, eggs, and dairy products.
        • Pears and apples acquire an unpleasant earthy taste and odor when stored with potatoes.
        • It is recommended that onions, nuts, citrus fruits, and potatoes each be stored separately.
        • Apples, pears, bananas, avocados, peaches, plums, cantaloupes, ripe honeydew melons, and tomatoes are among the fruits and vegetables that give off ethylene gas, which can be harmful to other items such as lettuce and carrots.

8-5. GENERAL RULES FOR STOWING CARGO. One objective of proper stowage is to ensure that cargo arrives at its destination undamaged. The other objective is to put as much as you can in the available space.

    a. Personnel should take the following actions to reduce cargo damage:

    • Ensure the cargo hold area is clean before stowing cargo. If the hatch is not cleared, pieces of wood from broken crates may get under the pallets when they are put into the storage position. A lopsided pallet may cause the whole shipment of cargo to shift when the ship is at sea. Cargo handlers should stow cargo so that the strongest structures of an item will bear the greatest pressure and weight of that item.
    • Use dunnage only in required quantities.
    • Stop cargo damage by following instructions on labels such as USE NO HOOKS, THIS SIDE UP, DO NOT DROP, and so forth.
    • If it is necessary to walk on top of or land drafts on cargo such as cardboard cartons, lightly-constructed cases, bags, and crates, place a layer of dunnage over the cargo to protect it from damage.

    b. To obtain maximum use of the hold's carrying capacity cargo handlers should minimize broken stowage by-

    • Careful prestowage planning so that cargo will fill the hold without leaving large empty spaces.
    • Proper supervision during loading to ensure correct stowage and fit of irregularly shaped packages.
    • Maximum use of filler cargo where empty space occurs.
    • Nesting of cargo to use space that would otherwise be wasted.
    • Avoiding excess dunnage.
    • Using dunnage for false decks to permit additional stowage.

8-6. SECURING OF CARGO. The shifting of cargo during a voyage results in considerable damage to the cargo and the ship. To prevent this damage, cargo handlers must use good stowage practices including the proper use of lashing and dunnage. Other means of securing cargo include shoring, tomming down, blocking, and bracing.

    a. All deck cargo must be lashed, in addition to being shored, blocked, and braced. Cargo stored below deck can usually be secured by shoring, blocking, and bracing with timbers firmly wedged and nailed or lashed.

    b. Cargo handlers should ensure that cargo is secured when a vessel is sailing in convoy and the master is not permitted to alter course or speed to avoid rough seas or foul weather. Since convoy sailing also exposes deck cargo to greater hazards, personnel should give attention to the type, strength, and number of the lashings.

8-7. LASHING AS A MEANS OF SECURING. Lashing is the means of securing vehicles and other cargo by using wire ropes, chains, steel bars, and turnbuckles.

    a. Lashing Material. Responsible personnel should select lashing materials based on their availability and the type of cargo to be secured.

      (1) Wire rope, 5/8 inch in diameter, is used most frequently for heavy cargo and large items.

      (2) Chain is often used for securing lumber and extremely heavy objects on deck. The most common size chain is 3/4 inch in diameter. Wire rope may also be used for this type of cargo.

      (3) Steel or wrought iron bars are exceptionally good for securing boxed or rectangular cargo.

      (4) Steel strapping is also used for lashing.

      (5) Turnbuckles or other tightening devices are used with all types of lashing to permit tightening en route.

    b. Storage. Cargo handlers store lashing materials in the port dunnage yard along with dunnage. Inventory control procedures are set up for these materials so they are always on hand when a vessel is ready for loading.

    c. Basic Lashing Procedures for General Cargo. The methods used to lash cargo will vary because of the different types, sizes, and shapes of the cargo that must be shipped. Cargo handlers may use any of the following procedures to secure cargo:

      (1) Pass one or more lashings over the top of the item. This method is the least desirable because it is most ineffective for opposing centrifugal force. The cargo simply slides back and forth under the lashing.

      (2) Pass two or more lashings completely around the item. This type of lashing provides greater resistance to the forces exerted athwartship. It prevents the cargo from moving without exerting strain on the lashing. This is the more effective of the two methods.

      (3) Combine one of the above methods with dunnage or saddles at each corner. This prevents the lashing from cutting into the cargo.

      (4) Do not use lashing unless the following facts are taken into consideration:

      • All component parts of the lashing material are of approximately equal strength. Since the tension that the lashing bears is governed by the weaker part, it is a waste of material to use a turnbuckle half the strength of the wire rope.
      • A lashing may cut into the cargo it secures if nothing is used to separate the two.
      • Use dunnage for protection if saddles are not available.
      • Because a lashing exerts compression on the cargo it secures, extra bracing is necessary to prevent crushing.
      • Winding a continuous length of wire rope around an item several times is a poor method because a break at any point will make the entire lashing useless. Use two or more lashings instead.

      (5) For all types of lashing, items such as wooden capping, angel iron, or similar materials should be used to prevent wire ropes or chains from cutting through the edge of a case.

8-8. SECURING DECK CARGO. The weather deck is used to stow cargo that is too large to go through the hatches, or when there is no room below deck for storage. Whatever the reason, deck cargo is loaded last and discharged first. This prevents cargo from being lifted high to pass it over the deck cargo, and to give the handling personnel a clear view of the operations area.

    a. Cargo Protection. Cargo handlers should protect cargo loaded on deck as much as possible from damage by seawater. Strips of dunnage are laid on deck to receive cargo, to allow removal of slings, and to protect cargo from water on deck.

    b. Prevention of Equipment Blockage. When a large quantity of cargo is to be stowed on deck, personnel must avoid blocking off equipment. It is good practice to outline the equipment in chalk, to draw attention to it. This equipment includes-

      (1) Bitts and chocks.

      (2) Sounding pipes to the bilges and the ballast tanks.

      (3) Handles of valves controlling the operation of watertight bulkheads or piping systems.

      (4) Any other equipment essential to the safe operation of the vessel.

    c. Catwalks. For the safety of the crew, catwalks are constructed over deck cargo (Figure 8-8). They are to be less than 3 feet wide and should have strong handrails and suitable approaches. Avoid straight ladders to the well deck. Ladders should be at an angle. Ramps are built so that the crew will have ready access to lifeboats, gun stations, and frequented work areas.

    d. Cases. Stow cases on deck so that they can be lashed in three separate blocks: one on the square of the hatch and one on each side of the hatch (Figure 8-9). Personnel should observe the following precautions when stowing cases on deck:

    • Use wire rope and chain lashings.
    • Use angle irons on corners or edges under lashings to prevent cutting into the case.
    • Sheath exposed forward parts of the cases for protection against seawater.
    • When necessary, stow cases on the square of the hatch in such a manner that the cargo extends beyond the hatch coaming.
    • Build tables to support the overhanging cases beyond the square of the hatch.
    • Use bracing rather than shoring when cases are secured on deck, since shoring has a lifting effect on cargo.
    • Use lag screws or bolts to tie timbers together for blocking and bracing. Use nails and spikes only on small timbers or where it is impossible to use screws and bolts.

    e. Wheeled Vehicles. Storing wheeled vehicles on deck requires special precautions.

      (1) Normally, vehicle engines should be facing forward. Cargo handlers should place a double layer of l-inch thick dunnage on deck under the wheels. Vehicles should be blocked on both sides and at both ends so that they cannot move in either direction. Responsible personnel must take care to brace all wheel chocks. A minimum of two lashings are required on both the front and rear of vehicles such as trucks and ambulances. However, additional lashings may be required by the vessel master. Lashing may be either crossed with the cable forming an "X" or led outboard from the vehicles.

      (2) Vehicle operators should block up the chassis to take pressure (caused by the tension of the lashing) off the springs.

      (3) Figure 8-10 shows the deck loading of vehicles when mechanical quick-release devices are available as part of ship's gear. When these devices are used, no special blocking and bracing or dunnage is necessary.

    f. Tracked Vehicles. These vehicles require special storing procedures with which cargo handlers should be familiar.

      (1) Tanks and other tracked vehicles to be stored on deck (Figure 8-11) are secured by having operators-

      • Land the vehicle treads on two 4- by 12-inch timbers.
      • Secure an 8- by 12-inch timber against the tread on each side by three angle irons. Each angle iron should have holes for two 7/8-inch lag screws to be used to secure the 8-by 12-inch timbers to the deck.
      • Chock each end of the vehicle with a timber placed against the treads and secured to the fore-and-aft timbers.
      • Lash vehicles to the satisfaction of the vessel master. Use tie rods, chain, or wire rope and turnbuckles.

      (2) The timber sizes given above are merely guides. The proper materials are not always available in overseas areas.

    g. Small boats. Watercraft present a special transportation problem because of their size, weight, and comparative fragility. Most watercraft are so large that they must be stowed on deck. Cradles especially made for the particular type of watercraft may be constructed by the manufacturer. However, in most cases, the loading activity has to make them from available materials. Since the craft sit high in the air, they are exposed to wind and sea more than most cargo. Therefore, lashing must be applied with special care.

8-9. DUNNAGE. Although the term dunnage ordinarily refers to planks and pieces of wood, it may be any material used to protect a vessel and its cargo. Good stowage is impossible without carefully applied dunnage.

    a. Use of Dunnage. The following guidelines cover the uses of dunnage, dunnage materials, rules of good dunnaging, how to measure dunnage, and removing and storing dunnage material. Dunnage is used to-

    • Prevent cargo from shifting and chafing.
    • Chock off and secure containers.
    • Block off broken stowage and fill void space that cannot be filled with cargo.
    • Protect cargo from contact with water or other liquids that may get into the holds.
    • Provide air passages for effective ventilation.
    • Provide spaces for air circulation in refrigerated holds.
    • Distribute weight.
    • Separate cargoes.

    b. Dunnage Materials. The materials and the basic principles used for donnage are listed below.

      (1) Almost any materia1 can be used as dunnage. The materials most frequently used follow:

      • Rough lumber of the same thickness but of different widths and lengths is the most common type of dunnage. Rough lumber may consist of pieces of pine, hemlock, spruce, or similar woods.
      • Paper is often used to protect cargo from dirt, dust, and moisture and to separate shipments.
      • Burlap is often made up in rolls or squares and used in the same way as paper.

      (2) Hard and fast rules for selecting and using dunnage are not possible because of the wide variety of cargo carried, differences in atmospheric conditions, and the availability of dunnage material, among other factors. However, the following basic principles always apply. Cargo handlers should-

      • Never use green or contaminated wood that may harm the cargo.
      • Carefully select the quantity and type of dunnage to correspond to the type of cargo carried.
      • Place the bottom layers of dunnage so that any water in the hold can flow to the drains. This is accomplished by laying the first layer of dunnage so that it points toward the drains and the next layer faces the opposite direction. Cargo is then stowed on the upper layer of dunnage.

    c. Measuring Dunnage. Personnel must measure the lumber used aboard the vessel for the storage of cargo. The formula used is listed below.

      (1) The measurements obtained in inches and feet must be converted to board feet. This is the unit of measurement for lumber in the United States. Users should enter this information on the manifest for dunnage accountability. To convert inches and feet to board feet, the following formula is used:

      1 board foot = 144 cubic inches.

    Board feet = Length (inches) x height (inches) x width (inches), divided by 144.

    This would be written as follows:

      (2) The following represents the correct solution for a problem requiring lumber to be converted from inches and feet to board feet. It should be computed for a stack of 2- x 4-inch lumber. The lumber is 4 feet 8 inches long with 48 pieces in the stack.

      Length = 4 feet 8 inches (4 x 12 + 8 = 56 inches)

      Height = 4 inches

      Width = 2 inches

    3.11 board feet x 48 pieces = 149.28 or 149 board feet in the stacks.

    d. Removing and Storing Dunnage. Cargo handlers normally remove dunnage from the ship during discharge. While the cargo is being worked, dunnage is made up in drafts as it becomes available. When a draft is complete, cargo handlers should remove it. This procedure will ensure that dunnage is handled a minimum number of times aboard the ship.

      (1) Cargo handlers remove the drafts of cargo or dunnage from ships in cribs constructed and used in the holds or in slings. A crib is 3 feet wide, 8 feet long, and approximately 4 feet high. The dunnage crib holds 80 to 100 board feet of dunnage. When responsible personnel discharge a crib or sling load of dunnage to the pier, the crib and/or dunnage are then removed by truck or forklift to the port dunnage yard. Lastly, personnel return the crib (if any) to the ship for further use after the ship is unloaded.

      (2) Once received at the port dunnage yard, cargo handlers immediately sort and bundle dunnage according to size. The nails are taken out and the dunnage is sorted and accounted for at this time.

      (3) Personnel maintain stock levels on inventory control cards in a highly visible index file.

      (4) Personnel stack dunnage with one end even to ensure compactness and ease of handling and to allow room to work in the aisles.

8-10. OTHER MEANS OF SECURING CARGO. The use of dunnage alone will not meet safety requirements and completely protect the cargo from damage. Special constructions may be required to properly stow and secure cargo. These special constructions are known as blocking and bracing. Blocking is placing timbers or blocks next to the sides and ends of cargo to prevent horizontal movement. Bracing does what its name implies: it braces, supports, or reinforces the blocking and strengthens the pressure applied against the cargo. Blocking must be braced to be effective. Blocking and bracing are normally done by placing timbers between a unit of cargo and a bulkhead, or between two units of cargo.

    a. Shoring is supporting objects by bracing them from below (Figures 8-12 and 8-13). Shoring in the between deck and lower holds can increase the deck load capacity of the average ship about four times. This increase makes it possible for the main deck to carry loads such as locomotives weighing up to 12,000 pounds per square foot.

    b. Tomming is bracing an item by holding it down from above (Figure 8-12). This method may be used when stowage space has not been completely filled. Also, tomming may be used when there is danger that the motion of the vessel might cause the cargo to shift.

NOTE: The maximum effective length of timbers used for bracing, shoring, and tomming is equal to 80 times their minimum dimension. For example, if a piece of timber is 4 inches thick and 6 inches wide, its maximum effective length is 10 feet (4 x 30 = 120 inches or 10 feet).

    c. Bulkheading refers to the use of vertical partitions made of dunnage to keep cargo from shifting or to keep it away from hot bulkheads.

    d. Cribbing is the use of dunnage for blocking in the cargo compartment to eliminate void space. Cribbing is used to fill vacant space as a precaution against shifting and to maintain a level tier so that other cargo may be stowed on top.

    e. Magazines are special containers required by federal and Coast Guard regulations for stowing certain classes of explosives. These containers, known as Class A magazines, ensure adequate segregation and protection of the explosives. Magazines may be constructed of either steel or wood, depending upon the quantity and compatibility of explosives. For construction of these magazines refer to TM 55-607.

Figure 8-12. Shoring and tomming methods

Figure 8-13. Applying shoring
materials to a ship's hold

Section II. Discharging Break-Bulk Cargo

8-11. DECK CARGO. Cargo handlers unload deck cargo first. Even deck cargo that will not interfere with the discharge of the hatch is removed first to provide more room to work on deck. Of course, cargo that is destined for another port of call is not discharged. All lashing material is removed from the ship unless other instructions are given. So that the lashing material may be found easily later, cargo handlers will-

  • Coil and tie off wire rope. Tag it to show the size of the rope. If the wire is to be stored for a long time, it may be lubricated and boxed. Place wire of the same diameter and approximately the same length on reels if the amount of lashing received warrants such action.
  • Open turnbuckles, sort by size, lubricate, and place them in bins or boxes marked with the size of the turnbuckles.
  • Remove shackles and replace pins. Sort the shackles by size and place them in boxes or bins marked with the size of the shackles.
  • Remove blocking material from the ships. Clean and sort it so that it will be available when needed.
  • Discharge dunnage material.

8-12. CARGO IN HOLDS. Keep the cargo in the hold as level as possible during discharge. Breaking out cargo stacked higher than reach or tunneling under other cargo is very dangerous. General cargo, drummed cargo, and barreled cargo are loaded in the wings and ends of the hatch. Vehicles and heavy lifts are loaded in the square. When discharging cargo loaded in this manner, cargo handlers should build tables or platform up in the square of the hatch near the coaming so that the cargo can be handled without damaging it or injuring personnel. These tables should be constructed of lumber or pallet boards. When pallet boards are used, dunnage is laid on top of the pallets to make a solid floor for personnel working on the table. For light cargo, tables are necessary only until enough cargo has been removed to enable personnel to stand on the cargo and pass it down. For handling heavy cargo, such as asphalt in barrels or POL in drums, personnel should use tables until the cargo can be handled from the deck without having to reach for it. As cargo is discharged from the vessel, it is normally moved away from the pier.

8-13. TERMINAL CLEARANCE. Cargo handlers are responsible for terminal clearance. To perform this task successfully, follow these guidelines:

  • Cargo should not be allowed to accumulate on the pier. This hinders discharge and can eventually bring the operation to a standstill. Accumulated cargo is also subject to damage and pilferage.
  • Clear cargo from the terminal as quickly as possible. Load the cargo directly onto trucks and trailers or railway equipment for delivery. This method is a fast and efficient way to clear the terminal and pier because the cargo is handled only once.
  • If quantities of cargo belonging to several services are unloaded, clearance carriers are lined up on the pier according to service. Operators then transport drafts of cargo to the carriers from the hold using forklifts.

8-14. CARGO TALLYING METHODS. Checking cargo involves two general functions:

  • Inspecting cargo for quantity, condition, and identifying marks.
  • Making observations a matter of record.

The second function is referred to as tallying. Any method of tallying cargo may be used that quickly provides an accurate and legible cargo count. The cargo count is recorded on a tally sheet. A tally sheet may be a TCMD, a computer printout, or a locally produced form. The best method for tallying one type of cargo, such as boxes of rations, may not be the most accurate method for another type of cargo, such as serially numbered vehicles or individually numbered packages. To satisfy various requirements, four tallying methods are in general use in the Army: package, unit, block, and straight.

    a. Package Method. The different packaging methods are listed below.

      (1) When the TCMD indicates more than one piece of cargo was shipped under the same TCN and each piece of cargo has its own label the tallying cargo is used. When using this method, the cargo checker lists each piece number on his tally sheet. As each numbered piece is discharged, he crosses out the corresponding number on his tally sheet. For example, pieces 1, 3, and 5 of a five-piece shipment have been loaded. They are marked off as follows:

      (2) The piece number and total number of pieces are shown at the bottom of the address label. If a piece is damaged or missing, the checker draws a circle around the appropriate piece number and identifies it as short or damaged. For example, if pieces 1, 3, and 5 of a five-piece shipment are loaded intact, piece number 2 is damaged, and piece 4 is missing, the tallying sheet would look like this:

      (3) As a result of marking or a shipping error, two pieces may bear the same number, making one of the pieces excess. In this case, the number of the extra piece will also be recorded on the tally, circled and annotated "over." For example, if the shipment had two pieces labeled with the number 3, the second number would be tallied as follows:

NOTE: When a discrepancy of the type described is detected, the checker should circle blocks 22, 23, and 24 of DD Form 1384, if it is being used as a tally sheet. Boldly drawn circles around these three blocks alert documentation personnel to the fact that a discrepancy exists. The cargo checker, using information on the shipping label, computes the height and cube of cargo on hand and places this information in blocks 44a, b, and c. See Figure 8-14, for examples.

Figure 8-14. Sample portion of DD Form 1384; blocks 22-25 and columns 32-38

    b. Unit Method. Equipment such as trucks, tanks, MILVANs, SEAVANs, and other large serial-numbered items that are handled separately are usually tallied by the unit methods. The lower portion of the TCMD (columns 32 though 44) contains trailer data to describe the vehicle and include its serial number. Figure 8-15 provides further information.

Figure 8-15. Sample portion of DD Form 1384; blocks 22-26 and columns 32-44

      (1) The cargo checker compares the serial number stenciled on the vehicle with the serial number recorded in the trailer data line entry. If they correspond, a check mark is placed on the tally to indicate the vehicle has been received.

      (2) Under certain circumstances, the description of the item may not be included as a trailer data line entry. In this case, the checker enters such identifying information on the tally.

      (3) The checker tallies information (in Figure 8-15, the tally includes "truck cargo, 2 1/2-ton, 6 x 6, USA 4L7671"). This entry constitutes the tally.

NOTE: Enter the same type of information as shown on the bottom of the TCMD (see Figure 8-15).

    c. Block Method. The block method provides a rapid means of tallying when items of the same commodity are being loaded or unloaded in uniform drafts consisting of an equal number of pieces.

      (1) This method requires the cargo checker to determine the number of pieces in each draft, which he records in parentheses in the left margin of the tally sheet. As each draft is transferred, the checker enters a tally mark adjacent to the number. Recording these four vertical marks and one diagonal mark (Figure 8-16) may make a quick determination of the total number of drafts handled.

      (2) In Figure 8-16, seven drafts of 48 cases have been tallied, as indicated by six vertical marks and one diagonal tally mark. The number of pieces contained in a partial draft must be counted and added to the tally marks. In this case, the tally totals 382 cases.

Figure 8-16. Sample portion of DD Form 1384; block 25 and columns 32-36

    d. Straight Method. When general cargo with different amounts in each draft is involved, the checker cannot use the other three methods, but must use the straight tally method. The straight method requires the checker to make an individual count of each piece in each draft. He enters this count on the tally sheet as each draft is transferred. Refer to Figure 8-17.

8-15. TALLYING BREAK-BULK CARGO. There are a number of different types of transshipping functions which require the checking and tallying of cargo, including rail, truck, air, and inland barge transfer operations. The unloading of cargo vessels in overseas POD is the function of terminal service companies. Discharge operations at the POD are the largest type of all transshipping functions. To illustrate the use of the DD Form 1384 as a cargo tally sheet, a description of the steps involved in moving break-bulk cargo through an overseas port is provided.

    a. Step 1-Advance Manifest. Upon completion of vessel loading, the POE transmits the ocean cargo manifest data to the designated POD. The port of discharge uses the advance manifest information to make the TCMD before vessel arrival.

Figure 8-17. Sample portion of DD Form 1384; block 25 and columns 33-37

    b. Step 2-Chief Cargo Checker. The chief checker distributes the tally sheets (TCMD) to the appropriate hatch checkers aboard vessels just prior to commencement of vessel discharge.

    c. Step 3-Cargo Identification. As the cargo is discharged from the vessel, the cargo checker identifies the cargo by comparing the TCN which appears on the top line of the address marking with the TCN appearing in block 10 of the TCMD.

    d. Step 4-Tallying Cargo. Using one of the tallying methods previously discussed, the checker enters his cargo count, discrepancies, and comments in the lower portion of the TCMD, and fills out line 25, blocks a through k.

      (1) Transship Point. When the cargo is being checked into or off a ship, the vessel name or identification number is listed in this block. When cargo is being received into or relocated within the terminal, the appropriate three-position air or ocean terminal designator is entered in block a. If the activity has not been assigned a code, the name of the locality will be spelled out, not coded.

      (2) Date Received. The Julian date that an incoming shipment is received in the terminal and checked off the transport mode is entered into this block.

      (3) Bay Warehouse. The warehouse in which the cargo is stored and the particular bay within that warehouse is inserted in this block. If the cargo is left on the pier, then the word "pier" and pier number will be entered.

      (4) Date Shipped. The Julian date that a shipment is checked out of the terminal is entered into this block.

      (5) Mode Carrier. The entry recorded in this block provides a record of the means by which the shipment departed the terminal. The entry is spelled out in the clear, such as-

      • Rail.
      • Truck.
      • Aircraft.
      • Barge.

      (6) Flight-Truck-Voyage Document Number. Detailed identification of the carrier is established by the entry recorded in this block. Enter the aircraft flight number, vessel voyage number or unit, and bumper number of military vehicles. When commercial vehicles are used, enter in this block the GBL number which authorized the carrier to transport the shipment.

      (7) Reference. This block is left blank.

      (8) Stowage Location. An entry is required in this block only when cargo is being loaded aboard a ship. The entry will consist of a four-position vessel stowage location code described in DOD 4500.32-R, Appendix B. Until a checker thoroughly learns the 71 elements of this code, it is recommended that they be reproduced and attached to his clipboard along with the tally sheets. An inaccurate entry in this block will be printed on the cargo manifest and other ship's papers and will create difficulties for the discharging terminal.

      (9) Split. This block is left blank.

      (10) Condition. This block is left blank. For cargo checking purpose, a "condition" entry is made in the lower part of the tally sheet.

      (11) Signature Remarks. The cargo checker's signature is entered in this block.

    e. Step 5-TCMD Distribution. The procedures for TCMD distribution are listed below.

      (1) Ship side. The hatch checker aboard ship records his tally and attaches six carbon copies of the DD Form 1384 to the shipment unit. The seventh copy is retained and turned in to the chief cargo checker.

      (2) Marshalling yard. The shipment checking process is listed below.

        (a) As the shipment is placed in a warehouse or other storage area, the in-transit storage checker will use six copies of DD Form 1384 to conduct his check of the cargo, enter his tally and record the appropriate entries in blocks a, b, and c, and then place his signature in block k of line 26. When the in-transit storage checker has completed his tally, he will detach one copy of the tally sheet and secure the remaining five copies to the cargo. The detached copy is turned in to the documentation section, where it is used to update the terminal's cargo inventory record. If a shipment is transferred directly from ship to truck, rail car, or barge, the appropriate information would be recorded in blocks a, d, e, and f. Blocks b and c would be left blank.

        (b) When the cargo is loaded aboard the carrier for shipment to the consignee at the last minute, the cargo checker records his tally on the five copies of DD Form 1384 attached to the cargo and enters the appropriate information on line 27. At this point, the terminal policy may require preparation of a new document to be issued to the carrier as a freight waybill. The cargo checker may instead obtain the signature of the carrier, detach one copy of DD Form 1384 to be retained in terminal records, and turn the other copies over to the carrier.

      (3) Consignee. Upon receipt of the shipment by the consignee, it is again checked for quantity and condition and the appropriate information is entered in blocks 28 through 31 of DD Form 1384 by the consignee, with one copy returned to the carrier to be retained as a receipt of delivery.

8-16. TEMPORARY HOLDING AREAS. Temporary holding areas may be needed at certain ports depending on manpower and equipment availability. A temporary holding area is a warehouse or secured area used to store cargo on a temporary basis.

    a. A temporary holding area is required when the rate of discharge exceeds the capability of clearance transportation. A covered area is used whenever possible or available. This is especially important if the cargo is subject to weather damage or is expected to remain in the terminal area for extended periods of time.

    b. After considering the consignees of goods and the facilities available, the commander of the discharging terminal generally establishes holding areas so goods are segregated by destination and commodity. Segregation by destination is usually the most appropriate method, although incompatible items such as ammunition and fuel are still segregated on a commodity basis for safety reasons.

8-17. CARGO DAMAGE AND LOSS. Cargo handlers must know how to prevent cargo damage and what measures to take if they encounter cargo already damaged. Damage may occur in transit, in handling, or from chafing, crushing, contamination, moisture, or shifting.

    a. Damage in Transit. Frequently, cargo is damaged in transit before it arrives at the piers. Cargo handlers should inspect the cargo carefully as it arrives. If personnel have any doubt about a package being damaged internally, they should annotate documents accordingly, place the package to one side if possible, and advise their supervisor.

      (1) If during loading operations cargo handlers find packages with insufficient packing, or packages that show signs of wear and tear or attempted pilferage, they should return them to the warehouse for disposition. The condition of such cargo almost always worsens during the voyage. It not only arrives at the destination damaged, but it may have damaged adjacent cargo.

      (2) Cargo handlers should never repackage security cargo until the security officer has made an investigation and has given permission.

    b. Damage in Handling. Damage in handling is caused chiefly by exposure to inclement weather conditions, carelessness, and the use of improper gear.

      (1) To protect cargo from weather, personnel should cover hatch openings with hatch tents. The tents will also provide protection for the crew working in the hatch. Tarpaulins used to cover the remaining cargo in the square of the hatch do much to reduce damage. However, it is useless for personnel to protect the hatch and the cargo if they allow cargo to remain in the open on the pier after being discharged from the vessel.

      (2) Unsuitable or badly adjusted slings may dislocate or break packages and damage their contents. Cargo handlers should take the following precautions when using slings:

      • Avoid crushing light or fragile articles in net slings and avoid banging drafts of cargo against the hatch coaming. Few commodities can be handled in net slings without being crushed.
      • Avoid building drafts too high. Even though the fragile boxes are placed on top, they may fall when the sling is removed on the pier or in the hold.
      • Ensure that slings are securely fastened around the load. Slings placed haphazardly may slip and part, allowing the entire draft to fall to the deck, to the pier, or into the water.
      • Avoid careless winch operations, especially when handling fragile cargo. Careless handling of a load may damage the cargo in the sling, the sling itself, or the cargo already stowed.
      • Exercise care when using hooks, crowbars, and similar tools. The shipper's marks on boxes, such as THIS SIDE UP and FRAGILE, must be observed.

    c. Damage from Chafing. Chafing is the wear of cargo caused by friction from rubbing against other objects. Chafing usually results from improper chocking, blocking, and bracing of cargo. On a vessel, cargo damage results if the motion of the vessel causes the pieces of cargo to rub against each other or against projections in the hold. Chafing damage is also caused by dragging cargo over rough spots or over other cargo. Chafing is dangerous if flammable cargo is carried in metal containers, particularly if heat is produced through friction.

    d. Damage from Crushing. Crushed cases and containers usually are the result of carelessness in slinging, improper dunnaging, or pressure brought about by stowing heavy cargo on top of fragile cargo.

      (1) Proper stowage, shoring, and chocking help reduce damage to cargo from crushing.

      (2) Studies of packaging have resulted in the reinforcement and general improvement of packages. Most damage is attributed to handling and stowing rather than to the construction of the containers.

    e. Damage from Contamination. In planning the loading of a ship, personnel should give careful consideration to segregating cargo to avoid contamination damage. Many foodstuffs are contaminated by being put too close to substances such as paint or rubber. Since odors left in the hold of a vessel can contaminate future cargo, the hold must be clean and free from odors before loading.

    f. Damage by Moisture. Damage caused by moisture is called sweat damage. Condensed moisture may corrode metal and mildew textiles, for example. This type of damage ruins more cargo than any other type. Cargo handlers can reduce or eliminate sweat damage by-

    • Properly preparing cargo for shipment.
    • Properly using dunnage to provide drainage and air circulation.
    • Using mechanical ventilation or dehumidifying systems.

A frequent cause of wet cargo is an improperly closed hatch that allows seawater to enter to hold. At times it may be necessary to discharge wet cargo. In this case, responsible personnel should make special provisions for drainage and drying.

    g. Damage from Shifting. There is always danger that cargo may shift if empty spaces are not shored off adequately. Violent rolling or pitching can cause a few pieces of cargo to break out of stowage and move about freely in the hold. These pieces, in turn, bang against and dislocate other cargo. Serious damage to the cargo and the ship can result. Cargo handlers should take the following precautions to avoid damage from shifting:

    • When stowing cargo, avoid leaving empty paces.
    • Thoroughly secure and shore all cargo so that it cannot move.
    • If cargo is likely to settle, make provisions to secure it after it has settled.

8-18. CARGO SECURITY. The process for cargo security is listed below.

    a. Cargo Security Program. To minimize pilferage, each military terminal and transfer facility must have a comprehensively developed and continuously improving cargo security program. To be effective, this program should include the following:

      (1) A complete study of all aspects of the cargo transfer and in-transit storage operation in order to identify security weaknesses.

      (2) Complete instructions in cargo security for all personnel.

      (3) Implementation of physical security policies.

      (4) Assignment or employment of cargo security.

      (5) Use of theft prevention and detection equipment.

    b. Preventive Measures. It is unlikely that cargo pilferage will ever be completely eliminated. However, private industry, US Army MTMC operated terminals, and other government agencies concerned with cargo security have developed techniques that are effective in reducing pilferage. Some of the preventive measures that may be used in overseas military terminals follow.

      (1) Security personnel. Individuals responsible for implementing preventive measures involving security personnel may-

      • Request security assistance from military police.
      • Appoint a terminal security officer.
      • Establish port pilferage prevention and detection teams to monitor the receipt, documentation, handling, storage, and disposition of cargo passing through the terminal.
      • Assign guards to all terminal exits.
      • Give security personnel advance notice of cargo entering the terminal that will require surveillance and protection.
      • Post a security guard or cargo checker at open warehouses and the ship's hatches during lunch and break periods.
      • Restrict privately owned vehicles from entering cargo-handling or in-transit storage areas.

      (2) Fences and gates. Personnel implementing preventive measures may-

      • Fence the perimeter of the entire terminal with a chain link fence topped by three strands of barbed wire.
      • Inspect the fence daily to ensure that there are no openings in it or under it that would permit objects or persons to pass through.
      • Maintain separate gates for personnel and vehicle traffic.
      • Provide manned gatehouses at all vehicle entrances and exits.
      • Clear the area around the gatehouse of any objects that restrict the guard's field of vision.

      (3) High-value and security cargo. Personnel responsible for the protection of high-value and security cargo may-

      • Provide a secure cage, crib, or vault in the shipping and receiving area for control of sensitive or high-risk cargo.
      • Assign responsibility for receiving, accounting for, and releasing sensitive or high-value cargo to a specific individual.
      • Maintain a record of each shipment entering or leaving the security area. The record should include date, time, description of cargo, seal number, identification number of the truck or other equipment making pickup, and name, rank, and organization of the equipment operator.

      (4) Vehicles. Personnel developing preventive measures involving vehicles may-

      • Establish a truck control system using gate passes.
      • Record the date and hour of release on DD Form 1384 (TCMD), a gate pass, or other control documents so that gate security personnel can detect abnormal time lags in travel from the loading area to the gate.
      • Designate a responsible person to inspect the interior or each truck after unloading.
      • Spot trucks at warehouses only after cargo-handling personnel are available.
      • Compare the TCMD or other document with loaded cargo while spot-checking trucks.
      • Establish designated parking areas for privately owned vehicles.

      (5) Locks and keys. As pertains to locks and keys, personnel involved with security measures may-

      • Establish and maintain strict control and accountability procedures for all keys to containers, security areas, and other locked cargo areas.
      • Issue master keys only on a need-to-have basis.
      • Number all keys and obtain signatures of the recipients when issued.
      • Recover issued keys from person being transferred or terminated.
      • Periodically change padlocks on security lockers; change lock immediately if a key is reported missing.

      (6) Miscellaneous. Personnel implementing preventive measures should follow these general rules:

      • Always have a cargo checker during cargo transfer operations.
      • Close and lock warehouse doors during lunch and break periods.
      • In addition to signing each TCMD, SF 1103(US GBL), or other cargo document, cargo checkers must print their names or use self-inking identification stamps on these document to eliminate the problem of illegible signatures.
      • Keep doors of rail cars containing cargo closed, except when loading or unloading.
      • When possible, secure MILVANs and commercial containers by butting their doors against each other.

8-19. SAFETY. Safety is the responsibility of every individual involved in military cargo handling. Observance of simple safety rules will prevent many accidents.

    a. Boarding and Leaving a Ship. The safest way to board or leave a ship is by a properly secured gangway or ladder. Use a rope ladder, commonly called a Jacob's ladder, when going over the side of a ship to a barge or a lighter. The Jacob's ladder must be in good condition, sufficiently long, and properly made. Grasp the ladder by the sides, not by the rungs or steps; this decreases the likelihood of falling if a step gives way. The crew should attempt to board the ladder at the peak of the swell. Be careful not to overload the gangway or ladder. Do not take shortcuts over the side to the pier or lighter using skids or riding a draft or hook, except in emergencies.

    b. Decks and Hatches. To maintain decks and hatches, the below information is provided.

      (1) Decks must be kept reasonably clean and clear of gear and equipment that might cause persons to trip and fall. In order to accomplish this, crew members should-

      • Stack hatch covers at least 3 feet from the coaming and secure them so that they cannot fall into the hatch. In the between decks, the covers should be stacked as far from the hatch opening as possible.
      • Stow wire, topping lifts, spare falls, beam bridles, hatch tarpaulins, and other gear where personnel will not trip over them.
      • Coil hauling parts of guy tackles or other rope where they will not be damaged by cargo, gear, or hot steam pipes.
      • Not stow excessive amounts of dunnage on deck. When a small quantity must be on hand, personnel should stow it in slings so that it cannot be knocked over and will not inhibit crew passage around the deck
      • Place beams outboard against the rail or bulwarks. Hatch beams should lie on their sides or hard against the bulwarks so that they cannot fall or be knocked over.

      (2) Beam bridle slings must have taglines of sufficient length so that crew members may walk around the hatch to guide the beam while swinging.

      (3) When two compartments are being worked in the same hatch at the same time, workers should rig a lifeline to prevent crew members from stepping or backing off into the lower deck.

      (4) Crew members should not be allowed to walk on improperly fitted or damaged hatch covers. Report the damage or improper fit to a ship's officer so that the unsafe conditions can be corrected as soon as possible.

      (5) Adequate lighting should be provided in the hold and on deck at all times. Entering the ship's hold or other dark compartments without sufficient natural or electric light is prohibited; using matches or open lights is strictly forbidden.

    c. Handling Lines on Ships, Lighters, and Small Craft. The ways to handle lines are listed below.

      (1) Clear mooring cleats of dunnage, cargo, and any material that might interfere with the proper handling of lines.

      (2) Stand well away from a line under strain and face in the direction of the strain.

Section III. Loading Phase of RO/RO Operations

8-20. RO/RO SYSTEM. RO/RO describes the system in which fully loaded vehicles are driven onto a specially designed ship, parked in the hold for sea voyage, and then driven ashore at the overseas destination. If necessary, RO/RO ships can be used to carry general cargo. They can load and discharge cargo with their own cargo-handling gear.

    a. The FSS is the major class of RO/RO ship used in both fixed-port and LOTS operation, so it will be used in the rest of this chapter in the description of RO/RO operation.

    b. The key to a rapid loadout of the FSS is developing a plan that maximizes the ship's capabilities to conduct simultaneous operations. The plan must focus on the loading of the aft end. This is the most time-consuming section of the ship to load and operations in this section determine the length of time the ship will remain in port. Planners must make certain that the ship is loaded in a way which ensures a rapid discharge. Do not take shortcuts during the loading operation that would increase the time it takes for discharging the ship. Conversely, any action that might decrease the time for discharging the ship should be taken at the SPOE.

8-21. RO/RO VEHICLE OPERATIONS PROCEDURES. When moving vehicles on or off the ship, follow these rules:

  • After starting the vehicle, immediately perform a brake check by driving forward several feet and then applying the brakes.
  • Only qualified and screened drivers are permitted to operate vehicles.
  • All personnel working in vehicle operating areas MUST wear hearing protection.
  • Do not operate (move) vehicles about the ship without a vehicle director present. Vehicle director assistants shall be stationed at locations where potential traffic hazards exist, such as intersections, ramp approaches, or departure points.
  • Do not back vehicles without supervision from ground guides stationed to one side and to the rear of the vehicle being backed.
  • Use traffic guides at ramps and watertight doors to clear the area of unnecessary personnel, and to warn personnel of oncoming vehicles, when moving vehicles through the various levels and holds of the ship.
  • Operate vehicles with lights on.
  • Only one vehicle may transit a ramp at any time.
  • Secure cargo loaded within vehicles to prevent movement and shifting.
  • Start vehicles only when directed by vehicle director or other competent authority.
  • Do not leave vehicle engines running unattended. Vehicles will not exceed 5 miles per hour while moving about the ship.
  • Operate vehicles in low range only and, when possible, in maximum wheel drive mode.
  • Remain clear of engine exhaust.
  • Take care to avoid the presence of loose paper within the RO/RO areas. These papers can be sucked into the ventilation system, blocking airflow and allowing the buildup of noxious gases.

WARNING: It is possible that safe ventilation levels will be exceeded during RO/RO operations of gas turbine powered M-l tanks. To prevent this from occurring, never have more than two M-1 tanks idling, one M-1 tank maneuvering, and one M-1 tank climbing a ramp on any two adjacent decks in two adjacent holds.

  • Stand clear of vehicle ramps while vehicles are traversing them.
  • Stay clear of space between moving vehicles and other vehicles, fixed objects, and bulkheads.
  • Do not remove vehicle lashing assemblies until ensuring that brakes are set and personnel are clear of vehicle path.
  • Make certain that the watertight door sill protectors are put in place.

8-22. LIFT-ON OPERATIONS. The methods for lifting cargo aboard ship are discussed below.

    a. Location. Cargo can be lifted aboard the FSS at three separate locations: the forward section (requires shore- or barge-based cranes), the midsection, and the aft section. For the ship to be loaded most efficiently, conduct operations at all three locations at the same time.

    b. Cargo Flow. Cargo to be lifted aboard flows from the pickup point on the pier (or lighter) to the stow location aboard ship. If the stow location is not within the operating radius of the crane, move the cargo to that location by alternate means. Tow aircraft into position with the ship's organic forklifts, or have aircraft crews use helicopter handling equipment. Drive, tow, or push vehicles into position. Position nonwheeled equipment, palletized cargo, bulk cargo, and so forth, by forklift or pallet jacks. Position containers with the ship's container lift truck.

    c. Crane Rerigging. Planners and operators must minimize the number of times the cranes are rigged for tandem operations, since it takes about 60 minutes for each mode change. Also, when the cranes are married, their overall productivity is cut in half. Avoid rerigging, when possible, by-

    • Grouping heavy lifts together.
    • Lifting light vehicles in the tandem mode.
    • This is better than delaying loading by switching to the single mode and then back to tandem.

8-23. AFT SECTION LIFT-ON OPERATIONS. The aft section (see Figure 8-18) carries flatracks, sea sheds, and containers, and is the most time-consuming to load. Operations in this section receive the highest priority and begin as soon as possible after the ship arrives in port, even before emplacement of the PVR.

NOTE: For clarity in load planning, holds 5, 6 and 7F will be referred to as the forward side of the aft end, and holds 7A, 8F, and 8A will be referred to as the aft side.

    a. Determination of Long Side. The first step in planning break-bulk loading operations is determining which hold takes the longest to load. For an FSS, one crane is used to service three holds; therefore, instead of determining the long hold, the planner must determine the long side. In most cases, where one or two pieces of cargo are placed in each flatrack and sea shed, the forward side takes the longest time. However, if more than one flatrack is required to stow one piece of cargo (for example, two M-60s are stowed in three flatracks) or if all flatracks and sea sheds are not used, this may not be the case. Once the long side has been determined, start loading the flatracks and sea sheds within this side as soon as possible. If additional lift assets are available to augment the ship's crane, employ them on the long side to reduce the ship's overall loading time.

    b. General Guidance for Aft Section. When working a hold in the aft section, it is most effective to remove all the hatch covers from the hold at the same time. By doing this and working across the hold, a tier at a time, less time will be spent changing slings. Hatch covers can be stacked on top of each other. Up to two hatch covers may be stacked upon a cover already in place. If the vessel is instream, the removed hatch covers should be secured in place with 70,000-pound capacity lashings.

      (1) When the ship arrives in the port for loading, the sea shed floors will normally be in the open position. If not, it is important that members of the ship's crew are standing by to begin the time-consuming process of opening the sea shed floors before working holds 5 or 8A. It takes between 10 and 15 minutes to open the floors on each sea shed. (Opening of the sea shed floors is done by the ship's personnel.)

      (2) Flatrack placement and handling provides one of the greatest challenges. Almost all cargo operations on the aft end involve the removal of empty flatracks from the upper tiers so cargo can be placed into the bottom tier of flatracks. Then the empty flatracks are replaced a tier at a time so they can also be loaded with cargo.

        (a) If possible, place empty flatracks on the (MDA) instead of the pier to save time. When removing the flatracks from their cells and placing them on the ship's deck or the pier, use dunnage to prevent damaging their corner guides. One method of stacking the flatracks (Figure 8-19) is to place three of them side by side on top of railroad ties or other suitable dunnage. Then, place these additional flatracks perpendicular to and on top of the first three flatracks. This method uses the pier or deck space most efficiently.

        (b) Another method of handling flatracks is to place several on the pier at a time and use shore-based MHE to load cargo into them. This method is not very efficient because the flatrack can handle only one-fourth the amount of cargo when it is to be lifted, compared with when it is already within the cell. Also, loaded flatracks must be lifted with the 35-foot spreader, which is very difficult to connect and also requires rerigging. Empty flatracks can be moved with a four-legged sling set.

      (3) MSC policy requires all vehicles to be oriented fore and aft.

    c. Recommended Sequence for Loading Aft Holds. The order in which each aft hold is loaded is discussed below.

      (1) If the forward side is determined to be the long side, the hold loading sequence should be 7F, 6, and 5. This sequence is recommended because when the aft side is loaded, only hold 5 on the forward side still requires loading. Vehicles can be driven through the vehicular passageway onto the MDA and over to the aft side, for lashing onto the hatch covers, without interfering with the lift-on of cargo into hold 5 (Figure 8-20). The loading sequence on the aft side should be 8A, 8F, and 7A. This sequence eliminates the possibility of working two adjacent holds at the same time, which in turn reduces congestion on the pier at the pickup points. If additional lift assets are available, use them to load hold 5 while the ship's cranes load hold 7F.

      (2) If the aft side is determined to be the long side, the hold loading sequence should be 7A, 8F, and 8A. This sequence allows vehicles to be driven onto and lashed down as far aft as 7A (as soon as operations cease on the forward side) without interfering with lift-on operations into hold 8A (Figure 8-21). The sequence on the forward side should be holds 5, 6, and 7F. If additional lift assets are available, use them to load hold 8A while the ship's crane loads hold 7A. Table 8-1 gives the recommended hold loading sequence for forward and aft long sides.

Table 8-1. Recommended hold loading sequence




Hold
Forward
Side "Long"
Aft
Side "Long"

5

6

7F

7A

8F

8A

3

2

1

3

2

1

1

2

3

1

2

3


    d. Aft Hold Loading Strategy. Methods for loading each hold are discussed in detail in the following paragraphs.

      (1) Hold 5. Remove both hatch covers and place them on top of hold 7F. Remove the three flatracks from the top tier and place them on the top of hold 6. Load cargo into the sea sheds on the bottom tier. As soon as they have been loaded, the ship's crew will start closing the floors. Lashing crews can continue the lashing process after the floors have been closed. Lashing crews enter or depart the individual sea shed using the sea shed's vertical access ladders. While the floors are being closed, the crane can begin loading cargo into the flatracks on the bottom tier. Once completed, reload the empty flatracks into the top tier of the hold. Next, load cargo into these flatracks. By this time, the sea shed doors should be closed and ready to accept cargo. Complete loading these sea sheds and replace the hatches.

Figure 8-20. Simultaneous operations, lift-on into hold 5
and roll-on onto MDA

Figure 8-21. Simultaneous operations, lift-on
into hold 8A and roll-on onto MDA

      (2) Hold 6. There are three separate methods of loading hold 6.

        (a) Hatch square method. This method of loading hold 6 is the most desirable because it takes the least amount of time. It consists of lowering vehicles through the hatch square (created by removing the four center flatracks) and then moving them to the wings by jockeying them fore and aft (Figure 8-22). This method can only be employed with certain cargo mixes. The vehicles that must be moved to the wings cannot be too long to maneuver fore and aft within the confines of a 35-foot flatrack. The longest vehicles capable of doing this are 2 1/2-ton cargo trucks (without winches). The flatracks in the hatch square and on the top tier can be loaded with any vehicle since the vehicle can lift straight out of the flatrack. The required cargo mix is shown in Figure 8-23. The steps for loading hold 6 by the hatch square method follow:

Figure 8-22. Hold 6 - hatch square loading method

Figure 8-23. Required cargo mix for hold 6 - hatch
square mthod

          STEP 1. Remove the hatch covers and the four flatracks from the top two tiers of the two center cells. Place the hatch covers and the empty flatracks on top of holds 6 and 7F. Lift vehicles into the bottom tier of the hatch square. Once the lifting slings have been removed, drive the vehicles out to the wings of the hold and maneuver into a fore-and-aft position for stowage. Continue this until both wings have been loaded. Lower cargo directly into the flatracks within the hatch square.

          STEP 2. Once the entire lower tier has been loaded, lower two empty flatracks into the center cells of the middle tier and continue operations in the same manner as on the lower tier.

          STEP 3. Lower vehicles to be stowed on the top tier directly into the appropriate flatrack. Then replace hatch covers.

        (b) Alternating cells method. This method (also known as Rubik's Cube) can be used if a vehicle and trailer or long pieces of cargo are to be stowed in every flatrack (Figure 8-24). Using this method reduces the number of empty flatrack lifts and reduces the amount of space required to temporarily store empty flatracks. However, the disadvantages of this method are-

        • The number of required sling changes increases and offsets most of the time saved by reducing empty flatrack moves. The number of sling changes required depends on whether one set of slings can be used for all cargo stowed on the same tier.
        • At the end of the loading process the top two tiers of flatracks are shifted around, with the shorter flatracks in the middle tier instead of on the top tier. This means that the ship's longitudinal beams will obstruct the athwartship movement of vehicles on the top tier.

        However, as long as the ship is discharged in the same manner as it is loaded the inability of vehicles to move athwartship on the top tier will not adversely affect the discharge operation. Also, after the hold has been discharged with this method, the flatracks will be in the original position. Loading instructions for the alternating cells method follow:

          STEP 1. Remove all three hatch covers and place them on top of hold 5 (two are placed on top of the port hatch and one is placed on top of the center hatch). Lift out the top two tiers of the empty flatracks under the port section of hold 6 and place them on top of 7F.

          STEP 2. Load the bottom tier with cargo. Lift three empty flatracks out of the center section and place them into port section.

          STEP 3. Load these three flatracks with cargo. Transfer three more empty flatracks from the center section and place them in the port section.

          STEP 4. Load cargo into the flatracks on the bottom tier of the center section and the top tier of the port section. Transfer three empty flatracks from the top tier to the center section.

          STEP 5. Load these three flatracks with cargo. Transfer three empty flatracks from the middle tier to the top tier of the center section.

          STEP 6. Load these three flatracks along with those on the bottom tier with cargo. Transfer the last empty flatrack on the top tier to the middle tier, and transfer the last empty 15-foot high flatrack on the middle tier to the top of hold 7F. Transfer two 12-foot high flatracks from hold 7F to the middle tier of the starboard section.

          STEP 7. Load the last empty flatrack on the bottom tier and the three empty flatracks now on the middle tier with cargo. Load the last 12-foot high flatracks from the top of hold 7F in the middle tier and transfer three of the 15-foot high flatracks to the top tier.

          STEP 8. Load these empty flatracks with cargo. Transfer the remaining 15-foot high flatrack from the top of hold 7F into the top tier and load with cargo. Replace all hatch covers.

        (c) Conventional method. This method is the least desirable because it requires the most time and deck and pier space. The recommended loading procedures for this method are as follows:

          STEP 1. Remove all three hatch covers and place on hold 5 in the same manner as above.

          STEP 2. Remove the two tiers of empty flatracks. Place as many flatracks as possible on top of hold 7F and the remainder on the pier.

          STEP 3. Load the bottom tier of flatracks with cargo and then reload empty flatracks into the second tier.

          STEP 4. Load these flatracks with cargo and reload empty flatracks into the top tier.

          STEP 5. Load cargo into these flatracks and replace the hatches.

      (3) Hold 7F. This hold can contain 20-foot commercial flatracks or 20-foot containers. No special strategy exists for its loading, other than to remove all of the hatch covers before starting lift-on operations.

      (4) Holds 7A and 8F. These holds are laid out similarly and can be loaded using the conventional and hatch square methods. The hatch square method of loading these holds is shown in Figure 8-25 (the required stow mix for the hatch loading method is shown in Figure 8-26).

Figure 8-25. Holds 7A and 8F - hatch square
loading method

      (5) Hold 8A. When loading hold 8A, remove both hatches and load the bottom tier of sea sheds. Close the sea shed floors and then load the top tier. Replace the hatches.

Figure 8-26. Required cargo mix for holds 7A and 8F -
hatch square method

8-24. MIDSECTION LIFT-ON OPERATIONS. Lift-on operations in the midsection of the ship include loading cargo into holds 2 and 3, as well as into the other deck. This section identifies the recommended strategy for using the midship cranes. For illustration purposes, assume that helicopters will be stowed on "A" deck in hold 2, and CONEXs will be stowed on the weather deck, aft of the cranes. References to the forward and aft cranes concern the two cranes on the forward crane pedestal.

    a. The first priority of the forward crane after the ship has docked is the emplacement of the PVR. This operation takes between 15 and 45 minutes (depending on the experience of the crew); do not use the aft crane to load cargo until this operation has been completed. After the forward crane has completed emplacing the PVR, its next priority will be to open the hatch cover over hold 2 and the hatch covers on as many decks below as necessary. Use the aft crane to open the hatch cover over hold 3 and the hatch covers below if necessary. All of these functions must be conducted by the ship's crew. After they are accomplished, commercial or military cargo handlers can begin operating the cranes.

    b. The next operation for the forward crane is loading helicopters into hold 2. On past exercises, aircraft crews have supervised the overall operation and performed tagline handling and final shipboard positioning procedures. Lower helicopters into the center of the hatch square and remove the slings. Then, wheel the aircraft into the forward portion of "A" deck and shift it into final stow position with the ship's helicopter handling equipment. Place the last aircraft loaded in the square of the hold and do not shift it. This precludes vehicles from being stowed in the hatch square and blocking helicopter discharge operations.

    c. The aft crane can simultaneously lift cargo into hold 3 and onto the weather deck. Procure special slings which allow the lifting of two to three CONEXs at a time. Lower the CONEXs onto the weather deck and use a forklift to place them on dunnage in their final stow location. However, avoid placing them on top of the hydraulic ramp and leave space around them so that vehicles stowed on the weather deck can be rolled on and off.

    d. Lift heavy vehicles, exceeding 200 pounds psf, into hold 3 and place them on "A" deck.

NOTE: This is recommended only when helicopters have been stowed in hold 2. If this is not the case, then stow heavy disabled vehicles in hold 2.

    e. Other disabled vehicles (incapable of being towed on), with a psf loading less than or equal to 200, can be lifted on and placed anywhere on the weather deck as long as they do not obstruct the RO/RO flow. These are the most desirable locations for disabled vehicles because their discharge will not have an adverse impact on the time it takes to discharge the rest of the ship. This is because the cranes in the midsection are used less than those on the aft end.

8-25. FORWARD SECTION LIFT-ON OPERATIONS. Lift-on operations in the forward section are limited to cargo being placed on the 37-foot flat and on the hatch cover at the main deck level. Cargo on the second deck can be driven on. Lift-on operations in this section can be started almost anytime during the vessel loading because they will not interfere with the cargo loading in other sections. Two methods exist for loading cargo into the 37-foot flat.

  • The first method uses a nonorganic crane (shore-based or barge-mounted) to lift cargo into the hold through the hatch covers. From there the cargo is placed in its stow position by forklifts. This is the only method for loading cargo that is to be stowed on the main deck hatch cover.
  • The second method involves using a forklift or cargo vehicle (ideally a tractor and flatbed trailer combination) to transport palletized cargo to the second deck. The pallets are then lifted by ship's forklifts and transferred to the 37-foot flat by the high-reach forklift permanently stowed on the deck (Figure 8-27).

Figure 8-27. Alternate loading method for 37-foot flat

NOTE: Cargo stowed on either the hatch covers or the 37-foot flat may have to be blocked and Paced into position due to the possible lack of tie-down fittings in these areas.

8-26. ROLL-ON OPERATIONS. The roll-on loading pattern must be considered during roll-on operations. Roll-on access to the ship is gained through the port and starboard side ports in hold 3 on "B" deck. Vehicles travel from the pier, up the PVR, and through the side port door.

    a. Vehicles to be stowed on lower decks proceed from the side port, through the watertight door in bulkhead 198 (starboard), to the ramp down in hold 4 port side. Vehicles must make a U-turn at the aft end of hold 4 to enter the ramp and at the foot of the ramp on each successive deck.

    b. Vehicles to be stowed on the upper decks proceed from the side port, through the watertight door in bulkhead 198 (port), and up the internal ramp to "A" deck. At this point, vehicles to be stowed on the MDA proceed to the starboard aft end of "A" deck, through the watertight door in frame 146, and through the vehicular passageway out onto the MDA. (This route, from the side port door to the MDA, is also known as the critical path because it must be left open until the MDA has been filled with vehicles (Figure 8-28). Vehicles to be stowed on the weather deck will make a U-turn and proceed up the hydraulic ramp to the weather deck.

Figure 8-28. Critical path

8-27. ROLL-ON LOADING SEQUENCE. The recommended order of roll-on loading, by deck, is as follows:


STEP
DECKS


1 "E" Deck and Weather Deck

2 "D" Deck and "A" Deck

3 "C" Deck

4 "B" Deck

5 Main Deck Aft

NOTE: The critical path, shown in Figure 8-28, should be left clear until the hatch covers on the aft end have been closed and vehicles have been rolled onto the MDA. Then the path can be filled with vehicles starting from the vehicular passageway and working forward and below.

    a. "E" Deck. The recommended order of loading is discussed below. Figure 8-29 shows the indicated routes.

      (1) Route 1. The vehicle leaving the ramp at "E" Deck travels through the watertight door on the port side at frame 198. The vehicle follows a circular course around the deck and through the watertight door at frame 198 on the starboard side. This permits the loading of vehicles in the cargo area between frames 142 and 198 (the aft third of the deck). Stow the first vehicle under the ramp, and subsequent vehicles outward from there. Then close and secure the watertight door at frame 198 on the starboard side.

      (2) Route 2. At the same time, alternate vehicles leaving the ramp travel through the watertight door at frames 198 and 242 on the port side. These vehicles then travel to the cargo area between frames 242 and 290 (the forward third of the deck). Stow the first vehicle in the aft starboard position of the cargo area and load the starboard side first. Then close and secure the watertight door at frame 242. This sequence permits two lashing crews to work simultaneously, one forward and the other aft.

      (3) Route 3. Once the forward and aft sections of the deck have been loaded and secured, the middle section is loaded. Vehicles leaving the ramp travel through the watertight door on the port side at frame 198. The vehicles follow a circular path around the centerline box columns to the starboard aft side of the cargo area. Stow the first vehicle at the starboard aft side of the area, and subsequent vehicles outward from there.

Figure 8-29. RO/RO Flow - "E" Deck

    b. Weather Deck. The recommended order of loading is discussed below. Figure 8-30 shows the indicated routes.

Figure 8-30. RO/RO Flow - Weather Deck

      (1) Once vehicles arrive at the top of the hydraulic ramp, they should follow a circular course and continue forward. Stow the first vehicle as far forward as possible on the port side, and the remaining vehicles outward from there.

      (2) Since this deck is usually loaded first, do not stow vehicles on top of the hatch covers if lifting cargo into the lower holds. Stow the first vehicles driven onto this deck as close as possible to the hatch openings (leaving enough space open for handling taglines, and opening and closing the hatch covers). Leave space clear for cargo to be lifted aboard and stowed on the weather deck (such as CONEXs and palletized cargo).

      (3) Leave space on this deck for deadlined vehicles. It is better to leave too much space for these purposes than not enough, because excess space can be filled toward the end of the load by lift-on of vehicles.

    c. "D" Deck. The recommended order of loading is discussed below. Figure 8-31 shows the indicated routes.

      (1) Route 1. The vehicle leaving the ramp at "D" deck travels through the watertight door at frames 198 and 242 on the port side. The vehicle follows a circular course around the deck. The vehicle then travels through the watertight door at frame 198 on the starboard side. This permits the loading of vehicles in the cargo area between frames 142 and 198 (the aft third of the deck). Stow the first vehicles on the down portion of the ramp.

      (2) Route 2. At the same time alternate vehicles leaving the ramp travel through the watertight door at frames 198 and 242 on the port side. The vehicles then travel to the cargo area between frames 242 and 290 (the forward third of the deck). Place the first vehicle at the aft starboard position in the cargo area and load the starboard side first. Then close and secure the watertight door at frame 242. This sequence permits two lashing crews to work simultaneously, one forward and the other aft.

      (3) Route 3. Once the forward and aft sections of the deck have been loaded and secured, the middle section is loaded. Vehicles leaving the ramp travel through the watertight door on the port side at frame 198. These vehicles then follow a circular path around the centerline box columns to the starboard aft side of the cargo area. Stow the first vehicle at the starboard aft side of the area, and subsequent vehicles outward from there.

Figure 8-31. RO/RO Flow - "D" Deck

    d. "A" Deck and Main Deck Aft. The recommended order of loading is discussed below. Figure 8-32 and Figure 8-35, shows the indicated routes.

Figure 8-32. RO/RO Flow - "A" Deck

      (1) Route 1. Vehicles entering "A" deck should follow a circular course and continue forward. Stow the first vehicle as far forward as possible, and the remaining ones outward from that point. If driving vehicles onto the MDA, leave route 2 open until that operation is complete.

      (2) Route 2 (also known as the critical path). Vehicles to be stowed on the MDA should turn left after arriving on "A" deck. Vehicles then turn right through the starboard aft watertight door and continue through the vehicular passageway onto the MDA.

        (a) To reduce the ship's overall loading time, drive some vehicles out onto the MDA and lash them down while lift-on operations are being performed. Carefully coordinate lift-on operations. Do not drive vehicles under suspended loads. The roll-on operations should never interfere with lift-on operations.

        (b) If lift-on operations on the aft side have ceased but continue in hold 5, drive the first vehicle onto the port aft corner of the hatch cover on hold 8A. Stow subsequent vehicles forward from there to hold 6. At that point, cease roll-on operations until the hatch cover to hold 5 has been replaced. Then stow the next vehicle on the port forward corner of hold 5, and subsequent vehicles aft from there.

        (c) If lift-on operations have ceased on the forward side but continue in hold 8A, stow the first vehicle on the port forward corner of hold 5 and subsequent vehicles aft from there to hold 8F. At that point, cease roll-on operations until the hatch cover to hold 8A has been replaced. Then stow the next vehicle at the point where roll-on operations ceased. However, leave a clear path about two vehicles wide along the starboard side of the hatches. Keep this path clear until the hatch on hold 8A is loaded with vehicles, then fill the path, working from the aft side forward.

        (d) In both of the above cases, use cranes to lift on vehicles to fill spaces where vehicles cannot be driven. These methods use more lifts than would be necessary if vehicles were not driven on until all lift-on operations into the aft holds were completed. However, they result in significant overall timesavings.

        (e) If these methods cannot be implemented and drive-on operations cannot be started until all the aft holds have been loaded, the first vehicles driven on should be stowed in the port aft corner of the deck. Stow subsequent vehicles outward from that point.

    e. "C" Deck. The recommended order of loading is discussed below. Figure 8-33 shows the indicated routes.

      (1) Route 1. The vehicle leaving the ramp at "C" deck travels through the watertight door on the port side at frame 198. The vehicle follows a circular course around the deck. The vehicle then travels through the watertight door at frame 198 on the starboard side. This permits the loading of vehicles in the cargo area between frames 142 and 198 (the aft third of the deck). Stow the first vehicle on the down portion of the ramp.

      (2) Route 2. At the same time, alternate vehicles leaving the ramp travel through the watertight door at frames 198 and 242 on the port side. These vehicles then travel to the cargo area between frames 242 and 290 (the forward third of the deck). Place the first vehicle at the aft starboard position in the cargo area and load the starboard side first. Then close and secure the port watertight door at frame 242. This sequence permits two lashing crews to work simultaneously, one forward and the other aft.

      (3) Route 3. Once the forward and aft sections of the deck have been loaded and secured, the middle section is loaded. Vehicles leaving the ramp travel through the watertight door on the port side at frame 198. These vehicles then follow a circular path around the centerline box columns to the starboard aft side of the cargo area. Stow the first vehicle at the starboard aft side of the area, and subsequent vehicles outward from there.

Figure 8-33. RO/RO Flow - "C" Deck

    f. "B" Deck. The recommended order of loading is discussed below. Figure 8-34 shows the indicated routes.

      (1) Route 1. Vehicles entering "B" deck through the side port doors may enter on either the port side or starboard side. These vehicles then proceed through the watertight doors at frame 198 to the aft third of the deck. Stow the first vehicle on the downward portion of the ramp and subsequent vehicles outward from there. Once the aft third of the deck has been loaded, close and secure the watertight door at frame 198 on the starboard side.

      (2) Route 2. As alternate vehicles enter the side port, other vehicles proceed through the watertight doors at frame 242 on the port side and starboard side to the forward third of the deck. Stow the first vehicle in the second deck area of hold 1. Then stow the remainder of "B" deck between frames 290 and 242. Close and secure the watertight doors at frame 242 on the port side and starboard side.

      (3) Route 3. Once the forward and aft sections of the deck have been loaded and secured, the middle section is loaded. Vehicles enter through the side port doors on the port side and starboard side. Stow the first vehicle in the aft starboard corner of the area and subsequent vehicles outward from there. Then close and secure the watertight door at frame 198 on the port side, and remove and stow the portable platform. Also close and secure the side port door and hinged platform.

Figure 8-34. RO/RO Flow - "B" Deck

Figure 8-35. RO/RO Flow - Main Deck Aft

8-28. TRAFFIC CONTROL. For maximum load efficiency, roll-on operations must occur concurrently on several decks. Develop a coordinated traffic control plan before beginning operations and execute it forcefully throughout the operation. For a safe and efficient operation, establish the following traffic control points:

  • Call forward areas-to direct drivers to the ship and ensure the continuous flow of the required vehicles (according to the stow plan) to the ship.
  • Bottom of PVR-to tell drivers to report to a specific deck and to ensure a continuous flow of vehicles onto the ship. This person also ensures that the top of the PVR is clear before allowing another vehicle to start up the ramp. Keep vehicles on the PVR in motion at all times, in order to avoid excessive loading.
  • Top of PVR to direct drivers to the proper ramp and to ensure that pedestrians do not walk through a vehicle's intended path.
  • Exit point of each internal ramp-to direct drivers to the staging line or to another ramp, as appropriate, and to look out for pedestrians.
  • Stowage area guides-to guide vehicles into final stow position.

NOTE: Select experienced personnel to man traffic control points. These personnel must ensure the expeditious movement of vehicular traffic in the loading and off-loading process.

8-29. STOWAGE OF VEHICLES WITHIN FIRE LANES. Fire lanes have been designated for the ship's fire and damage control parties. These parties must be able to access any area of the ship during an emergency. They must extinguish fires or repair damages to prevent the loss of life, cargo, and vessel. Vehicles may not block these fire lanes; however, they can be placed alongside them. Lashings may extend across them as long as they are below knee level.

8-30. RAMP PROBLEMS DUE TO TIDES. In areas where wide tidal fluctuations are known to occur, load planners must determine if the tides will cause the PVR to be unusable for any period. The planner should consult the local tide tables along with the approximate apron height above MLW (refer to MTMC report SE 88-3d-29) to obtain the estimated pier height above waterline during high and low tides. After determining that use of the ramp will be lost, take steps to minimize the adverse effect upon the overall operation. Consider prestaging as many vehicles as possible aboard ship during the time directly before the ramp is lost. After ramp is lost, move the vehicles to their final stow location.

NOTE: Each class of design of RO/RO ship has its own flow plan. These should be obtained prior to loading. Once a flow plan has been accepted, it must be adhered to.

Section IV. Discharge Phase of RO/RO Operations

8-31. ROLL-OFF OPERATIONS. Using the proper sequence to drive vehicles off a vessel can significantly reduce overall discharge time by allowing the time-consuming process of removing vehicles from the sea sheds and flatracks to begin sooner. The roll-off sequence must also take into account the effect on the vessel's stability caused by the rapid discharge of vehicles, each weighing up to 60 tons. Also, an effective roll-off discharge plan allows vehicles to clear the port faster and reduces the labor cost of discharging the ship.

    a. Sequence of Discharge. The order of unloading vehicles is discussed below.

      (1) Direct initial efforts at clearing the critical path from the side port door to the port side watertight door at frame 198 in hold 3 on "B" deck, up the internal ramp to "A" deck, across the starboard watertight door, through the vehicular passageway, and out on the MDA. Then, drive all vehicles capable of transiting passageway down this path.

      (2) These efforts will be aided greatly if unlashing gangs are boarded before the PVR is emplaced, and they begin to unlash vehicles stowed within the critical path.

      (3). The next step, which can be conducted concurrently if it does not interfere with the first step, is to clear hold 3 on "B" deck. Clearing this hold allows the starboard aft watertight door to open, which in turn allows access to the lower decks. It also allows more maneuvering room so vehicles can easily transit down the internal ramp from "A" deck and exit out the side port door.

      (4) Although greater flexibility exists with the remaining sequence, usually one gang each continues to drive vehicles off the upper and lower levels until the ship's RO/RO section is completely discharged.

    b. Exception. The three FSSes converted by the Avondale Shipyard have a hydraulic ramp connecting "A" and "B" decks. This ramp must be in the raised position while the ship is enroute and remain so until the vehicles stowed there have been driven off. Therefore, the first priority for the unlashing crews is to remove the VLAs from vehicles located aft of the vehicle passageway on the MDA, within the passageway, and round the hydraulic ramp. These vehicles have to be driven to the MDA where they are lifted off to clear space inside hold 4 on "A" deck so the vehicles stowed on the hydraulic ramp can be moved off and the ramp can be lowered. The critical path should be cleared concurrently with this operation. Once the ramp is lowered, the vehicles stowed on the MDA can be driven down the critical path and off the ship. Then the aft hatch covers can be opened and the lift-off operation can begin.

NOTE: This operation diverts the cranes clearing the MDA to lifting off vehicles that otherwise could be rolled off. This, in turn, delays the entire discharge of the ship. If the stow planner does not require every available foot of stowage space, the area on the hydraulic ramp should be left open.

    c. Stowage of Vehicle Lashing Assemblies. Ensure that VLAs are placed on holding racks as soon as they are disconnected from vehicles to prevent vehicles from driving over VLAs and damaging them. The VLAs on the deck also present a serious tripping hazard.

8-32. LIFT-OFF OPERATIONS. The remainder of this section is divided into three main topics: aft, mid-, and forward sections of the ship. For an efficient discharge of vessel, these operations must be conducted simultaneously. Each topic is discussed in order of importance.

    a. Aft Section. The discharge plan focuses on the rapid lift-off of cargo from the sea sheds and flatracks on the aft end. The aft end comprises less than 15 percent of the total square footage available for stowage, but takes almost twice as long to discharge as the rest of the ship. Experience shows that discharge of the aft end determines how long the ship must remain in port. Therefore, lift-off operations on the lift end must begin as soon as the ship arrives at its berth-before the PVR is emplaced. For further clarity, the aft end is treated as two separate sections-the forward side, consisting of holds 5, 6, and 7F; and the aft side, consisting of holds 7A, 8F, and 8A (Figure 8-18). Also, a sequence for discharging the holds and a strategy for each particular hold are recommended.

      (1) Discharge sequence. The fist step in preparing to discharge the aft end is to determine which side will take the longest to off-load. Knowing this, the discharge planner can better decide where to place emphasis. A method for determining the long side is discussed in paragraph 8-23a. Once the long side has been identified, every effort should be made to start lifting cargo from the flatracks and sea sheds on that side as soon as possible. Table 8-2 lists the recommended discharge sequence for each side.

      Table 8-2. Recommended hold discharge sequence



      HOLD

      FORWARD CRANE SEQUENCE


      5

      1


      6

      3


      7F

      2


      HOLD

      AFT CRANE SEQUENCE


      7A

      3


      8F

      2


      8A

      1


        (a) Recommended sequence for the forward side. For illustration purposes, the forward side of the aft end is assumed to be the long side. In this case, vehicles should be cleared off the hatch covers of hold 5 as soon as possible so they can be removed and cargo in the flatracks and sea sheds can be lifted out. Hold 5 was chosen because vehicles can be lifted out of it without interfering with the concurrent roll-off of vehicles from the MDA (Figure 8-36). Instructions for discharging the forward side follow:

        • To clear the top of hatch 5, use the crane to lift off vehicles that are too large to transit through the vehicular passageway. Once these vehicles have been removed, the remaining vehicles on top of hold 5 should be lifted off. (It is assumed that the vehicular passageway has not been cleared at this point.) If pier space is available, the hatch covers should be lifted onto the pier. If pier space is not available, the crane would be used to clear enough space on top of hold 6 to stow hatch covers.
        • The ships converted by the Avondale Shipyard require a different approach since the internal ramp leading from "A" deck to "B" deck is hinged instead of fixed. The ship will arrive in port with its ramp in the raised position. Cargo stowed on the ramp must be removed before the ramp can be lowered, thereby providing access to the side port door. The forward crane on the aft end must be used to remove vehicles from the vehicular passageway until enough space has been cleared in "A" deck to move the cargo off the hinged ramp. Once this has been done, the crane can be used to clear hold 5.
        • As soon as the vehicular passageway is cleared, drive all remaining vehicles that can be driven through the passageway off the MDA. If the ship is being discharged over the starboard side, use extreme caution to prevent vehicles from being driven beneath suspended cargo.
        • Drive or tow the remaining vehicles that cannot fit through the vehicular passageway or that are disabled to the "short side" (which in this example is the aft side) where they can be lifted off by the aft crane. These vehicles can be lifted off while the crane is awaiting the opening of the sea shed floors in hold 8A. This procedure enables the crane on the long side to concentrate on discharging cargo from the flatracks and sea sheds. After hold 5 has been discharged, it is recommended that holds 7F and 6 be discharged.

        (b) Recommended sequence for the aft side. While the above procedure is taking place on the forward side of the aft end, the aft crane should be clearing vehicles from hold 8A using the same set of priorities (vehicles unable to fit through the vehicular passageway first, then all others). Clear space on hold 8F for the hatch covers. Hold 8A was chosen as the first hold on the aft side because it can be opened and discharged without interfering with the roll-off of vehicles on the MDA. The recommended sequence for the remainder of the aft side is hold 8F and hold 7A. If the aft side is the longest, use the same discharge sequence but direct initial efforts at removing vehicles from the top of hold 8A.

      (2) Hold discharge strategy. The general guidance discussed the loading phase still applies to discharge operations on the aft end. Before deciding how to discharge holds 6, 7A, and 8F, determine how the hold was originally loaded. The discharge planner can reverse the methods and realize the same advantages and disadvantages.

        (a) Hold 5. Discharge cargo from the sea sheds first. This allows time for the sea shed floors to be opened while the crane is discharging cargo from the top tier of flatracks. Then, the empty flatracks can be removed and cargo can be lifted out of the lower tier of flatracks. By the time the empty flatracks have been reloaded into their cells, the sea shed floors will have been opened. This process fully uses the crane and eliminates dead time when the crane might be waiting for the sea shed floors to be opened.

        (b) Hold 6. Three methods developed for discharging hold 6 are as follows:

        • Hatch square method. Remove hatch covers and place them on top of hold 5. Discharge cargo from the top tier of flatracks. Next, remove the two center flatracks from the center section and place them on top of hold 7F. Then, discharge cargo from the two center flatracks on the second tier and jockey vehicles back and forth until they are out of the wings and into the hatch square. When all the cargo has been discharged from the second tier, remove the two empty flatracks in the center of the hold. Discharge the third tier in the same manner as the second tier, then replace flatracks and hatch covers.

NOTE: This method can only be used when the ideal cargo mix has been stowed in this hold.

        • Alternating cells method. Refer to Figure 8-37. This figure shows the procedures for implementing this method.
        • Conventional method. Remove all three hatch covers and place them on hold 5 in the same manner as specified in the step 6 in Figure 8-37. Discharge cargo from the top tier of flatracks and place as many empty flatracks as possible on top of hold 5. Place the remaining empty flatracks on the pier. Discharge cargo from the middle tier of flatracks and place as many of the empty flatracks as possible on top of hold 7F. Place the remaining empty flatracks on the pier. Discharge cargo from the bottom tier of flatracks and replace both tiers of empty flatracks.

Figure 8-37. Hold 6 - alternating cells discharge method

STEP 1. Remove all three hatch covers and place them on top of hold 5 (two on top of the port hatch and one on top of the center hatch). Discharge cargo from the top tier of flatracks. Then lift out the three flatracks from the top tier of the port section and place them on top of hold 7F.

STEP 2. Discharge cargo from the second tier of flatracks. Lift out the three empty flatracks and place them on top of hold 7F.

STEP 3. Discharge cargo from the bottom tier of flatracks. Lift out the three empty flatracks from the center sections and place them into the port section.

STEP 4. Discharge cargo from the flatracks on the second tier of the center section, and transfer the empty flatracks to the top tier of the port section.

STEP 5. Discharge cargo from the flatracks on the bottom tier of the center section. Transfer the three empty flatracks from the top tier of the center and starboard sections to the center section.

STEP 6. Discharge cargo from the exposed flatracks. Then, shift the empty flatracks to the top tier of the center section.

STEP 7. Discharge cargo from the exposed flatracks on the bottom tier. Shift the remaining flatrack on the top tier of the starboard section and two of the 12-foot high flatracks on the top of hold 7F to the middle tier of the starboard section.

STEP 8. Discharge cargo from the flatrack closest to starboard on the second tier. Shift that empty flatrack along with two of the 15-foot high flatracks on the top of hold 7F to the top tier of the starboard section.

STEP 9. Discharge cargo from the exposed flatrack on the bottom tier. Shift the remaining 12-foot high flatrack to the second tier and place the remaining 15-foot high flatrack in the top tier. Replace hatch covers.

        (c) Hold 7F. This hold can contain 20-foot commercial flatracks or 20-foot containers. No special strategy exists for its discharge, other than to remove all of the hatch covers before starting to discharge cargo.

        (d) Holds 7A and 8F. These holds are laid out similarly, and the same methods discussed for hold 6 can be used for both.

        (e) Hold 8A. Remove both hatches and discharge cargo in the top tier of sea sheds. It is important to have the ship's crew standing by so that the sea shed floors can be opened promptly.

    b. Midsection. Lift-off operations for this section of the ship are discussed below.

      (1) Lift-off operations from the midsection of the ship include discharge of cargo from the weather deck and from holds 2 and 3. This discussion identifies the recommended strategy for use of the midship cranes. For illustration purposes, helicopters are assumed to be stowed on "A" deck in hold 2, and containers on the weather deck, aft of the cranes.

      (2) The first priority of the forward crane, after the ship has docked, is emplacing the PVR. This operation takes between 15 and 45 minutes (depending on the experience of the crew). The next priority for the forward crane is removing cargo from the port side hatch cover, then removing the hatch, and discharging the helicopters from hold 2.

      (3) The first priority of the aft crane should be removing vehicles from the hydraulic ramp so that the ramp may be lowered and the remaining vehicles on the weather deck driven off. With early lowering of the hydraulic ramp, fewer vehicles will have to be lifted off, which reduces cargo handling costs. Also, rapid removal of all the vehicles on the weather deck prevents the ship from becoming top heavy, improves stability, and lessens the likelihood of list. This is of particular concern in a LOTS discharge. After clearing the hydraulic ramp, use the aft crane to lift off the containers and other cargo that cannot be driven off.

    c. Forward Section. Lift-off operations for this section of the ship are discussed below.

      (1) Lift-off operations from the forward section are limited to cargo placed on the 37-foot flat and on the hatch cover at the main deck level. Cargo on the second deck can be driven off. Lift-off from this section can begin at almost any point during the vessel discharge since cargo stowed here does not interfere with the discharge of cargo in other sections.

      (2) Two methods are used to discharge cargo from the 37-foot flat. The first method uses a nonorganic crane (shore-based or barge-mounted) to lift cargo through the hatch. The second method involves using the forklift stowed in the 37-foot flat to transfer cargo to the second deck. At the second deck, another forklift either drives the cargo off the ship or transfers it to waiting vehicles (stake and platform trailers (yard tractors) are well suited for this purpose). Cargo stowed on the hatch covers on the main deck must be lifted out by cranes.

Section V. Cargo Operations for T-AKR 295 and 296 Class Ships

8-33. CARGO OPERATIONS (T-AKR 295 AND 296 CLASS SHIPS). T-AKR 295 and 296 Class vessels have been designed to accomplish the on-load and off-load evolutions in a combined time of 96 hours or less. The vessels have been designed for last on, first off operations. The on-load activities provide the greatest amount of detail regarding cargo flow. Hence, redundant cargo flowpath information has not been repeated in the off-load section.

8-34. RO/RO OPERATIONS (T-AKR 295 CLASS). The RO/RO cargo stowage may be grouped into four major areas. These are as follows:

  • Upper forward-01, 01-A and A Decks (forward of the deck house spaces).
  • Lower forward-B, C, D and E Decks (forward of the machinery spaces).
  • Upper aft-02, 01, A Deck and AB Flat (aft of the deck house spaces).
  • Lower aft-B and C Decks (aft of the machinery spaces).

    a. The T-AKR 295 Class vessels perform RO/RO operations in one of three modes. These three modes are as follows:

  • Dual ramp operations (loading from both the stern ramp and side port ramps)
  • Stern ramp operations (loading only from the stern ramp).
  • Side port ramp operations (loading only from the side port ramp).

    b. Vehicles can traverse to any stowage location from either external ramp. On-load flowpaths for the single ramp operations are essentially a direct path to one of the four RO/RO stowage areas, then are the same as for dual ramp operations once within one of these areas (Figure 8-38).

Figure 8-38. T-AKR 295 Class flow diagram

8-35. Dual Ramp Operations (t-akr 295 class). For dual ramp operations, two non-conflicting flowpaths originate from the stern and side port ramps, which allow for simultaneous loading of all cargo stowage areas. Normally the upper forward section is loaded from the side port ramp with the other sections loaded from the stern ramp.

    a. Upper Forward Area. RO/RO cargo maneuver to the upper forward cargo holds via the following flowpaths:

      (1) A Deck Cargo Flow (Upper Forward). The side port ramp can be deployed from either the port or starboard side of the vessel. From either side port platform, cargo enters A Deck and moves in any one of the following directions:

      • Forward on A Deck, to the bottom of the forward hoistable ramp from A Deck to 01-A Deck.
      • Aft on A Deck, to the bottom of the aft hoistable ramp from A Deck to 01-A Deck (if loading 01-A Deck with both ramps).
      • Aft on A Deck to the port side ramp to 01 Deck.
      • Forward or aft to final stow spot on A Deck (after the 01 and 01-A Decks are loaded).

Cargo for final stowage on the A Deck drive through normally flows from the stern ramp, but can be loaded from the side port ramp at this time. The portion of A Deck, just inside the side port platform, is the last to be loaded and requires cargo to back up the side port ramp.

      (2) 01-A Deck Cargo Flow (Upper Forward). The cargo flowpaths are designed so that the hoistable 01-A Deck is accessed through one or both of the hoistable ramps. The preferred method of loading 01-A Deck is to load via the forward hoistable ramp, while maintaining the aft hoistable ramp in the stowed position. This procedure allows for the rapid on-loading of the hoistable deck through single direction cargo flow, and minimizes final park/maneuver requirements on each panel. Single ramp loading from the forward hoistable ramp also minimizes the maneuvering and facilitates single direction cargo flow for off-load. Final stow of cargo on the hoistable ramps should be avoided to expedite setup for off-load.

      (3) 01 Deck Cargo Flow (Upper Forward). Cargo traverses the ramp from A Deck to 01 Deck and accesses the weather deck stowage area. From the top of the ramp, cargo turns port in a semicircular path to the starboard side of the ship and moves in any one of the following directions:

      • Proceeds forward to the starboard side final stow spots.
      • Turns 45 degree port, proceeds forward to the port side under the after-crane's booms (between the crane pedestal and the boom rest), then proceeds forward for final stow on the forward port section of the 01 Deck.
      • Proceeds to the port for final stow on the port side of the 01 Deck.

    b. Lower Forward Area. RO/RO cargo enters the ship via the stern ramp at the WTD on AB Flat and proceeds down the ramp (port) from AB Flat to B Deck (aft RO/RO area). At the bottom of the ramp, it then proceeds forward and port to the B Deck drive through. The cargo proceeds through the drive through and enters B Deck (forward RO/RO area) at the top of the ramp from B Deck to C Deck. From there, cargo proceeds to final stow spots on B Deck or forward and down the ramp to the lower decks.

      (1) B Deck Cargo Flow (Lower Forward). From the B Deck drive through, cargo proceeds in either of the following directions:

      • Forward and down the ramp from B Deck to C Deck.
      • Starboard to clear the ramp then forward to final stow spots on the port and starboard sides in B Deck Holds 1-4.

      (2) C Deck Cargo Flow (Lower Forward). From the bottom of the ramp from B Deck to C Deck in Hold 4, cargo proceeds forward into Hold 3 on C Deck. From there cargo moves in any one of the following directions:

      • Continue into Hold 2, then proceed in a semicircular path to the starboard side, then aft through Hold 3 to enter Hold 4. From there it will maneuver for final spot in Hold 4, or move to the port side and proceed down the ramp from C Deck to D Deck (proceeding into Hold 2 before turning aft is the preferred route when continuing for stowage in D and E Decks).
      • Proceed forward for final stow in Holds 1 and 2.
      • Maneuver for final stow in Hold 3.

      (3) D Deck Cargo Flow (Lower Forward). From the bottom of the ramp from C Deck to D Deck, cargo proceeds forward into D Deck Hold 3. From there cargo moves in any one of the following directions:

      • Moves forward on the port side to enter Hold 2 for final stow.
      • Proceeds in a semicircular path to the starboard side then aft to enter Hold 4. It then maneuvers for final spot in Hold 4, or continues to the port side of the ship and proceeds down the ramp from D Deck to E Deck.
      • Maneuvers for final stow in Hold 3.

      (4) E Deck Cargo Flow (Lower Forward). Once at the bottom of the ramp from D Deck to E Deck, cargo proceeds forward into Hold 3 on E Deck. From there cargo moves in any one of the following directions:

      • Moves forward on the port side into Hold 2 for final stow.
      • Proceeds in a semicircular path to the starboard side, then aft to enter Hold 4 for final stow.
      • Maneuvers for final stow in Hold 3.

    c. Upper Aft Area. RO/RO cargo enters the ship via the stern ramp at the WTD on AB Flat and proceeds up the ramp (starboard) from AB Flat to A Deck. Cargo then proceeds to the upper aft decks or maneuvers for final stow in A Deck, Hold 5.

      (1) A Deck Cargo Flow (Upper Aft). From the top of the ramp from AB Flat to A Deck aft, the cargo moves in either of the following directions:

      • Proceeds in a semicircular path to the port side then proceeds aft and up the ramp from A Deck to 01 Deck.
      • Maneuvers for final stow on A Deck and the A Deck drive through.

Cargo for final stowage on the A Deck drive through normally flows from the stern ramp, but can be loaded from the side port ramp with the forward A Deck cargo. The last cargo to be loaded into Hold 5 is to back up the stern ramp (AB Flat area) for final stow.

      (2) 01 Deck Cargo Flow (Upper Aft). From the top of the ramp from A Deck to 01 Deck, cargo moves in either of the following directions:

      • Proceeds in a port semicircular path to the forward area of Hold 5 then back to the starboard in a semicircular path to the bottom of the ramp from 01 Deck to 02 Deck. Cargo then proceeds aft and up the ramp to 02 Deck.
      • Maneuvers for final stow in Hold 5, 01 Deck.

      (3) 02 Deck Cargo Flow (Upper Aft). From the top of the ramp from 01 Deck to 02 Deck, cargo maneuvers for final stow in Hold 5, 02 Deck.

    d. Lower Aft Area. From the stern ramp, RO/RO cargo proceeds to the lower aft area by proceeding down the ramp (port) from the AB Flat to B Deck.

      (1) B Deck Cargo Flow (Lower Aft). From B Deck, cargo moves forward through the B Deck drive through for stowage in the lower forward RO/RO area, or proceeds for final stow in the lower aft area. For final stow in the lower aft area, cargo moves in either of the following directions:

      • Proceeds in a semicircular path starboard to the top of the ramp from B Deck to C Deck, then down to C Deck.
      • Maneuvers for final stow in Hold 5, C Deck.

      (2) C Deck Cargo Flow (Lower Aft). From the bottom of the ramp to C Deck, cargo maneuvers for final stow in Hold 5, C Deck.

8-36. Single Ramp Operations (T-AKR 295 CLASS). The flowpaths for dual ramp operations provide the standard approach to the typical on-load scenario. They do not, however, fully illustrate the flexibility of the T-AKR 295 Class design with respect to selective use of the external ramps and assignment of cargo holds for stowage to those ramps. Either external ramp can load the ship individually. For single ramp operations, flowpaths and cargo loading order are modified from the dual ramp scenario. Once the cargo reaches one of the four RO/RO stowage areas, the single ramp flowpaths intersect the flowpaths for dual ramp operations, and from that point the cargo routes to the different decks and holds are essentially the same. As with dual ramp operations, care must be taken to monitor the progress of loading the upper sections to preclude adversely affecting the ship's trim, stress, and stability.

8-37. Single Ramp Operations from the Stern Ramp. During single ramp operations from the stern ramp-the upper aft, lower aft and lower forward RO/RO areas load using the same flowpaths as those used for dual ramp operations. The flowpaths for the upper forward area are similar to those for dual ramp operations, except they originate from the A Deck drive through instead of the side port ramp.

    a. Upper Aft, Lower Aft, and Lower Forward Areas. During single ramp operations from the stern ramp-the upper aft, lower aft and lower forward RO/RO areas load using the same flowpaths as those used for dual ramp operations.

    b. Upper Forward Area. Cargo to be stowed in the upper forward area, loads from the stern ramp then proceeds up the ramp from AB Flat to A Deck. It then moves to the port side and through the A Deck drive through to emerge in Hold 4, A Deck. From there, the cargo moves in either of the following directions:

    • Proceeds forward to access either the forward or aft hoistable ramp to 01-A Deck. One or both of the hoistable ramps may be used to load the 01-A Deck. From the A Deck drive through, to access either ramp you should move in the directions indicated for each below:

        Forward hoistable ramp-cargo moves forward and to the starboard to clear the ramp from A Deck to B Deck. It then moves forward and to the starboard side of the ship, then to the bottom of the forward ramp.
        Aft hoistable ramp-cargo moves forward and to the starboard to clear the ramp from A Deck to B Deck. It then moves forward, and once past the aft hoistable ramp, the cargo maintains sufficient turning room to execute semicircular turn to the starboard side of the ship. It then proceeds aft on the starboard side to the aft hoistable ramp.

    • Proceeds to the ramp from A Deck to 01 Deck. From the A Deck drive through, cargo moves forward and starboard to clear the ramp from A Deck to B Deck. It then proceeds forward and toward the starboard side of the ship to achieve enough turning room to make a 180 degree turn back and aft toward the ramp. Once past the ramp to 01 Deck, cargo proceeds in a semicircular path to the port side of the ship and proceeds aft and up the ramp to 01 Deck. Or the cargo, maneuvers for final stow on A Deck.

    c. Once the cargo reaches the final stow deck, maneuvering to the final stow spot is the same as for dual ramp operations.

8-38. Single Ramp Operations from the Side Port Ramp. During single ramp operations, the side port ramp uses the same flowpaths for cargo movement to the upper forward RO/RO area as those used during dual ramp operations. The A Deck drive through provides cargo access to the upper aft RO/RO area. Cargo proceeds down to B Deck for access to the lower forward and lower aft RO/RO areas. Once the cargo reaches the final stowage areas, the flowpaths will intersect with the dual ramp flowpaths, and from that point are essentially the same as the dual ramp flowpaths.

    a. Upper Forward Area. Cargo flowpaths for the upper forward area remain the same for those used for dual ramp operations.

    b. Upper Aft Area. Cargo flow from the side port ramp (either starboard or port configuration) proceeds aft on A Deck to the A Deck drive through. It proceeds through the drive through into A Deck, Hold 5 and then does one of the following:

    • Moves aft and up the ramp from A Deck to 01 Deck. From there, the flowpaths are the same as those for dual ramp operations.
    • Moves to the port and proceeds to the ramp from A Deck to AB Flat. It then proceeds for final stow on AB Flat (port area of AB Flat) or maneuvers for final stow on the ramp, or maneuvers for final stow in A Deck, Hold 5.

    c. Lower Forward Area. Cargo flow from the side port ramp (either starboard or port configuration) proceeds aft on A Deck to the ramp from A Deck to B Deck, Hold 4. It then proceeds down and forward to B Deck. From there it moves in any one of the following directions:

    • Proceeds forward into Hold 3, B Deck and continues forward through the port WTD into Hold 2. The cargo then makes a semicircular turn to the starboard side and proceeds aft through the starboard WTDs through Hold 3 and into Hold 4. From there, it proceeds to the port side to the ramp from B Deck to C Deck, and moves down and forward to C Deck. The flowpaths for final stow on C, D and E Decks are then the same as those for dual ramp operations.
    • Proceeds forward and/or starboard for final stow on B Deck, Holds 1, 2 or 3. Or, cargo will proceed forward on B Deck to clear the ramp, then turn in a semicircular path to proceed aft on the starboard side to Hold 4 for final stow.
    • Proceeds forward into Hold 3, B Deck and continues forward through the port WTD into Hold 2. The cargo then makes a semicircular turn to the starboard side and proceeds aft through the starboard WTDs through Hold 3 and into Hold 4. From there, it proceeds to the B Deck drive through for final stow or to proceed to the Lower Aft RO/RO Area.

    d. Lower Aft Area. Cargo flow to the lower aft area from the side port ramp (either starboard or port configuration) proceeds aft on A Deck to the ramp from A Deck to B Deck, Hold 4. It then proceeds down and forward to B Deck. On B Deck, it then moves forward through Hold 3 and continues forward through the port WTD into Hold 2. The cargo then makes a semicircular turn to the starboard side and proceeds aft through the starboard WTDs through Hold 3 and into Hold 4. From there, it proceeds to the B Deck drive through and proceeds aft to Hold 5, B Deck. It then proceeds in any one of the following directions:

    • Proceeds port and aft to the ramp from B Deck to C Deck, then continues down to C Deck for final stow.
    • Proceeds aft to the ramp from B Deck to the AB Flat and moves up the ramp for final stow on the AB Flat (starboard area of AB Flat) or maneuvers for final stow on the ramp.
    • Maneuvers for final stow in B Deck, Hold 5.

Due to the restricted maneuvering area on AB Flat, there is no access for cargo between the aft A and B Decks unless the stern ramp is deployed.

8-39. LO/LO Operations (T-AKR 295 CLASS). As with RO/RO operations, LO/LO operations are generally performed under the supervision of the local Army port activity. Coordination between the ship's crew and the supervisory Army transportation cargo handling personnel is essential before LO/LO operations begin. The ship's crew should be informed ahead of time about local weather conditions for proper crane warm-up and as to whether the cranes will be initially used in single or twin mode. Throughout the entire loading operation, it is important to remember that the ship's master is responsible for the safety of the ship, the crew and the cargo, and has the final word on safe cargo operations.

    a. Numerous options for load configuration exist for LO/LO operations just as they do for RO/RO operations. Once again, careful load planning will enhance efficiency. The number of line handlers, taglines, spreaders and the other associated LO/LO equipment will be determined by the size and mix of the cargo. At no time should LO/LO operations interfere with RO/RO operations.

    b. The flowpath for non-self-propelled LO/LO cargo is separate from the RO/RO flowpath. When there is a need to lift self-propelled cargo onto the ship, it is treated as LO/LO cargo until it is disconnected from the crane. A driver will maneuver the cargo from the drop point and merge into the RO/RO flowpath to take the cargo to its final stow location.

    c. All non-self-propelled LO/LO cargo must be Pought to the designated crane's pick up point by a resource. In general, the resources (forklifts, container handlers, helo movers, etc.) used to deliver the LO/LO cargo to the crane's pick up point are owned and operated by either the PSA or the port facility and commercial stevedores. Once aboard the ship, the LO/LO cargo is moved from the drop point to its final stow location by the ship's organic resources operated by military terminal service company personnel or commercial stevedores. In certain instances, LO/LO cargo such as helicopters, will be wheeled by hand to their final stow location by personnel assigned to the unit which owns the cargo. As a rule, aircraft should never be rolled or towed on or off the ship or to another deck of the ship using the external and internal ramps.

    d. LO/LO flowpaths for these ships consist of the designated crane pick up points for both the forward and aft cranes; the exposed weather deck on 01 Deck and the hatchways for Holds 2, 3, and 4; the drop off point; and the cargo's final stow location. The forward crane can reach the forward points of the exposed weather deck on 01 Deck and Holds 2 and 3. The aft crane can reach Holds 3 and 4 and the aft portion of the exposed weather deck on 01 Deck.

8-40. RO/RO Operations (T-AKR 296 CLASS). The T-AKR 296 Class ships can perform RO/RO operations in one of three modes:

  • Dual ramp operations (stern ramp and side port ramp).
  • Stern ramp operations.
  • Side port ramp operations.

Figure 8-39 provides a detailed cargo flow diagram of on-load operations.

Figure 8-39. T-AKR 296 Class flow diagram

8-41. Dual Ramp Operations from Stern Ramp. The following sections describe the detailed stern ramp flowpath used in dual ramp operations to load cargo on the 02 Level, on the A Deck, and in Hold 4 of B, C, and D Decks.

    a. B Deck Cargo Flow from the Stern Ramp. Cargo enters Hold 4 on B Deck through the stern ramp WTD. It can directly access the aft lower decks, via a fixed ramp in the port side of Hold 4 on C Deck. Cargo can also access A Deck, via a fixed ramp to A Deck on the starboard side of Hold 4 on B Deck. This ramp to A Deck also allows cargo from the stern ramp to access the forward holds on B Deck and the 02 level. Furthermore, it allows cargo to enter the fixed ramp system to the forward lower decks (C, D, E, and F Decks) via a fixed ramp down to Hold 2 on B Deck from Hold 3 on A Deck.

    b. This "up-over-down" traversal of cargo from aft to forward is generally used in single ramp operations where the loadout is conducted with only the stern ramp. The stern ramp is the ramp of choice for loading the upper decks (A Deck and the 02 Level) and the aft lower decks when both ramps are used. This is due to the absence of cargo flowpath interference when cargo is entering the ship via the side port ramp.

    c. 02 Level and A Deck Cargo Flow from the Stern Ramp. From the top of the aft ramp to Hold 3 on A Deck, cargo can move in either of the following directions:

    • Cargo can take a circular course to the port side of the hold between the stairtower and the aft centerline stanchion. From there, it can proceed aft exiting the enclosure via the aft WTD to the aft weather deck stowage area on A-Deck.
    • Cargo can proceed forward moving from starboard to port, between the stairtower and the aft centerline stanchion. It can then continue forward on the port side of the enclosure through the forward WTD, exiting onto the forward weather deck stowage area on A Deck.

From the forward WTD of the A Deck enclosure, cargo can proceed forward along the port side of A Deck to its specified stow location. From the forward WTD, cargo can also take a circular course on A Deck between the centerline fan room (frame 205) and the aft-crane boom rest to the starboard side of the deck. It then can access the ramp up to the 02 Level cargo stowage area. The 02 Level is located directly above the forward half of the A Deck enclosure. This stowage area contains the Hold 3 hatch cover and also serves as the Helicopter Facility.

    d. C Deck Cargo Flow from the Stern Ramp. Cargo to be stowed in the after lower decks transits the port side fixed ramp in Hold 4 on B Deck down to Hold 4 on C Deck. From the bottom of the ramp, cargo can either park within the hold or take a circular course aft between the forward bulkhead and the forward centerline stanchion to the ramp down to Hold 4 on D Deck. The top of this ramp is located on the aft port side of the hold. From here, cargo maneuvers to its final stow location within Hold 4 on D Deck. Once the upper decks (02 Level and A Deck) and the lower aft decks (Hold 4 of C and D Decks) are completed (including any stowage of vehicles on the associated ramps), the forward area of Hold 4 on B Deck is loaded. The aft area of Hold 4 on B Deck is then loaded with the last vehicles to be loaded backing up the stern ramp.

8-42. Dual Ramp Operations from the Side Port Ramp. The following sections describe the detailed side port ramp flowpath used in dual ramp operations to load cargo in the holds forward of the machinery spaces (Holds 1, 2, and 3) on B through F Decks and AB and BC Decks. As with those operations discussed in the previous section, it is important to note that these operational loading procedures take place at the same time as those discussed in that section.

    a. B Deck Cargo Flow from the Side Port Ramp. From the side port ramp and platform, cargo enters Hold 2 on B Deck and can proceed in one of the following directions:

    • Forward into the forward most portion of the B Deck stowage area.
    • Across B Deck to the port side between the two centerline stanchions and either turn forward accessing the forward hoistable ramp to AB Deck or turn aft entering the aft forward section of B Deck to access the after hoistable ramp to AB Deck.
    • Proceed aft along the starboard side of B Deck to the forward ramp to A Deck.
    • Across B Deck to the port side conducting a circular course along the after bulkhead of B Deck to the top of the forward ramp to C Deck.

      (1) If required, access from the forward portion of B Deck to the aft portion of B Deck and the after lower deck is accomplished via the starboard fixed ramp to A Deck. Cargo traversing the forward ramp up to A Deck proceeds aft from the top of that ramp to the top of the aft ramp, which leads down to the aft port side of B Deck, and subsequently to the aft lower holds. This is a reversal of the route described in the previous section. As discussed previously, the stern ramp is assigned to load the upper decks and the aft lower decks including Hold 4 on B Deck. The side port ramp is used to load the forward lower holds, the hoistable decks, and the forward portions of B Deck. This "up-over-down" transit from forward to aft is used only during single ramp operations where cargo is loaded using only the side port ramp.

      (2) To access the forward lower holds, cargo traverses from the starboard side port ramp directly across to the port side of B Deck, between the two centerline stanchions, and turns aft into the aft forward portion of B Deck. Proceeding aft towards the after bulkhead of B Deck, cargo takes a circular course to starboard, reaching the top of the forward ramp to C Deck.

    b. C Deck Cargo Flow from the Side Port Ramp. After traversing down the ramp to C Deck, cargo proceeds forward from the bottom of the ramp into Hold 2 on C Deck. From there, cargo either moves forward into Hold 1 on C Deck, aft to Hold 3 on C Deck and the forward ramp to D Deck, or accesses the forward ramp to BC Deck located on the starboard side of Hold 2 on C Deck.

      (1) Moving forward on the starboard side through Hold 2 on C Deck, cargo can pass through either the starboard-side WTD or traverse across the hold between the two centerline stanchions and use the port side WTD to Hold 1 on C Deck.

      (2) Cargo proceeding to Hold 3 on C Deck or to D, E, and F Decks traverses through a circular course in Hold 2 on C Deck to the aft port side WTD. From this WTD, cargo can either maneuver to park in Hold 3 on C Deck, access the aft ramp to BC Deck, or conduct another circular course to the starboard side of Hold 3 on C Deck and proceed to the top of the forward ramp to D Deck.

    c. D Deck Cargo Flow from the Side Port Ramp. The RO/RO movement on D Deck is similar to that of C Deck. After traversing the ramp down to D Deck, cargo proceeds forward from the bottom of the ramp into Hold 2 on D Deck. From there, cargo either moves forward into Hold 1 on D Deck, aft into Hold 3 on D Deck, or accesses the ramp to E Deck located on the starboard side of Hold 3 on D Deck. Driving forward on the starboard side through Hold 2 on D Deck, cargo can pass through either the starboard side WTD or cross between the two centerline stanchions and use the port side WTD to Hold 1 on D Deck. Cargo crossing Hold 2 on D Deck turns to port between the two centerline stanchions. Cargo proceeding to Hold 3 on D Deck or to E and F Decks traverses through a circular course in Hold 2 on D Deck to the port side WTD. From this door, cargo can either maneuver to park in Hold 3 on D Deck or conduct another circular course to the starboard side of Hold 3 on D Deck and proceed to the top of the ramp to E Deck.

    d. E Deck Cargo Flow from the Side Port Ramp. After descending the ramp to E Deck, cargo proceeds forward from the bottom of the ramp into Hold 2 on E Deck. Once there, cargo maneuvers to park in Hold 2 on E Deck or proceeds aft to Hold 3 on E Deck and the ramp to F Deck located on the starboard side of Hold 3. Cargo proceeding to Hold 3 on E Deck or to F Deck traverses through a circular course in Hold 2 on E Deck through the port WTD. From this door, cargo can either maneuver to park in Hold 3 on E Deck or conduct another circular course to the starboard side and proceed to the top of the ramp to F Deck.

    e. F Deck Cargo Flow from the Side Port Ramp. After making the final descent to F Deck, cargo proceeds forward from the bottom of the ramp into Hold 2 on F Deck. From there, cargo maneuvers to park in Hold 2 or proceeds aft to Hold 3 on F Deck. Cargo crossing Hold 2 on F Deck turns to port between the aft bulkhead and the centerline stanchion and enters Hold 3 on F Deck through the port WTD. From this door, cargo maneuvers to park in Hold 3.

    f. BC Deck Cargo Flow from the Side Port Ramp. Once D, E, and F Decks are loaded, cargo can proceed to BC Deck from Holds 2 or 3 on C Deck. Due to the positioning of the BC Deck hoistable ramps, cargo flow to the lower decks and maneuvering on C Deck are both restricted. This results in Hold 3 on BC Deck loading first, followed by Hold 2 on BC Deck.

      (1) Cargo enters Hold 3 on BC Deck via the hoistable ramp in Hold 3 on C Deck. Likewise, cargo destined for Hold 2 on BC Deck enters from Hold 2 on C Deck. There is no direct access between the Holds 2 and 3 on BC Deck.

      (2) The WTDs on C Deck between Holds 2 and 3 may be open, giving the appearance of passage between Holds 2 and 3 on BC Deck, but there is no such access. At the completion of loading BC Deck, cargo loading may resume on the fixed decks. This begins with C Deck and proceeds up to B Deck.

    g. AB Deck Cargo Flow from the Side Port Ramp. AB Deck, a hoistable deck, does not contain transverse bulkheads and allows continuous flow of cargo along its entire length. From the side port ramp, cargo traverses across Hold 2 on B Deck and turns forward along the port side. At this point, cargo accesses the forward hoistable ramp to AB Deck or turns aft and accesses the after ramp to AB Deck.

      (1) Use of only one ramp for accessing AB Deck allows the loading of the hoistable deck in a continuous "column flow" of vehicles. This method permits a faster on-load and off-load time by eliminating the need for each vehicle to conduct extensive maneuvering in order to park. Each vehicle simply traverses the empty portion of the deck and then parks.

      (2) Once AB Deck and the forward hoistable ramp to AB Deck are loaded, B Deck can continue loading. Loading AB Deck, as described above, allows the portions of B Deck on centerline (those that are not in the way of the cargo flowpath) to be loaded prior to or during the loading of AB Deck. To complete the loading of B Deck, the last cargo to load is required to back up the side port ramp into Hold 2 on B Deck.

8-43. Single Ramp Operations (T-AKR 296 CLASS). The cargo flowpath presented above does not indicate the total flexibility of the ship design with respect to the use of the external ramps and the assignment of specific cargo holds to those ramps. The previous sections described the flow of cargo with both external ramps in use and a specific flowpath assigned to each external ramp. However, both of the external ramps can load the ship individually. The following Piefly describes single ramp operations:

    a. Single Ramp Operations from the Stern Ramp. During single ramp operations from the stern ramp, the stern ramp continues to load the upper decks and aft lower decks via the fixed ramps in Hold 4 on B Deck. However, it adapts its flow of cargo to pass up and over into the forward holds of the ship. The cargo loading order must be modified from the dual ramp operations loading order in order to load the ship efficiently. In addition, care must be taken to avoid loading the upper portions of the ship first, adversely effecting the ship's trim, stress, and stability.

    b. Single Ramp Operations from the Side Port Ramp. During single ramp operations from the side port ramp, the side port ramp retains its flow of cargo to the forward lower decks and the hoistable decks but also uses the up-and-over path to access the upper decks (A Deck and the 02 Level) and aft lower decks. The cargo loading order must be modified from the dual ramp operations loading order in order to load the ship efficiently. In addition, care must be taken to avoid loading the upper portions of the ship first, adversely effecting the ship's trim, stress, and stability.

8-44. LO/LO Operations (T-AKR 296 CLASS). As with RO/RO operations, LO/LO operations are generally performed under the supervision of the local Army port activity. The cargo flowpath for non-self-propelled LO/LO cargo is separate from the RO/RO flowpath. However, certain situations may arise when there is a need to LO/LO self-propelled cargo into the ship. In these situations, the cargo is treated as LO/LO cargo until it is disconnected from the crane. At this point a driver will maneuver the cargo from the drop point and merge into the RO/RO flowpath to take the cargo to its final stow location.

    a. All non-self-propelled LO/LO cargo must be brought to the designated crane's pick up point by a resource. In certain instances, LO/LO cargo such as helicopters will be wheeled by hand to their final stow location by the owning unit personnel. As a rule, aircraft should never be rolled or towed on or off the ship or to another deck of the ship using the external and internal ramps.

    b. The LO/LO flowpath for these ships consists of the following:

    • Designated crane pick up points for both the forward and aft cranes.
    • Exposed weather deck on A Deck and on the 02 level.
    • Hatchways for Holds 1, 2, and 3.
    • The drop off point.
    • The cargo's final stow location.

The forward crane can reach the forward points of the exposed weather deck on A Deck and Holds 1 and 2. The aft crane can reach Holds 2 and 3, the aft exposed weather deck on A Deck, and the forward portion of the 02 level stowage area.

 



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