TRY ADD - Yenisei / Tobol - RCC-35 + RKI-35
Target engagement of the former Soviet A-35 ABM system was carried out by the TRY ADD radar complexes. An A-35 launch site had one large RKTS radio trajectory monitoring system and two RKI ABM tracking and guidance engagement radars. Those three guidance radars when sited together make up a TRY ADD system (TRY ADD = triad); TRY ADD A, B, and C actually (A is the large one, B/C are the smaller ones).
Both types had conventional dish antennas in protective radomes and use mechanical scanning. The large missile tracking radar has limited target handling capacity. The missile engagement method was to select a single target and engage it with two missiles, each guided by one of the engagement radars. No parameters of the TRY ADD radar complexes have been disclosed.
The draft design of the full-fledged A-35 anti-ballistic missile defense system (the code "Aldan") was developed in the first half of 1961. The newly discovered data obtained during the testing of the "A" system forced the authors to change some of the principles of the complex operation. Thus, the preservation of the guidance principles with the simultaneous operation of three radar stations responsible for conducting an anti-missile could lead to unacceptably high expenditures on the construction of the complex. The point is that for the required number of firing complexes with interceptor missiles under the old approach, it was required to build up to several hundred radars.
For this reason, it was decided to reduce the composition of radio electronic facilities of the complexes and to re-design the project accordingly. To monitor the target was provided with the help of only one precise guidance station, another similar system was to be responsible for tracking the interceptor. This technique to some extent worsened the accuracy of guidance and increased the deviation of the missile from the target. To compensate for the loss of accuracy was offered with the help of a more powerful nuclear warhead.
In comparison with the experimental system "A", the number of radars participating in the direct interception of a ballistic missile was reduced. Work on the goal is assigned to a separate radar target channel - RCC-35 . The radar sighting station of the anti-missile system ( RUWF ) was excluded from the system. All operational anti-missile functions, including the reception of information from its side, the transfer of command and control of the anti-missile warhead, that is, the functions carried out in the "A" system by the radar station of the anti-missile sighting (RSVR) and the command transmission station (SPK), were assigned to a separate radar of the antimissile - the RCT-35.
The precise determination of the coordinates of the target was planned to be carried out with the help of the RCC-35 system, and the RKI-35 station was to monitor the interceptor rocket. General management of the complex was carried out with the help of a command-and-control center connected with all means. Shooting complexes based on launchers with anti-missile systems of the new type A-350Z were also provided.
RCC-35 was two-channel, which allowed to work on a pair target, consisting of the head and the hull of the last stage of the rocket, and had a detection range of up to 1500 km. One of the channels accompanied and measured the range and angular coordinates of the head, and the second - Each RC-35 should have two RCTs-35, which made it possible to point two anti-missiles to one target or two anti-missiles for different components of the group target.
The two-channel construction of the RCC-35 required the introduction of two independently controlled counter-reflectors with diameters of 2.3 meters and 2.9 meters into a full-rotational transmit-receive parabolic antenna with a diameter of 18 meters. The antenna devices RCC-35 and RCT-35 had radio-transparent shelters of rigid construction. To ensure the specified detection thresholds and the start of tracking, the pulsed power of the transmitter radiation was increased.
RCT-35 was built on the same principles as RCC-35, but on a single-channel scheme. The RCT-35 antenna was combined. A two-mirror antenna with a diameter of about 7 meters formed a narrow beam to accompany the antimissile when it was aimed at the target, and a mirror antenna about 1.5 meters in diameter with a spiral irradiator formed a wide beam of the antimissile exit after launch to the guidance track. To ensure the necessary level of combat readiness, all radar equipment was covered by an autonomous functional control system. Management work, the exchange of information, commands and signals radar in the combat cycle were carried out from the main command-and-control center of the system via the data transmission system.
RCC-35 was developed in two combat versions.In the first one, called " Yenisei " , two identical specialized computers T-40U were used, one of which was a software-implemented algorithm for combat operation, and in the other - algorithms for functional monitoring of the radar ) and functional control system (FCC). In the second variant - "Tobol" - in each RCC one universal computer 5E926 was used, which provides the implementation of all algorithms of combat operation and functional control.
The test complex "Aldan" implemented a variant with two T-40U. On three objects of the A-35 combat system it was decided to place one RCC of the variant "Yenisei" and one option - "Tobol". Later, at the fourth Moscow suburb, both "Tobol" complexes were installed.
In May 1970, all work on the Yenisei complexes was stopped before the decision of the CIMOG. GV Kisunko still managed to improve the shooting complexes, which were given the name "Tobol". After that, it was decided to limit work to three "Yenisei", the endless adjustment and refinement of which caused a headache, and to increase the funds of the first stage by "Tobolami", placing one complex in Zagorsk, Klin, Naro-Fominsk and two complexes on the lagging object in Nudol.
The Pushkino Don-2NP (aka Pill Box) large battle-management phased-array radar with 360º coverage for the long-range interceptors supplementing the Dog House and Cat House radars replaced the Try Add radars in the A-135 system.
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