KSBU - Combat Command and Control of the strategic level
In March 1974, Army General Nikolai Ogarkov was appointed Deputy Minister of Defense of the USSR and Chairman of the State Military Technical Commission. The State Military-Technical Commission organized counteraction to foreign technical intelligence, and with its approval a serious means was adopted - KSBU - the command system of combat command and control of the strategic level. KSBU united the control posts of the Missile Forces, Fleet and Aviation, which allowed the Soviet Union to preempt the actions of the strategic nuclear forces of the main adversaries.
It was based on a data exchange system that connected dozens of stationary computers located in thousands of kilometers into a single network. It was the network that ensured the guaranteed delivery of information to the addressee, which means timely decision-making and its execution. The principles of its construction for ten years outstripped global trends. In the US, only the experimental ARPANET network was developed, which many consider to be the prototype of the current Internet. The only thing that was lacking in this network was the field automated command and control system for the troops of the front (ASUV).
This work under the designation "Maneuver" and started the Minsk Research Institute of Automation Equipment of NPO "Agat", the basis was domestic analogs of the Pentium II and IBM. In 1983, ASUV "Maneuver" was adopted for service. "Maneuver" increased the effectiveness of weapons in 3-5 times. After the collapse of the Warsaw Pact, one such complex remained in the GDR, went to the Americans. Russian sources report the Americans conducted a staff game with its use, the results of which plunged them into shock. Thanks to the automation of the administration, the conditional army of the Warsaw Treaty destroyed NATO in three days, without any nuclear weapons. It was said that the "Maneuver" algorithms were immediately used as the basis for a similar system of the US Army.
In the Strategic Missile Forces - an integral part of the automated control system for troops (forces) in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, designed to increase the effectiveness of control of missile units and formations. It consists of two independent, but interfaced elements: an automated combat control system (ASBU) and an information-settlement system (IRS). ASBU provides the transfer of control information in the interests of a centralized combat control (orders, signals, orders, reports) in any situation.
The IRS provides the informational and calculated needs of the organs and points of command and control of troops both by solving the tasks of combat command, including planning the combat use of the Strategic Missile Forces, providing combat control, maintaining combat readiness of units and subunits, operating weapons and means of combat command and communications, and managing everyday tasks activities, including assessment of the condition of troops, technical and logistical support, long-term planning and development of troops, capital construction, organization but-mobilization planning and accounting personnel, planning daily activities and monitoring of plans, orders and directives.
ASBU receives data from the IRS on the combat use of missiles with electrical pairing of the links of these systems with each other - automatically, and in the absence of such pairing - on intermediate storage media, the data from which must be entered into the ASBU and missile control and aiming system. The IRS receives from ASBU reports with a computer sign containing information on the current state of missile weapons, elements of a communications system, command posts, etc., necessary to solve problems in the interests of officials of bodies and command posts.
The integrated creation and use of Automated military system (ASVN), the data of which can and should be used in the interests of the control system, can increase the effectiveness of the use of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation due to timely and informed decision-making. Such ASVN include: missile attack warning system (SPRN); Outer Space Monitoring System (SKKP); a system for identifying, evaluating and predicting the use of weapons of mass destruction by the enemy; systems used by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA), the Federal Security Service (FSB), the Ministry of Emergency Situations (EMERCOM), military strategic intelligence (HRV), etc.
The Strategic Missile Forces deployed a centralized combat control system for troops and weapons. It includes controls, control centers at various levels, an automated combat control system (ASBU), an automated communication system (ACC) and special systems. The ASBM of the Strategic Missile Forces includes: the main automated combat control system equipped with the Signal equipment, a duplicate automated combat control system equipped with the Blizzard equipment and the reserve combat control system equipped with the Perimeter equipment In addition, the following military systems are used to control the Strategic Missile Forces destination: information-calculation system (IRS), consisting of local area networks, (LAN) and special systems. The latter include such systems as: missile attack warning system - Crocus.
The main element of an automated system for command and control of troops, designed to bring orders, signals and orders from central command posts (CCP) to command posts (CP) of associations, formations, units and subunits, to missile launchers (launchers), as well as to collect reports , confirmations and reports from these CPs and launchers in the system of centralized combat control (CU). It consists of three independent system elements that are interconnected in manual, automatic or combined modes: primary, backup and backup.
The main ASBU implements both the transfer of orders, signals, orders ("from top to bottom"), and reports ("from top to bottom"), and the duplicating one only transfers orders, signals, orders ("from top to bottom"). These systems are constantly on and are in standby or combat operating modes. The backup system, in turn, is represented by two system elements: global and local.
The global reserve system is the means of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief to bring orders to launch missiles in conditions where neither the main nor the backup system can fulfill this task due to the use of electronic countermeasures or nuclear weapons by the enemy. The local reserve system is the means of the commander or commander of the duty forces (CDF) of the unit or commander of the unit, who took control of the connection in the established order, bringing orders for launching missiles to one or all parts of his connection in order to unconditionally execute combat orders for launching missiles received from higher KP by any means of control.
Complexes of technical means of the main and backup systems installed on the CP of various levels are called links of the system of these levels. The structure of a link, as a rule, includes technical means of receiving, transmitting, processing, visual display and documentation of information, as well as means of communication of a human operator with the system. Depending on the tasks to be solved, the equipment of A.S. is in standby or combat mode. In standby mode, the control of maintaining combat readiness (combat duty) and training personnel of combat crews are carried out. In combat mode, the troops are brought to the highest levels of combat readiness and missile combat launch control. Link control panels are the workstation of the CDS.
The main ASBU links (except those installed on launchers) allows display of messages on visual aids, fix them on a paper tape, and, if necessary, type and transmit them. At the same time, the links monitor the health of their own units, data transmission equipment, the quality of communication channels, the correct actions of the operator (incorrect actions are blocked). Duplicating ASBU has two types of links: a sensor that allows you to dial and transmit an order (signal, order or formalized command) (installed at the highest command posts of the RF Armed Forces and Strategic Missile Forces), a receiver that allows you to receive, display and fix the received message on paper tape (installed on all KP).
Reserve ASBU also have two types of links: combat control equipment, allowing to dial any of the provided combined orders for launching missiles, installed at the highest command posts of the RF Armed Forces and Strategic Missile Forces - in the global, and in local - on the CP in positional areas of the formations from which it is allowed to transmit launch orders; receiving tools that allow you to receive messages from global or local ASBUs and transmit them to the links of the main ASBU or to special equipment that blocks the unauthorized launch of missiles - installed on the control gear and launcher.
The Strategic Command Post Exercise (KSU) for managing the Armed Forces in 2019 lasted three days, until October 17. The main purpose of the event is to verify the level of preparedness of the military command and control bodies and to improve the skills of management and operational personnel. The main role in the exercise is played by strategic nuclear forces formations and units (Strategic Nuclear Forces) - Strategic Missile Forces (Strategic Missile Forces), long-range aviation and the Navy. About 12 thousand people, 213 Strategic Missile Forces launchers, up to 105 aircraft (including 5 strategic bombers), up to 15 surface ships and 5 submarines, 310 units of military and special equipment take part in the KShU.
“The aerodromes of long-range, military transport, and operational-tactical aviation, training ranges of military districts, the Northern Fleet, sea training grounds in the Barents, Baltic, Black, Okhotsk and Caspian seas are involved in the exercise. During the exercise, launches of cruise and ballistic missiles of various bases will be carried out, including those at the Pemboy, Chizh and Kura firing ranges, the Defense Ministry said in a statement.
Exercises with the active involvement of strategic nuclear forces are held in Russia every year in October. As a rule, they complete the summer cycle of combat and operational training of the armed forces and are accompanied by launches of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). Sometimes representatives of the military-political elite are involved in exercises. So, at the end of October 2017, Russian President Vladimir Putin took part in the training of the Ministry of Defense for managing strategic nuclear forces (SNF). The Supreme Commander launched four ballistic missiles.
How Putin did this is not specified, but it is known that the head of state is the owner of the so-called nuclear suitcase. Contrary to the widespread stereotype, there is no red button in it. It is a dark business bag, stuffed with sophisticated equipment.
A suitcase allows the president to command troops to unlock warheads equipped with ICBMs, cruise missiles and aerial bombs. Starts are produced directly by ground units, submarines and aircraft. (In technical design, the case is the Kazbek automated control system (ACS) developed by the Scientific Research Institute of Automatic Equipment named after Academician V. S. Semenikhin (Moscow). At the command and staff exercises of the strategic nuclear forces, first of all, the adequacy of the assessment of the nuclear threat from the side of the probable adversary, the efficiency of decision-making, the combat coordination between the components of the nuclear triad - strategic missile forces, strategic aviation and the nuclear submarine are worked out.
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