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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Taxila / Taxilla

The Wah Cantonment Ordnance Complex consists of three nearby armament facilities in Wah (Pakistan Ordnance Factories - POF), Kamra (Air Weapon Complex - AWC), and Taxilia (Heavy Industries Taxila -HIT). One or more of these facilities is probably associated with the weaponization of Pakistan's nuclear devices. According to some reports, the main storage and maintenance site of the Pakistani nuclear weapons, particularly the weapons at a 'screwdriver level', is located at the 'ordnance complex' in Wah. The Taxilia facility is devoted to land combat systems, and is an unlikely candidate for nuclear weapons development work. The Air Weapon Complex at Kamra is devoted to air-to-surface munitions, among other activities, and would probably have at least some connection with the development of air-delivered nuclear weapons.

Taxila lies some 35 km (22 miles) north-west of Rawalpindi, near Wah on the way to Peshawar, and is world famous for archeaological sites dating back to the 5th century BC. The Heavy Mechanical Complex and the associated the Heavy Forge Factory, and the Heavy Industries Taxila facility [the former Heavy Rebuild Factory], are located in Taxila.

The Achaemenian empire, that had extended from Pakistan to Greece and Egypt, collapsed under the onslaught of Alexander of Macedonia, who came to Taxila in 326 BC. The Achaemenian and Alexander's contacts were important milestones in educational and cultural history. The Achaemenian brought the learning and science of Mesopotamia Civilization that enriched the University of Taxila. They also introduced their administrative system, on the basis of which the famous book on political science, called Arthasastra was written in Sanskrit language in Taxila by Kautilya, known as Chanakya, the teacher of Chandragupta Maurya. It is this book that was adapted for the administrative of the Mauryan empire. On the basis of Achaemenian currency the Mauryan punch marked coins, so well known in Taxila, were produced. It is their Aramic writing, used by Achaemenian clerks, that led to the development of Kharoshti in Pakistan and trade with the semetic world that created the Brahmi writing in India. On the other hand Alexander brought Greek knowledge and science to Taxila and introduced Greek type of coin currency. It is Taxila that philosophers and men of learning of the two countries met and developed science, mathematics and astronomy.

Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT)

Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT), employing over 7000 workers, is a manufacturing facility which has built the MBT 2000 "Al-Khalid", APC M-113, IFV Al-Zarar fighting vehicles for the Pakistan Army. In 1971, a Heavy Rebuild Foundry Project (P-711) was conceived with Chinese assistance and technology to rebuild T-59 tanks. As the fleet of T-59 manufactured by China grew, Heavy Rebuild Factory (HRF) was established in Taxila in the late seventies to undertake rebuild and modernization of tanks. The experience acquired in enhancing firepower, mobility and protection significantly enhanced the capabilities of HRF, which subsequently grew into a multi-factory environment renamed Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) in September 1992. Activities now include the cost effective manufacture of armoured fighting vehicles, armoured personnel carriers and tank guns. In addition, in-house manufacture of a large array of components required has been undertaken and an infrastructure built for interacting with the indigenous industry for development of materials and components required.

Heavy Mechanical Complex Ltd. (HMC)

Heavy Mechanical Complex Ltd. (HMC), Taxila is a major heavy engineering subsidiary of the State Engineering Corporation (SEC) under the Ministry of Industries & Production, Government of Pakistan.

The Heavy Mechanical Complex (HMC), the biggest undertaking of its type in Pakistan, was established in 1979 with Chinese assistance. The Heavy Forge Factory (HFF) at this complex has proved crucial for Pakistan's defence production needs. HMC has the capability for designing, engineering and manufacturing of industrial plants and machinery. HMC has the largest fabrication and machining facilities in the country equipped with Computer Aided Designing (CAD) and can undertake a variety of fabrication / machining jobs on sub-contracting basis. HMC manufactures equipment for hydro-electric power plants, thermal power plants, sulphuric acid plants, industrial alcohol plants, oil & gas processing plants, and chemical & petro-chemical plants, etc. Boilers, cranes, construction machinery, material handling equipment, steel structure, railway equipment, etc. are some of the other products which are produced on regular basis. The company's capabilities include engineering and manufacturing of Sugar Mills ranging between 1,500 - 12,000 TCD (tons of cane crushing capacity per day), Portland Cement Plants of 700- 5,500 TPD (tons per day) module and White Cement Plant of 50 - 1,000 TPD.

Photographic Evaluation Report

High resolution imagery is available from two sources, including declassified CORONA imagery. As of 04 June 2000 Russian 2-meter resolution KVR-1000 imagery coverage was not available via the SPIN-2 service on TerraServer. As of 04 June 2000 archival Space Imaging IKONOS 1-meter imagery available on the CARTERRAT Archive included two cloud-free scenes acquired on 12 March 2000. The location of these scenes is almost certainly consistent with the Wah/Kamra/Taxila area of interest, although the metadata appears corrupt, and thus the orientation of the browse images is uncertain. Consequently, it is not possible to correlate the three entities in this area with the several large complexes that are evident in the images.

Sources and Resources

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Page last modified: 02-08-2011 15:30:28 ZULU