Northwest Nuclear Weapons Research and Design Academy
Ninth Academy / Factory 211 / State Plant 221
Haiyan / Dhashu / Koko Nor
Jinyintan is also China's first nuclear weapons development base. The Atomic City , the Atomic City Monument, the Atomic City Memorial Hall , and the detonation test site are all located here. The Haiyan [Hai-yen] or Koko Nor complex in Qinghai [Tsinghai] Province in Tibet was the major nuclear weapons R&D center in China and, up to the early 1970s it was the major weapons fabrication center as well. This large nuclear stockpile site and nearby weapons development complex had facilities for high explosive and fissile component production, general component (cases, electrical systems) production, final weapons assembly, HE component testing, and environment testing.
The older generation of revolutionaries such as Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai made the strategic decision to establish China's nuclear industry. The alpine and remote Jinyintan walked into history. Deng Xiaoping , who was then General Secretary of the Central Committee , soon presided over the Central Conference and approved the preparation report, and determined that the nuclear weapons development base was the 02 project, code-named XXZ or the 221 Factory, and was called Qinghai Mining Area to the outside world. It covered an area of ??570 square kilometers (1167 square kilometers originally built), surrounded by mountains, alpine and hypoxic, with an average elevation of about 3,300 meters. Three months later, the first batch of more than 2,000 demobilized cadres and fighters from various Chinese troops , braved the wind and cold and scorching heat, arrived here early and hurriedly opened the prelude to China's nuclear industry.
In the late 1960s as part of the "third line" effort to relocate critical defense infrastructure in the relatively remote interior, China built new [allegedly underground] facilities supplement the plutonium production reactor at Jiuquan [third line plutonium production reactor at Guangyuan ], the design and fabrication facility at Haiyan [third line design and fabrication facility at Mianyang ], and the gaseous diffusion plant at Lanzhou [third line plutonium processing facility at Yibin ].
China's first nuclear weapons research and development facility is situated 10 miles (16.1 km) east of Lake Kokonor [Qinghai Lake] in Haiyan County [said by one authoritative source to be at 36°57'N 101°55'E, though this is evidently a typographic error]. With construction starting in 1958, the facility was given the formal designation of State Plant 221, also known as the Qinghai Provincial Mining Zone. It is also known as the Northwest Nuclear Weapons Research & Design Academy, or the Ninth Academy, under the jurisdiction of the Ninth Bureau. China's first atomic bomb and first hydrogen bomb were successfully developed there, hence the local name "two-bomb base." Under the direction of by Marshal Nie Rongzhen, between 1958 and 1964, the facility developed China's first atomic bomb, and two years later the first Chinese hydrogen bomb.
On March 30, 1966, Deng Xiaoping hurriedly rushed from Beijing to the Qinghai No. 21 Plant under Mao Zedong's instruction of "Hydrogen bombs are also fast", accompanied by Vice Premier Bo Yibo and First Secretary Liu Lantao of the Northwest Bureau . After inspecting several workshops and scientific research units, he happily gave instructions: “We must do what others have done; we must do what others have not done.” At that time, many party and state leaders People and scientists also brought their attention to the research and development base of the 221 Plant. On June 17, 1967, China's first hydrogen bomb was successfully exploded in Lop Nur . The mushroom cloud that shocked the world was extremely dazzling.
The 1,100 square kilometer base was a closed city, and all activities of its personnel were conducted within the facility. The facility included 560,000 sq. m of buildings inside plant premises, 330,000 sq. m of production buildings, more than 40 km of special railway lines which converge with the Qinghai- Tibet Railway Line, nearly 80 km of standard highways, 1,000 six- digit computer-controlled telephones, and one thermal power plant with an annual generating capacity of 110 million kwh.
The detonation test site refers to the China Atomic City detonation test site, located in Xihai Town, Haiyan County, Qinghai Province. It is an important part of the Atomic City's national patriotic education demonstration base. The detonation test site is a site specially used for detonation tests. Due to the different purpose and scale of the test, the test site consists of 6 integrally poured reinforced concrete machinery rooms, explosive or weapon storage rooms, observation rooms, steel plate test walls, and soil quality. It is composed of three parts: a protective slope, sand pit and other structures, a natural temporary test range, and two test waste burial pits. On June 6, 1964, Qinghai Jinyintan 221 base conducted a global detonation experiment.
In 1987 the State Council approved the closure of the facility, and personnel were gradually shifted to other facilities. The former facility has become the seat of the Haibei Zang Nationality Autonomous Prefecture Government of Qinghai Province. In June 1994 the Beihai Autonomous Prefecture signed a transfer contract with the China National Nuclear Industry Corporation. The Haibei Autonomous Prefecture Government designated the site as a "small zone for national economy development" DF-3 training also had been observed at Haiyan, indicating continued Chinese reliance on the older IRBM.
On May 15, 1995, Xinhua News Agency announced to the world that China’s first nuclear weapons research and development base had been fully decommissioned and the base had been handed over to the local government for use. Once again, China’s principled position on the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons has been stated. In fact, as early as June 26, 1987, the General Office of the State Council and the General Office of the Central Military Commission issued Document No. 40 on the cancellation of the 221 Factory.
The then Minister of National Defense Zhang Aiping stated in instructions to the Commission for Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense and the Ministry of Nuclear Industry and a report to General Secretary Hu Yaobang : "The 221 Plant is in the development and production of China’s nuclear weapons. With the joint efforts of scientists, He has made an extraordinary contribution and made historical contributions to the development of China’s nuclear weapons. Its future development direction must be based on new conditions and new countermeasures.” The state has invested 450 million yuan in this base to complete scientific research and main production. , Auxiliary production, and life service three supporting systems, a system engineering integrating science, technology, security, confidentiality and comprehensiveness. Suddenly there was a notice to dismount.
The memorial hall has a construction area of ??9615 square meters, and the overall layout is composed of four parts: the entrance memorial wall, the multi-functional film and television hall, the tourist service center, and the main exhibition hall. The memorial hall uses detailed textual materials, historical pictures, and physical displays. Through some scene restoration techniques, it vividly reproduces the work, production, and life scenes of the base workers and the period full of difficulties, happiness, and hope since the construction of the atomic city base. And glorious history, and the spirit of the "two bombs" that was born in China's first nuclear weapons development base.
The national AAAA-level tourist attraction-Jinyintan-Atomic City Scenic Area is located in Haiyan County, Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province, 103 kilometers east of the provincial capital Xining, 28 kilometers away from Qinghai Lake Scenic Area, Qinghai Lake-Gangcha-Qilian The core area of ??the scenic belt. National Highway 315 passes through the scenic area, and the Xining-Xihaizhen Expressway is open to traffic. The traffic is very convenient. The scenic area is open to tourists throughout the year, and the peak tourist season is from June to October each year. The main attractions are: Atomic City Memorial Hall, Monument, Underground Command Center, Second Branch Factory, Shangxing Station, Detonation Test Field and Wang Luobin Music Art Museum.
A National AAAA-level tourist attraction — Atomic City is China’s first nuclear weapons development base, where China’s first atomic and hydrogen bombs were bred, and it is a "National Patriotism Education Demonstration Base" and a "National Key Cultural Relics Protection Unit" , Mainly composed of memorial halls and memorial gardens. The memorial park occupies an area of ??12.2 hectares, which is composed of the memorial square, the "596" road, the peace memorial garden, the monument and other landscapes. The memorial hall has a construction area of ??9615 square meters, and the overall layout is composed of four parts: the entrance memorial wall, the multi-functional film and television hall, the tourist service center, and the main exhibition hall. The memorial hall uses detailed textual materials, historical pictures, and physical displays. Through some scene restoration techniques, it vividly reproduces the work, production, and life scenes of the base workers and the period full of difficulties, happiness, and hope since the construction of the atomic city base. And glorious history, and the spirit of the "two bombs" that was born in China's first nuclear weapons development base.
The monument was established by the Nuclear Industry Corporation in 1992 and was meticulously designed by the national first-class artist Mr. Li Chunrong. The height of the monument is 16.15 meters, symbolizing the time when the first atomic bomb was successfully exploded in China: October 16, 1964 15:00 on the day. The silver-white sphere on the top of the monument symbolizes the realization of the dream. The Chinese finally realized their dream of being a powerful country by their own strength and possessed nuclear weapons. The twelve gilded characters that we saw right in front of the monument were written by the 81-year-old General Zhang Aiping at the time: "China's first nuclear weapons development base." On both sides of the stele body are my country's first atomic bomb and the mushroom cloud relief after the successful inventory explosion, while the back of the stele body is a 600-word inscription.
Underground Command Center: Called the Mining Post and Telecommunications Bureau to the outside world , it is the core area of ??the nuclear base. It is located 9.3 meters underground in the backyard of the Haibei Prefecture Post Office. 100 meters to the south, there is the office building of the base command headquarters; about 50 meters to the west, there is The commander-in-chief of the base and the "General Building" where some of the scientists who participated in the development of the "two bombs" lived; 40 meters to the north, there is the Xihai Cinema where various cultural activities were held at the base at that time.
The command center building is very strong, and the entire bunker is an "unbreakable copper wall and iron wall". The underground command center is made of pure reinforced concrete. The wall is 60 cm thick, the ground is 80 cm thick, and the ceiling is 80 cm thick. There are 15 cm thick waterproof and moisture-proof protective layers on the front, rear, left, and right sides of the bunker, 80 cm thick. The thick ceiling is filled with 2-meter-thick sanhe soil, on which there is a 1.6-meter-thick reinforced concrete cover.
The total area of ??the working area is 280 square meters, and the internal clear height is 3 meters. It feels spacious in it. The entire working area consists of 8 rooms, which are ventilation room, wiring room, power distribution room, generator room, command room (with rest room inside), telegraph room, carrier room and manual exchange room in the counterclockwise direction.
The command room is the core part of the entire underground command center. It is the place where the head of the nuclear base was commanded in an emergency. All other facilities in the underground bunker worked for it.
The entire command center is a command that can operate independently. The sealed, explosion-proof and radiation-proof building structure of the command center has a strong defensive function; the ventilation room can ensure that the air in the entire underground bunker is unblocked; the generator room can ensure that all power is provided for the command center when the external power supply is cut off. A secret emergency channel for use in emergencies; the telegraph room is equipped with wireless transceiver equipment, which can be used by the head of the command headquarters to transmit orders in the event of an accident with the wired equipment.
The second branch plant is located 2 kilometers north of the 221 base. The total area is 5,274,021 square meters, and the building area is 25,105 square meters. The second branch is mainly responsible for the processing of pyrotechnic components and the assembly of nuclear weapons. The factory has a total of 33 buildings with bunkers and half-bunkers, of which half-bunkers No. 215 is the assembly workshop, No. 207 is the Jia ball assembly workshop, and No. 201 is the large telemetry ball assembly workshop. The job number 205 of the full bunker is for the processing of explosive parts, the job number 209 is the explosive press molding workshop, and the job number 202 is the mechanical processing workshop. Job No. 21 and Job No. 214 are warehouses for explosives and raw materials. The building of the plant is relatively intact, and the restored ones are the 215 assembly workshop and the 209 press molding workshop.
Located 1.5 kilometers north of Xihai Town, China's first atomic bomb was assembled at the second branch plant and then transported to Lop Nur, Xinjiang via a zero-time special train at the "Shangxing Station". According to the memories of the scientific and technological workers who worked at the time: when loading the car, there were no flowers and no grand farewell ceremony. All actions were carried out in secret at night. The staff thought it was an ordinary cargo transportation, but they had actually completed it. A special mission. The "Star Station" shows that after the completion of the base, reasonable layout, perfect facilities, and scientific management have made this mysterious forbidden area have been keeping the peace and tranquility of the Republic for thirty years. The "Star Station" is a witness to history of the building.
The detonation test field, also known as "Six Branch Factory", is located 12 kilometers northwest of Xihai Town. It is a site dedicated to detonation tests and covers an area of ??34 square kilometers. Due to the different purpose and scale of the test, the test site will conduct detonation shock tests, nuclear weapons tests, and conventional weapons tests. The detonation test site was officially opened to the public on May 11, 1995 for visitors to explore the secrets. With the construction of relief walls and small squares, the detonation test site has become one of the landmark attractions of the atomic city base.
In recent years, the Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture has paid close attention to the construction of key tourist attractions (scenic spots), constantly improving infrastructure construction while promoting standardized management and improving service levels, attracting a large number of domestic and foreign tourists. From January to July 2007, the whole prefecture received a total of 820,600 tourists.
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